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1.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366597

RESUMO

AIMS: L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been shown to be correlated with tumour progression, attributed to its possible association with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterised by the expression of vimentin and loss of e-cadherin. Herein, we investigate the associations between L1CAM and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the expression of vimentin and e-cadherin, in carcinomas restricted to the cervix. METHODS: The study was retrospective observational and included 45 squamous cell carcinomas (63.4%) and 26 adenocarcinomas (36.6%) submitted to primary surgical treatment. Patient age, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage, tumour size and follow-up were obtained from the medical records. All the slides were revised to evaluate histological differentiation, lymphovascular space invasion, depth of infiltration, disease-free cervical wall thickness, pattern of invasion front, Silva pattern (for adenocarcinomas) and the percentage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Tissue microarrays were constructed for immunohistochemical staining for L1CAM, e-cadherin and vimentin. RESULTS: Adenocarcinomas were associated with lower disease-free and overall survival. L1CAM and vimentin expressions were more frequent among adenocarcinomas, although loss of e-cadherin expression was more common among squamous carcinomas. L1CAM expression was associated with larger tumours, vimentin expression and lower disease-free survival. No association was observed between the expression of either L1CAM or vimentin and loss of e-cadherin. High levels of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes were more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma, high-grade tumours, destructive pattern at front of invasion and loss of e-cadherin expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the prognostic role of L1CAM in cervical carcinomas, but suggest a role for mechanisms other than EMT.

3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17ß-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS: Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.

4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 201-209, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of electrosurgery fulguration as a treatment for Bartholin's gland cysts. Retrospective study with a comparative control group performed on Hospital Brigadeiro and in the Disciplina de Ginecologia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo from February 2005 to March 2009. Patients: Patients with Bartholin's gland cyst were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 electrosurgery (n=169 cases); group 2 - gland excision with the conventional technique using a cold scalpel (n = 51 cases); group 3 - marsupialization (n=11 cases). We reviewed the clinical and surgical history, physical examination, description of the surgical technique, postoperative results (success and complications), and follow-up data. RESULTS: There is no difference between groups in relation to intraoperative bleeding, hematoma, and complete healing in a single treatment session. However, electrosurgery shows the lower percentage of recurrences 18 (10,7%) compared to the Marsupialization technique (group 3, p=.031). Recurrences occurred in 18 (10,7%), 3 (5,9%), and 4 (36,4%) cases. After retreatment by the same technique, there was a complete cure rate of 90% (152/169) for group 1, and 98% (50/51) for group 2. The cost of group 1 was lower than that of other groups. CONCLUSION: The fulguration with electrosurgery of the capsule of Bartholin's cyst is an effective method of treatment, andthe cost of this technique is lower than the conventional technique and marsupialization.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134921

