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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 127-133, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle index) and myosteatosis (low skeletal radiodensity) have been associated with poor outcomes in melanoma. This systematic review was performed to summarize and critically evaluate current literature surrounding body composition in melanoma. METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for studies of melanoma patients with computed tomography (CT) based body composition analysis from 2000 to 2020. Outcomes of interest were survival, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-free survival (DFS), as well as treatment-related adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Nine studies of 914 patients were included in the final review. The majority of studies were of metastatic melanoma patients treated with immunotherapy. Studies demonstrated a variety of CT analysis techniques and cut-offs to define sarcopenia and myosteatosis. Associations of sarcopenia or myosteatosis with survival (OS, PFS, DFS) or risk of treatment-related AEs were conflicting. Multiple studies had low quality of evidence due to small sample sizes, use of non-validated CT measures, and lack of multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Due to methodologic heterogeneity and low quality of evidence, impacts of CT-derived body composition parameters on outcomes in melanoma are unclear. Further research should be conducted to elucidate impacts of body composition in melanoma.

2.
J Can Dent Assoc ; 87: l4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review provides a comprehensive overview of oral cavity cancer (OCC) and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Alberta. METHODS: A database search was conducted up to 2018 using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, PubMed and Embase, along with a manual search of gray literature. Data from the Alberta Cancer Foundation's dedicated fund for research, Cancer Surveillance and Reporting and Alberta Cancer Registry were also collected. RESULTS: Our review included 8 published papers and 14 other sources, including data on 3448 OCC and OPC patients from Surveillance and Reporting and Alberta Cancer Registry. Cancer registry data (2005-2017) showed that most OCC and OPC lesions were diagnosed at an advanced clinical stage, with a significantly large number of advanced OPC lesions in stage IV (OCC 45.2%, OPC 82.4%); 47.9% of these patients died. Survival rates were lowest in rural and First Nations areas. In Alberta, 35% of HPV-associated cancers were linked to OPCs, which were more prevalent in men and younger age groups. No routine public oral cancer screening program currently exists in Alberta. General practitioners and dentists refer patients to specialists, often with long waiting times. CONCLUSION: OCC and OPC patients in Alberta continue to be diagnosed in stage IV and experience high mortality rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Alberta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia
3.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(5): 1189-1202, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated weight loss (WL) associates with increased mortality. International consensus suggests that WL is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and/or altered metabolism, the latter often represented by the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). We aggregated data from Canadian and European research studies to evaluate the associations of reduced food intake and CRP with cancer-associated WL (primary endpoint) and overall survival (OS, secondary endpoint). METHODS: The data set included a total of 12,253 patients at risk for cancer-associated WL. Patient-reported WL history (% in 6 months) and food intake (normal, moderately, or severely reduced) were measured in all patients; CRP (mg/L) and OS were measured in N = 4960 and N = 9952 patients, respectively. All measures were from a baseline assessment. Clinical variables potentially associated with WL and overall survival (OS) including age, sex, cancer diagnosis, disease stage, and performance status were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression MLR and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. RESULTS: Patients had a mean weight change of -7.3% (±7.1), which was categorized as: ±2.4% (stable weight; 30.4%), 2.5-5.9% (19.7%), 6.0-10.0% (23.2%), 11.0-14.9% (12.0%), ≥15.0% (14.6%). Normal food intake, moderately, and severely reduced food intake occurred in 37.9%, 42.8%, and 19.4%, respectively. In MLR, severe WL (≥15%) (vs. stable weight) was more likely (P < 0.0001) if food intake was moderately [OR 6.28, 95% confidence interval (CI 5.28-7.47)] or severely reduced [OR 18.98 (95% CI 15.30-23.56)]. In subset analysis, adjusted for food intake, CRP was independently associated (P < 0.0001) with ≥15% WL [CRP 10-100 mg/L: OR 2.00, (95% CI 1.58-2.53)] and [CRP > 100 mg/L: OR 2.30 (95% CI 1.62-3.26)]. Diagnosis, stage, and performance status, but not age or sex, were significantly associated with WL. Median OS was 9.9 months (95% CI 9.5-10.3), with median follow-up of 39.7 months (95% CI 38.8-40.6). Moderately and severely reduced food intake and CRP independently predicted OS (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Modelling WL as the dependent variable is an approach that can help to identify clinical features and biomarkers associated with WL. Here, we identify criterion values for food intake impairment and CRP that may improve the diagnosis and classification of cancer-associated cachexia.

