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1.
Small ; 14(21): e1704396, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667302

RESUMO

Voltage-driven manipulation of magnetism in electrodeposited 200 nm thick nanoporous single-phase solid solution Cu20 Ni80 (at%) alloy films (with sub 10 nm pore size) is accomplished by controlled reduction-oxidation (i.e., redox) processes in a protic solvent, namely 1 m NaOH aqueous solution. Owing to the selectivity of the electrochemical processes, the oxidation of the CuNi film mainly occurs on the Cu counterpart of the solid solution, resulting in a Ni-enriched alloy. As a consequence, the magnetic moment at saturation significantly increases (up to 33% enhancement with respect to the as-prepared sample), while only slight changes in coercivity are observed. Conversely, the reduction process brings Cu back to its metallic state and, remarkably, it becomes alloyed to Ni again. The reported phenomenon is fully reversible, thus allowing for the precise adjustment of the magnetic properties of this system through the sign and amplitude of the applied voltage.

2.
Small ; 14(15): e1703963, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479814

RESUMO

Although cubic rock salt-CoO has been extensively studied, the magnetic properties of the main nanoscale CoO polymorphs (hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende structures) are rather poorly understood. Here, a detailed magnetic and neutron diffraction study on zinc blende and wurtzite CoO nanoparticles is presented. The zinc blende-CoO phase is antiferromagnetic with a 3rd type structure in a face-centered cubic lattice and a Néel temperature of TN (zinc-blende) ≈225 K. Wurtzite-CoO also presents an antiferromagnetic order, TN (wurtzite) ≈109 K, although much more complex, with a 2nd type order along the c-axis but an incommensurate order along the y-axis. Importantly, the overall magnetic properties are overwhelmed by the uncompensated spins, which confer the system a ferromagnetic-like behavior even at room temperature.

3.
Ultramicroscopy ; 185: 42-48, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182918

RESUMO

In this work, the use of cluster analysis algorithms, widely applied in the field of big data, is proposed to explore and analyze electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data sets. Three different data clustering approaches have been tested both with simulated and experimental data from Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. The first method consists on applying data clustering directly to the acquired spectra. A second approach is to analyze spectral variance with principal component analysis (PCA) within a given data cluster. Lastly, data clustering on PCA score maps is discussed. The advantages and requirements of each approach are studied. Results demonstrate how clustering is able to recover compositional and oxidation state information from EELS data with minimal user input, giving great prospects for its usage in EEL spectroscopy.

4.
ChemSusChem ; 11(2): 367-375, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165918

RESUMO

Mesoporous Fe-Pt thin films are obtained by micelle-assisted electrodeposition onto metallic substrates with dissimilar activity (namely, gold, copper, and aluminum seed layers evaporated on Si/Ti) under constant applied potential (E=-1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition time (600 s). The amphiphilic triblock copolymer Pluronic P-123 is used as a soft template to guide the formation of mesopores. The occurrence of pores (ca. 7 nm in diameter) with narrow size distribution, distributed evenly over the surface, is observed in all cases. Despite the applied conditions being the same, the roughness and the amount of Fe incorporated in the films are influenced by the nature of the substrate. In particular, ultra-smooth films containing a larger amount of Fe (21 wt %) are obtained when deposition takes place on the Au surface. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that Pt and Fe are alloyed to a certain extent, although some iron oxides/hydroxides also unavoidably form. The resulting films have been tested as electrocatalysts in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media. The mesoporous Fe-rich Fe-Pt films on Au show excellent HER activity and cyclability.


Assuntos
Galvanoplastia/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Micelas , Platina/química , Álcalis/química , Catálise , Ouro/química , Magnetismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Estrutura Molecular , Nanoestruturas , Tamanho da Partícula , Poloxaleno/química , Porosidade , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície , Água , Difração de Raios X
5.
Nanoscale ; 9(45): 18081-18093, 2017 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134999

RESUMO

Mesoporous Fe-Pt nodular films (with a regular spatial arrangement of sub-15 nm pores) are grown onto evaporated Au, Cu and Al conductive layers by micelle-assisted electrodeposition from metal chloride salts in the presence of Pluronic P123 tri-block copolymer dissolved in the aqueous electrolytic bath. This synthetic approach constitutes a simple, one-step, versatile procedure to grow multifunctional mesoporous layers appealing for diverse applications that take advantage of materials with an ultra-high surface area-to-volume ratio. The films exhibit tuneable composition with relative Fe/Pt weight ratios, disregarding oxygen, varying from 4/96 to 52/48. All the mesoporous alloys show a soft magnetic behaviour with tuneable saturation magnetization and coercivity values (the latter ranging from ca. 5 Oe to 40 Oe). In addition, the Au/Fe-Pt deposits (even the ones with higher Fe content) exhibit good performance towards hydrogen evolution reaction in both alkaline and acidic media due to the inherent mesoporosity, with excellent stability after running 50 cycles. The interest of alloying Fe with Pt is thus two-fold: (i) to confer magnetic properties to the mesoporous alloys and (ii) to reduce the amount of the costly noble metal in the electrocatalyst in an environmentally sustainable manner.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 7(7)2017 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672792