RESUMO

Few reports have described the clinical and prognostic characteristics of endometrial cancer, which is increasing worldwide, in large patient series in Brazil. Our objective was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of patients with endometrial cancer treated and followed at a tertiary Brazilian institution over a 10-year period.This retrospective study included 703 patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were treated at a public academic tertiary hospital between 2008 and 2018. The following parameters were analyzed: age at diagnosis, race, body mass index, serum CA125 level before treatment; histological type and grade, and surgical stage. Outcomes were reported relative to histological type, surgical staging, serum CA125, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph-node metastasis. The median patient age at diagnosis was 63 (range, 27-93) years (6.4% were <50 years). Minimally invasive surgeries were performed in 523 patients (74.4%). Regarding histological grade, 468 patients (66.5%) had low-grade endometrioid histology and 449 patients (63.9%) had stage I tumors. Tumors exceeded 2.0 cm in 601 patients (85.5%). Lymphadenectomy was performed in 551 cases (78.4%). LVSI was present in 208 of the patients' tumors (29.5%). Ninety-three patients (13.2%) had recurrent tumors and 97 (13.7%) died from their malignant disease. The robust prognostic value of FIGO stage and lymph node status were confirmed. Other important survival predictors were histological grade and LVSI [overall survival: hazard ratio (HR) = 3.75, p < 0.001 and HR = 2.01, p = 0.001; recurrence: HR = 2.49, p = 0.004 and HR = 3.22, p = 0.001, respectively). Disease-free (p = 0.087) and overall survival (p = 0.368) did not differ significantly between patients with stage II and III disease. These results indicate that prognostic role of cervical involvement should be explored further. This study reports the characteristics and outcomes of endometrial cancer in a large population from a single institution, with systematic surgical staging, a predominance of minimally invasive procedures, and well-documented outcomes. Prognostic factors in the present study population were generally similar to those in other countries, though our patients' tumors were larger than in studies elsewhere due to later diagnosis. Our unexpected finding of similar prognoses of stage II and III patients raises questions about the prognostic value of cervical involvement and possible differences between carcinomas originating in the lower uterine segment versus those originating in the body and fundus. The present findings can be used to guide public policies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer in Brazil and other similar countries.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with knowledge gaps and acquisition about HPV and its vaccine among medical students. METHOD: Cross-sectional and analytical study conducted at the University of São Paulo Medicine School, in 2016. A convenience sample of students completed a data collection instrument containing questions on knowledge about HPV and its vaccine, and vaccine acceptability. The level of knowledge and acceptability established as a "good level" was 80% of correct answers on the questionnaire. Internal validity was calculated with Cronbach's alpha value (α) = 0.74. Bivariate and multiple analyzes were performed using the Stata® program (Stata Corp, College Station, USA) 14.0. RESULTS: To evaluate the internal consistency of the instrument applied, the Cronbach's alpha equation was used, obtaining the alpha value (α) = 0.74 for this population. This value attests that the consistency of the answers obtained with this questionnaire is considered substantial and acceptable. Among the 518 medical students who completed the survey, the majority were men 312 (60.4%) with a mean age of 23 (± 2.8) years old; 199 (38.3%) of the students were in the final years of graduation (5th and 6th years). Students in the first, second and third year of study had a 51% higher risk of a knowledge gap when compared to students in the final years of graduation [PR 1.51 (1.3:1.8); p <0.001]. Men were at 22% higher risk of unsatisfactory knowledge than women are [PR 1.22 (1.07: 1.39). There was no knowledge acquisition during medical school in the following questions (p <0.05), indication of vaccine for individuals with HIV and contraindication in pregnant patients. CONCLUSION: Male medical students, in the first year of medical school, and those who were not vaccinated had significant knowledge gaps about HPV. The novelty of the study includes the finding of non- acquisition of knowledge during the medical school graduation on safety and vaccination schedule and vaccine administration in specific populations.

7.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify whether aging can modify the clinical and biochemical characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the reproductive endocrinology clinics of Julio Muller University Hospital and Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil, between 2003 and 2017. Both, 796 PCOS and 444 non-PCOS normal cycling women underwent the same examination. PCOS was diagnosed using the Rotterdam criteria as recommended for adolescent and adult subjects. Anthropometric, metabolic, and endocrinological modifications with aging were initially examined in the two groups: control and PCOS. Further analyses were performed after a 5-year-age stratification of data throughout the reproductive period. All participants signed a consent form approved by the local Ethical Committee. RESULTS: Biomarkers of adiposity were more remarkable in African descendant PCOS women. Body weight, waist/hip ratio, fat mass and body mass index were higher in PCOS women and tended to increase at all 5 age-strata, between ≤19 and 35-years of age. Serum androgen levels decreased with aging, markedly in PCOS subjects (p<0.01 for all age-strata comparisons) but remained elevated when compared with the levels found in controls. Carbohydrate markers, triglycerides and total cholesterol tended to increase over time in PCOS (p<0.01 for all age-strata comparisons). Total cholesterol also tended to increase with age in non-PCOS women (p=0.041). CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the advancing age influences many features of PCOS women. Biochemical hyperandrogenism, the core criterion recommended in the current systems to define the syndrome, showed statistically significant tendencies to decrease with aging progression but did not normalize. The use of age-adjusted features for the diagnosis of PCOS are recommended.

8.
Reprod Sci ; 27(2): 455-460, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919796

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6% to 20% of reproductive age women and is the most frequent cause of anovulatory infertility. Its physiopathology may result in part from hypothalamic alterations in the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The neuropeptide kisspeptin participates in the mechanism through stimulation of the hormone's production. The purpose of this study was to review the articles which compared kisspeptin levels in women with PCOS with those of controls. A systematic review of observational studies was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations. The selected studies encompassed a population of patients with PCOS and controls, whose serum kisspeptin levels were evaluated. The studies were retrieved from the Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases, and four of them were chosen for the review. In most studies, the serum kisspeptin levels were higher in women with PCOS than in controls notwithstanding the BMI. One of the articles showed that circulating plasma levels of kisspeptin were significantly higher in women with PCOS whose BMI was lower than 25 than in obese and overweight women. Our data suggest a higher concentration of serum kisspeptin in women with PCOS irrespective of their BMI. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to ascertain the role of kisspeptin in PCOS.