4.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 983-992, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myosteatosis has been associated with shorter overall survival in cancer patients. The increase in ectopic fat might not be limited to skeletal muscle only and might also extend to other sites such as the liver, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we assessed the relationship between myosteatosis and NAFLD and their association with overall survival in patients with colorectal liver metastases undergoing partial hepatectomy. METHODS: Patients were selected from a prospective cohort of 289 consecutive patients with colorectal liver metastases. All patients with a preoperative computed tomography (CT)-scan and liver biopsy obtained during surgery were included. If available a second pre-operative CT scan was used to calculate changes in body composition over time. Muscle radiation attenuation was defined as the average Hounsfield units on CT of all muscle tissue at the L3 level. Liver biopsies were graded by a liver pathologist using the steatosis, activity, and fibrosis scoring system for NAFLD. RESULTS: Two-hundred and eighteen patients had an available liver biopsy of which 131 patients had two available pre-operative CT scans with an average time interval of 3.2 months. One-hundred and thirty-five (62%) biopsies were classified as NAFLD. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, NAFLD [hazard ratio (HR): 1.8, 95%-confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.0, P = 0.037], increase in myosteatosis (HR 1.8, 95%-CI 1.1-2.9, P = 0.018), and skeletal muscle loss (HR 1.7, 95%-CI 1.0-2.9, P = 0.035) were independently associated with shorter overall survival while high visceral adipose tissue fat content was associated with longer overall survival (HR: 0.7, 95%-CI 0.5-0.9, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Ectopic fat content of liver as well as skeletal muscle tissue is independently associated with shorter overall survival in patients with colorectal liver metastases, while increased visceral adipose tissue fat content is associated with longer overall survival.

5.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2898-2913, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This practical guideline is based on the current scientific ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. METHODS: ESPEN guidelines have been shortened and transformed into flow charts for easier use in clinical practice. The practical guideline is dedicated to all professionals including physicians, dieticians, nutritionists and nurses working with patients with cancer. RESULTS: A total of 43 recommendations are presented with short commentaries for the nutritional and metabolic management of patients with neoplastic diseases. The disease-related recommendations are preceded by general recommendations on the diagnostics of nutritional status in cancer patients. CONCLUSION: This practical guideline gives guidance to health care providers involved in the management of cancer patients to offer optimal nutritional care.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/complicações , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Sociedades Científicas
6.
Eur Radiol ; 31(11): 8662-8670, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle mass is a prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, it remains unclear whether changes in body composition provide an incremental prognostic value to established risk factors, especially the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECISTv1.1). The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CT-quantified body composition changes in patients with unresectable PDAC starting chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 105 patients with unresectable (locally advanced or metastatic) PDAC treated with FOLFIRINOX (n = 64) or gemcitabine-based (n = 41) first-line chemotherapy within a multicenter prospective trial. Changes (Δ) in skeletal muscle index (SMI), subcutaneous (SATI), and visceral adipose tissue index (VATI) between pre-chemotherapy and first follow-up CT were assessed. Cox regression models and covariate-adjusted survival curves were used to identify predictors of overall survival (OS). RESULTS: At multivariable analysis, adjusting for RECISTv1.1-response at first follow-up, ΔSMI was prognostic for OS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.08-1.33, p = 0.001). No significant association with OS was observed for ΔSATI (HR: 1, 95% CI: 0.97-1.04, p = 0.88) and ΔVATI (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.99-1.04, p = 0.33). At an optimal cutoff of 2.8 cm2/m2 per 30 days, the median survival of patients with high versus low ΔSMI was 143 versus 233 days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a lower rate of skeletal muscle loss at first follow-up demonstrated improved survival for unresectable PDAC, regardless of their RECISTv1.1-category. Assessing ΔSMI at the first follow-up CT may be useful for prognostication, in addition to routine radiological assessment. KEY POINTS: • In patients with unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, change of skeletal muscle index (ΔSMI) in the early phase of chemotherapy is prognostic for overall survival, even after adjusting for Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECISTv1.1) assessment at first follow-up. • Changes in adipose tissue compartments at first follow-up demonstrated no significant association with overall survival. • Integrating ΔSMI into routine radiological assessment may improve prognostic stratification and impact treatment decision-making at the first follow-up.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(10): 1515-1519, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568807