RESUMO

Pure Fe and FeMnSi thin films were sputtered on macroporous polypropylene (PP) membranes with the aim to obtain biocompatible, biodegradable and, eventually, magnetically-steerable platforms. Room-temperature ferromagnetic response was observed in both Fe- and FeMnSi-coated membranes. Good cell viability was observed in both cases by means of cytotoxicity studies, though the FeMnSi-coated membranes showed higher biodegradability than the Fe-coated ones. Various strategies to functionalize the porous platforms with transferrin-Alexa Fluor 488 (Tf-AF488) molecules were tested to determine an optimal balance between the functionalization yield and the cargo release. The distribution of Tf-AF488 within the FeMnSi-coated PP membranes, as well as its release and uptake by cells, was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. A homogeneous distribution of the drug within the membrane skeleton and its sustained release was achieved after three consecutive impregnations followed by the addition of a layer made of gelatin and maltodextrin, which prevented exceedingly fast release. The here-prepared organic-inorganic macroporous membranes could find applications as fixed or magnetically-steerable drug delivery platforms.

7.
ACS Omega ; 2(2): 653-662, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457462

RESUMO

A fully nanoporous Fe-rich alloy, prepared by selective dissolution of melt-spun Fe43.5Cu56.5 ribbons, exhibits outstanding properties as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst toward the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution. In addition, the ferromagnetic characteristics of this material enable its wireless manipulation toward specific locations within polluted wastewater. The influence of selective dissolution on the microstructure, sample morphology (surface and cross-section), elemental composition, and magnetic properties of the resulting nanoporous alloy is investigated. The dealloying procedure enhances the saturation magnetization and drastically increases the catalytic performance (i.e., the time required for full degradation of MO from the medium is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 by subjecting the Fe43.5Cu56.5 ribbons to prior dealloying). Remarkably, the effectiveness of this nanoporous material surpasses the results obtained by the homogeneous Fenton reaction using an equivalent concentration of Fe cations leached into the media from the nanoporous alloy. The different factors that promote the high catalytic activity are discussed. The outstanding catalytic activity, together with the simplicity of the synthetic procedure, makes this material very appealing for water remediation using advanced Fenton processes.

8.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 17(1): 177-187, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27877868

RESUMO

A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles are deposited dropwise onto the CuNi frameworks and the solvent is left to evaporate while the nanoparticles impregnate the interior of the pores, rendering ZnO-coated CuNi 3D porous structures. No thermal annealing is required to obtain the porous films. The synthesized hybrid porous layers exhibit an interesting combination of tunable ferromagnetic and photoluminescent properties. In addition, the aqueous photocatalytic activity of the composite is studied under UV-visible light irradiation for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The proposed method represents a fast and inexpensive approach towards the implementation of devices based on metal-semiconductor porous systems, avoiding the use of post-synthesis heat treatment steps which could cause deleterious oxidation of the metallic counterpart, as well as collapse of the porous structure and loss of the ferromagnetic properties.

9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30398, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27462025

RESUMO

Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Cobalto/química , Índio/química , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Periodicidade
10.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0156644, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243628

RESUMO

The use of biocompatible materials, including bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), for tissue regeneration and transplantation is increasing. The good mechanical and corrosion properties of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and its previously described biocompatibility makes it a potential candidate for medical applications. However, it is known that surface properties like topography might play an important role in regulating cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Thus, in the present study, Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and Ti6-Al-4V alloy were surface-modified electrochemically (nanomesh) or physically (microscratched) to investigate the effect of material topography on human osteoblasts cells (Saos-2) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. For comparative purposes, the effect of mirror-like polished surfaces was also studied. Electrochemical treatments led to a highly interconnected hierarchical porous structure rich in oxides, which have been described to improve corrosion resistance, whereas microscratched surfaces showed a groove pattern with parallel trenches. Cell viability was higher than 96% for the three topographies tested and for both alloy compositions. In all cases, cells were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate on the alloys, hence indicating that surface topography plays a minor role on these processes, although a clear cell orientation was observed on microscratched surfaces. Overall, our results provide further evidence that Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG is an excellent candidate, in the present two topographies, for bone repair purposes.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Interface Osso-Implante/fisiologia , Vidro/química , Osseointegração/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/química , Regeneração Óssea , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Humanos , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Próteses e Implantes , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 104(1): 27-38, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25611821