9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967282

RESUMO

Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.

10.
Clinics ; 75: e1293, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1055882

RESUMO

Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18403, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804540

RESUMO

The temporomandibular muscle dysfunction is characterized by myofascial pain and is more prevalent in women of reproductive age. Sex steroid hormones are hypothetically involved in the dysfunction, but few are the studies of steroid receptors in masticatory and mastication-related muscles. Our aim was to determine estrogen and testosterone receptor expression in rat masticatory and mastication-related muscles within the context of age and gender. Twelve rats were equally divided into four groups: (a) 10-month-old females; (b) 10-month-old males; (c) 24-month-old females; and (d) 24-month-old males. Euthanasia of the females was performed in the proestrous phase (vaginal smears) and the masticatory and accessory muscles were removed for immunohistochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and the Tukey test. Estrogen receptor expression was similarly low in all muscles and groups. Testosterone receptor expression in the Masseter muscle of the 24-month-old male rats was higher than that in the other groups and significantly superior to its expression in the Posterior Digastric muscle. In short, testosterone receptor expression was highest in old male rats. If we generalize to humans, this fact could indicate age- and sex-related hormonal influence on temporomandibular muscle dysfunction. Further studies, however, are necessary to strengthen this hypothesis.

12.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744257

RESUMO

The lethal-7 (let-7) family is an important microRNA (miRNA) group that usually exerts functions as a tumor suppressor. We aimed to evaluate the expression profile of let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, let-7d, let-7e, let-7f, let-7g, and let-7i and to assess their value as prognostic markers in uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) patients. The miRNAs expression profile was assessed in 34 LMS and 13 normal myometrium (MM) paraffin-embedded samples. All let-7 family members showed downregulation in LMS. Our findings showed that patients with let-7e downregulation had worse overall survival (OS) and is an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.24). In addition, almost half the patients had distant metastasis. LMS patients with downregulated let-7b and let-7d had worse disease-free survival (DFS); they are not independent prognostic factors (HR = 2.65). Patients' ages were associated with let-7d, let-7e and let-7f (p = 0.0160) downregulation. In conclusion, all the let-7 family members were downregulated in LMS patients, and the greater the loss of expression of these molecules, the greater their relationship with worse prognosis of patients. Let-7e expression might influence the OS, while let-7b and le-7d might influence the DFS. The lowest expression levels of let-7d, let-7e, and let-7f were associated with the oldest patients. Our findings indicate strong evidence of let-7's role as a potential prognostic biomarker in LMS.

14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(10): 1275-1282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate gynecological cancer and metabolic screening of Brazilian women aged 65 years or older. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted by including 1,001 Brazilian patients of the gynecological geriatric outpatient office of our institution to evaluate the influence of age on gynecological cancer and metabolic screening parameters at the first clinical visit. All patients were divided into three groups: a) 65 to 69 years; b) 70 to 74 years; c) ≥ 75 years. We considered clinical, laboratorial, and image data as variables of this study. The Chi-square test was used to assess the proportion of differences among the age groups, and Kruskal-Wallis was used for quantitative variables. RESULTS: The values of BMI and height in the group over 75 years was lower than that of the 65 to 69 years (p = 0.001). Regardless of the age group, high arterial blood pressure levels were found in 85.45% of participants. Also, many patients had glucose intolerance in the blood. The pelvic ultrasonography showed abnormal endometrial echo thickness (> 5 mm) in 6.14% of patients, but with no significant statistical difference between the age groups. A total of 4.04% of patients had ovaries with high volume values ( > 6.1 mL). Abnormal mammography (BI-RADS 3 or 4) was observed in 12.21%. CONCLUSIONS: our data suggest that a great reduction in BMI and stature is more frequent in the group over 75 years. Also, systemic arterial hypertension and carbohydrate disturbance are frequent morbidities in women over 65 years.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/sangue , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Menopausa Precoce , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(10): 1275-1282, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1041029

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate gynecological cancer and metabolic screening of Brazilian women aged 65 years or older. METHODS This retrospective descriptive study was conducted by including 1,001 Brazilian patients of the gynecological geriatric outpatient office of our institution to evaluate the influence of age on gynecological cancer and metabolic screening parameters at the first clinical visit. All patients were divided into three groups: a) 65 to 69 years; b) 70 to 74 years; c) ≥ 75 years. We considered clinical, laboratorial, and image data as variables of this study. The Chi-square test was used to assess the proportion of differences among the age groups, and Kruskal-Wallis was used for quantitative variables. RESULTS The values of BMI and height in the group over 75 years was lower than that of the 65 to 69 years (p = 0.001). Regardless of the age group, high arterial blood pressure levels were found in 85.45% of participants. Also, many patients had glucose intolerance in the blood. The pelvic ultrasonography showed abnormal endometrial echo thickness (> 5 mm) in 6.14% of patients, but with no significant statistical difference between the age groups. A total of 4.04% of patients had ovaries with high volume values ( > 6.1 mL). Abnormal mammography (BI-RADS 3 or 4) was observed in 12.21%. CONCLUSIONS our data suggest that a great reduction in BMI and stature is more frequent in the group over 75 years. Also, systemic arterial hypertension and carbohydrate disturbance are frequent morbidities in women over 65 years.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar retrospectivamente alguns dados clínicos, laboratoriais e imagens de um grupo de idosas brasileiras. MÉTODOS Estudo observacional retrospectivo realizado com inclusão de 1.001 mulheres brasileiras atendidas no ambulatório de geriatria ginecológica de nossa instituição. Foram analisados: a idade dos pacientes na primeira consulta clínica e a idade na menopausa natural; alguns achados clínicos durante um exame ginecológico; resultados de análises laboratoriais. Considerou-se a relação dessas variáveis com o grupo da idade das mulheres. O teste do qui-quadrado foi utilizado para avaliar os dados e para algumas variáveis, Kruskal-Wallis ou Anova. RESULTADOS A avaliação do IMC e da estatura nas diferentes faixas etárias das mulheres mostrou que, com o aumento da idade, há diminuição do IMC e da estatura (p=0,001). Nível anormal de pressão arterial estava presente em 85,45%. De acordo com o grupo de idade, as medidas laboratoriais foram avaliadas pelo método estatístico Kruskal-Wallis, e a Anova mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante apenas no valor da creatinina, com pequeno aumento com a idade. A ultrassonografia pélvica foi alterada com espessura endometrial normal (>5 mm) em 29 (6,14%), mas sem diferença estatística significativa com os grupos de idade, e os ovários mostraram sete (4,04%) com volume anormal (>6,1). Mamografia anormal (BI-Rads 3 ou 4) foi observada em 104 pacientes (12,21%). CONCLUSÕES O estudo conclui que, com o aumento da idade, há redução do IMC e da estatura. A hipertensão é morbidade frequente. Os dados laboratoriais e a avaliação de imagens deste estudo são importantes para aumentar o conjunto de informações sobre mulheres idosas e talvez para melhorar a assistência à saúde.

16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(8): 1122-1127, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531613

RESUMO

Melatonin is known for its effects on both the sleep and reproductive system of mammals. The latter has melatonin receptors type 1 and 2, which act to regulate, among other things, cyclic AMP. Notwithstanding all the literature data, there is still no sound knowledge or a clear understanding of the hormone's action on the physiology of ovarian follicular cells. OBJECTIVE To review and evaluate studies about melatonin action on the ovarian granulosa/theca interna cells from the literature. METHODS The systematic review was carried out according to the PRISMA recommendations. The MEDLINE and Cochrane primary databases were consulted with the use of specific terms. There was no limitation on language or publication year. RESULTS Seven papers about melatonin action on granulosa cells were selected. The following can be attributed to the hormone's effects: a) progesterone increase in culture medium; b) increased estrogen production; c) antagonistic action on estrogen; d) improvement in cell quality resulting in improved embryo and higher pregnancy rates; e) improved cell proliferation via MAPK; f) reduction of free radicals. Nevertheless, there are contrarian papers reporting a reduction in progesterone production. Melatonin interferes in sex steroid production, boosting progesterone output. Such action may help improve oocyte quality.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 1008-1014, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ovarian effects of melatonin (Mel) in a rat model of polycystic-ovary-syndrome (PCOS) before and after permanent estrus induction. METHODS: Thirty-two adult-female rats with regular estrous cycle were equally divided into four groups: 1) GCtrl - at estrous phase. 2) GPCOS - at permanent-estrous phase. 3) GMel1 - treated for 60 days with Mel (0.4 mg/Kg) during permanent estrus induction and 4) GMel2 - rats with PCOS and treated for 60 days with Mel. After that, the animals were euthanized, and the ovaries were removed and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with H.E. for histomorphometry or subjected to immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) detections. RESULTS: The GPCOS showed lack of corpus luteum and several ovarian cysts, as well as interstitial-like cells. The presence of corpus luteum and a significant increase in primary and antral follicles were observed in Mel-treated groups, which also showed a decrease in the number of ovarian cysts and in the area occupied by interstitial-like cells. These results were more evident in GMel1. The percentage of Ki-67-positive cells was significantly higher in the Mel-treated groups, mainly in the GMel2, as compared to GPCOS. On the other hand, the percentage of Casp-3-positive cells was significantly lower in granulosa cells of GMel1, whereas it was significantly higher in the interstitial-like cells of GMel2, in comparison to GPCOS. CONCLUSION: Melatonin administration prevents the permanent estrus state in the PCOS rat model. This effect is more efficient when melatonin is administered before permanent estrus induction.