RESUMO

Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single ß-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and ß-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr < 50 nA/cm(2). Electrochemical and surface analytical studies revealed a high stability of the new alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d <10 nm. A homogeneous constituent distribution in the melt-spun alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the ß-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Apatitas/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cerâmica/química , Nanopartículas/química , Corrosão , Nióbio/química , Silicatos/química , Silício/química , Titânio/química , Zircônio/química
12.
Nanoscale ; 7(7): 3002-15, 2015 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600147

RESUMO

The intimate relationship between stoichiometry and physicochemical properties in transition-metal oxides makes them appealing as tunable materials. These features become exacerbated when dealing with nanostructures. However, due to the complexity of nanoscale materials, establishing a distinct relationship between structure-morphology and functionalities is often complicated. In this regard, in the FexO/Fe3O4 system a largely unexplained broad dispersion of magnetic properties has been observed. Here we show, thanks to a comprehensive multi-technique approach, a clear correlation between the magneto-structural properties in large (45 nm) and small (9 nm) FexO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles that can explain the spread of magnetic behaviors. The results reveal that while the FexO core in the large nanoparticles is antiferromagnetic and has bulk-like stoichiometry and unit-cell parameters, the FexO core in the small particles is highly non-stoichiometric and strained, displaying no significant antiferromagnetism. These results highlight the importance of ample characterization to fully understand the properties of nanostructured metal oxides.

13.
Nanoscale ; 6(20): 11911-20, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25174899

RESUMO

Core-shell nanoparticles attract continuously growing interest due to their numerous applications, which are driven by the possibility of tuning their functionalities by adjusting structural and morphological parameters. However, despite the critical role interdiffused interfaces may have in the properties, these are usually only estimated in indirect ways. Here we directly evidence the existence of a 1.1 nm thick (Fe,Mn)3O4 interdiffused intermediate shell in nominally γ-Fe2O3-Mn3O4 core-shell nanoparticles using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy combined with magnetic circular dichroism (RIXS-MCD). This recently developed magneto-spectroscopic probe exploits the unique advantages of hard X-rays (i.e., chemical selectivity, bulk sensitivity, and low self-absorption at the K pre-edge) and can be advantageously combined with transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to quantitatively elucidate the buried internal structure of complex objects. The detailed information on the structure of the nanoparticles allows understanding the influence of the interface quality on the magnetic properties.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(16): 13994-4000, 2014 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25014779

RESUMO

A novel nanocomposite material made of two-dimensional BiOCl nanoplates assembled into highly porous titania has been successfully prepared following a facile sol-gel reaction. Both the TiO2 (anatase) and BiOCl components are crystalline as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses. TiO2 exhibits a highly porous network and possesses a small crystallite size, whereas BiOCl forms micrometer-sized plates with nanometer thicknesses. Aqueous photocatalytic activity tests with this novel material have been performed on photodegradation of Rhodamine B under ultraviolet-visible light irradiation. Interestingly, the attachment of the BiOCl nanoplates to the TiO2 network significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity of the material compared to that of pure TiO2 due to the formation of BiOCl/TiO2 heterojunctions. Thus, this pertinent synergistic combination of TiO2 and BiOCl proves to be a promising strategy for the large-scale production of a new generation of photocatalysts with excellent properties for the degradation of organic pollutants.

15.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 4(3): 583-598, 2014 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344237

RESUMO

We evaluate the influence of the use of different titania precursors, calcination rate, and ligand addition on the morphology, texture and phase content of synthesized mesoporous titania samples, parameters which, in turn, can play a key role in titania photocatalytic performances. The powders, obtained through the evaporation-induced self-assembly method, are characterized by means of ex situ X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) measurements, N2 physisorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy. The precursors are selected basing on two different approaches: the acid-base pair, using TiCl4 and Ti(OBu)4, and a more classic route with Ti(OiPr)4 and HCl. For both precursors, different specimens were prepared by resorting to different calcination rates and with and without the addition of acetylacetone, that creates coordinated species with lower hydrolysis rates, and with different calcination rates. Each sample was employed as photoanode and tested in the water splitting reaction by recording I-V curves and comparing the results with commercial P25 powders. The complex data framework suggests that a narrow pore size distribution, due to the use of acetylacetone, plays a major role in the photoactivity, leading to a current density value higher than that of P25.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 7(1): 180-194, 2014 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28788449