Assuntos
Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Tecais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1122-1127, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1041057

RESUMO

SUMMARY Melatonin is known for its effects on both the sleep and reproductive system of mammals. The latter has melatonin receptors type 1 and 2, which act to regulate, among other things, cyclic AMP. Notwithstanding all the literature data, there is still no sound knowledge or a clear understanding of the hormone's action on the physiology of ovarian follicular cells. OBJECTIVE To review and evaluate studies about melatonin action on the ovarian granulosa/theca interna cells from the literature. METHODS The systematic review was carried out according to the PRISMA recommendations. The MEDLINE and Cochrane primary databases were consulted with the use of specific terms. There was no limitation on language or publication year. RESULTS Seven papers about melatonin action on granulosa cells were selected. The following can be attributed to the hormone's effects: a) progesterone increase in culture medium; b) increased estrogen production; c) antagonistic action on estrogen; d) improvement in cell quality resulting in improved embryo and higher pregnancy rates; e) improved cell proliferation via MAPK; f) reduction of free radicals. Nevertheless, there are contrarian papers reporting a reduction in progesterone production. CONCLUSION Melatonin interferes in sex steroid production, boosting progesterone output. Such action may help improve oocyte quality.


RESUMO A melatonina é conhecida por seus efeitos no sono e no sistema reprodutivo dos mamíferos. Este último tem receptores de melatonina tipos 1 e 2, que atuam para regular, entre outras coisas, o AMP cíclico. Apesar de todos os dados da literatura, ainda não há um conhecimento sólido ou uma compreensão clara da ação do hormônio na fisiologia das células foliculares ovarianas. OBJETIVO Revisar e avaliar estudos da ação da melatonina na literatura sobre as células internas da granulosa/teca ovariana. MÉTODOS A revisão sistemática foi realizada de acordo com as recomendações do Prisma. As bases de dados primárias Medline e Cochrane foram consultadas com o uso de termos específicos. Não houve bar na língua ou ano de publicação. RESULTADOS Sete artigos sobre a ação da melatonina nas células da granulosa foram selecionados. O que se segue pode ser atribuído aos efeitos do hormônio: a) aumento de progesterona no meio de cultura; b) aumento da produção de estrogênio; c) ação antagônica no estrogênio; d) melhoria na qualidade celular, resultando em melhor embrião e maiores taxas de gravidez; e) melhor proliferação celular via MAPK; f) redução de radicais livres. No entanto, existem artigos controversos relatando redução na produção de progesterona. CONCLUSÃO A melatonina interfere na produção de esteroides sexuais, aumentando a produção de progesterona. Tal ação pode ajudar a melhorar a qualidade do oócito.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 963, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether age is a barrier against acceptability of cervicovaginal self-sampling in screening for cervical cancer at two gynecology outpatient clinics. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 116 women over 21 years of age with an abnormal Pap smear. Clinical and laboratorial data were recorded in electronic files. Women received detailed self-collection instructions. After the self-sampling procedure (Evalyn Brush®), women were instructed to answer a questionnaire about vaginal self-sampling acceptability that consisted of seven multiple-choice items. The participants were divided into three age brackets: 21 to 29 years, 30 to 49 years, and 50 years and over. Chi-square, Fischer exact, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. RESULTS: The analysis of the participants' perception of the procedure stratified according to age groups showed a decline in the fear of hurting oneself during the procedure as age increased. Most participants reported that it was very easy to understand how to use the self-sampling brush and that it was easy to use it. Most of them were neither embarrassed nor afraid of getting hurt during the procedure. The majority preferred self-sampling to collection by a healthcare professional. The main reason was practicality: the possibility of choosing the place and time for sampling. CONCLUSIONS: The participating women found self-collection simple to understand and easy to accept regardless of age. The younger women indicated more fear and discomfort in self-sampling, which points to the need for attraction strategies that are more appealing to the younger generations.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Autocuidado/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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