RESUMO

The electrochemical behavior of polycrystalline TiO2 anatase coatings prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis on commercially pure (CP) Ti grade 2 and a Ti13Nb13Zr alloy for bone implants was investigated in Hank's solution at 37.5 °C. The aim was to verify to what extent the in-situ-grown anatase improved the behavior of the substrate in comparison to the bare substrates. Tafel-plot extrapolations from the potentiodynamic curves revealed a substantial improvement in the corrosion potentials for the anatase coatings. Moreover, the coatings grown on titanium also exhibited lower corrosion-current densities, indicating a longer survival of the implant. The results were explained by considering the effects of crystal morphology, coating thickness and porosity. Evidence for the existing porosity was obtained from corrosion and nano-indentation tests. The overall results indicated that the hydrothermally prepared anatase coatings, with the appropriate morphology and surface properties, have attractive prospects for use in medical devices, since better corrosion protection of the implant can be expected.

17.
Nanoscale ; 5(24): 12542-50, 2013 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24172868

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchically porous composite Cu-BiOCl films have been prepared by a facile one-step galvanostatic electrodeposition process from acidic electrolytic solutions containing Cu(ii) and Bi(iii) chloride salts and Triton X-100. The films show spherical, micron-sized pores that spread over the whole film thickness. In turn, the pore walls are made of randomly packed BiOCl nanoplates that are assembled leaving micro-nanopore voids beneath. It is believed that Cu grows within the interstitial spaces between the hydrogen bubbles produced from the reduction of H(+) ions. Then, the BiOCl sheets accommodate in the porous network defined by the Cu building blocks. The presence of Cu tends to enhance the mechanical stability of the composite material. The resulting porous Cu-BiOCl films exhibit homogeneous and stable-in-time photoluminescent response arising from the BiOCl component that spreads over the entire 3D porous structure, as demonstrated by confocal scanning laser microscopy. A broad-band emission covering the entire visible range, in the wavelength interval 450-750 nm, is obtained. The present work paves the way for the facile and controlled preparation of a new generation of photoluminescent membranes.

18.
Nanoscale ; 5(12): 5561-7, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23681182

RESUMO

The controlled filling of the pores of highly ordered mesoporous antiferromagnetic Co3O4 replicas with ferrimagnetic FexCo3-xO4 nanolayers is presented as a proof-of-concept toward the integration of nanosized units in highly ordered, heterostructured 3D architectures. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) Co3O4 mesostructures are obtained as negative replicas of KIT-6 silica templates, which are subsequently coated with ferrimagnetic (FiM) FexCo3-xO4 nanolayers. The tuneable magnetic properties, with a large exchange bias and coercivity, arising from the FiM/AFM interface coupling, confirm the microstructure of this novel two-phase core-shell mesoporous material. The present work demonstrates that ordered functional mesoporous 3D-materials can be successfully infiltrated with other compounds exhibiting additional functionalities yielding highly tuneable, versatile, non-siliceous based nanocomposites.

19.
ACS Nano ; 7(2): 921-31, 2013 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23320459

RESUMO

Here it is demonstrated that multiple-energy, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) provides significant enhancement in sensitivity to internal material boundaries of layered nanoparticles compared with the traditional modeling of a single scattering energy, even for cases in which high scattering contrast naturally exists. Specifically, the material-specific structure of monodispersed Fe3O4|γ-Mn2O3 core|shell nanoparticles is determined, and the contribution of each component to the total scattering profile is identified with unprecedented clarity. We show that Fe3O4|γ-Mn2O3 core|shell nanoparticles with a diameter of 8.2 ± 0.2 nm consist of a core with a composition near Fe3O4 surrounded by a (Mn(x)Fe(1-x))3O4 shell with a graded composition, ranging from x ≈ 0.40 at the inner shell toward x ≈ 0.46 at the surface. Evaluation of the scattering contribution arising from the interference between material-specific layers additionally reveals the presence of Fe3O4 cores without a coating shell. Finally, it is found that the material-specific scattering profile shapes and chemical compositions extracted by this method are independent of the original input chemical compositions used in the analysis, revealing multiple-energy ASAXS as a powerful tool for determining internal nanostructured morphology even if the exact composition of the individual layers is not known a priori.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 6(11): 4930-4945, 2013 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28788368

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of Ti40Zr20Hf20Fe20 (atom %) alloy, in the form of rods (f = 2 mm), prepared by arc-melting, and subsequent Cu mold suction casting, is presented. The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties, as well as in vitro biocompatibility of this alloy, are investigated. This material consists of a mixture of several nanocrystalline phases. It exhibits excellent mechanical behavior, dominated by high strength and relatively low Young's modulus, and also good corrosion resistance, as evidenced by the passive behavior in a wide potential window and the low corrosion current densities values. In terms of biocompatibility, this alloy is not cytotoxic and preosteoblast cells can easily adhere onto its surface and differentiate into osteoblasts.

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