RESUMO

We assessed forty HNC patients receiving treatment with curative intent. Specific quantitative muscle and fat changes were evaluated using CT. Nutrition support was provided according to ESPEN guidelines, with adjusted body weight (ABW) in overweight/obese patients used to define their nutritional targets. Linear regression models were used to evaluate clinical predictors of tissue loss. Mean overall losses were body weight (-10.5%), and CT-defined muscle (-8.4%) and fat mass (-24.8%), p < 0.001. A subset of 20 patients had high muscle loss (-14.7%) with concurrent negative energy balance as reflected by considerable fat loss (-29.7%); those tended to have higher baseline body mass index (26.2 vs. 23.3 kg/m2, p = 0.063). In multivariate regression, only ABW independently predicted muscle loss (p < 0.001) and fat loss (p = 0.002). Nutrition support according to guidelines was appropriate for a subset of patients. ABW use to set nutrition targets in overweight/obese patients would appear to be insufficient, based on large tissue losses.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291416

RESUMO

Pre-operative nutrition screening is recommended to identify cancer patients at risk of malnutrition, which is associated with poor outcomes. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and lipid infiltration to muscle cells (myosteatosis) are similarly associated with poor outcomes but are not routinely screened for. We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia and myosteatosis across the nutrition screening triage categories of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Short Form (PG-SGASF) in a pre-operative colorectal cancer (CRC) cohort. Data were prospectively collected from patients scheduled for surgery at two sites in Edmonton, Canada. PG-SGASF scores ≥ 4 identified patients at risk for malnutrition; sarcopenia and myosteatosis were identified using computed-tomography (CT) analysis. Patients (n = 176) with a mean age of 63.8 ± 12.0 years, 52.3% male, 90.3% with stage I-III disease were included. Overall, 25.2% had PG-SGASF score ≥ 4. Sarcopenia alone, myosteatosis alone or both were identified in 14.0%, 27.3%, and 6.4% of patients, respectively. Sarcopenia and/or myosteatosis were identified in 43.4% of those with PG-SGASF score < 4 and in 58.5% of those with score ≥ 4. Overall, 32.9% of the cohort had sarcopenia and/or myosteatosis with PG-SGASF score < 4. CT-defined sarcopenia and myosteatosis are prevalent in pre-operative CRC patients, regardless of the presence of traditional nutrition risk factors (weight loss, problems eating); therefore, CT image analysis effectively adds value to nutrition screening by identifying patients with other risk factors for poor outcomes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/patologia
10.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187310

RESUMO

Standardized sex-specific cut-offs for sarcopenia in cirrhosis are needed to identify the risk of clinical complications and to discriminate the severity of sarcopenia. We aimed to compare clinical characteristics between patients with cirrhosis categorized according to the severity of sarcopenia. Computed tomography images were taken at the 3rd lumbar vertebra from 603 patients with cirrhosis and 129 adult donors for living liver transplantation. Patients with skeletal muscle index (SMI) two standard deviations (SD) below the sex-specific mean value of young donors (18-40 years old) were categorized as having severe sarcopenia whereas patients with SMI between -1 and -2 SD of the sex-specific young adult mean values were categorized as having sarcopenia. In the cirrhosis group, 408 patients (68%) were male with the mean age of 57 ± 0.4 years, and MELD score of 14 ± 0.4. Patients were divided into three groups: severe-sarcopenic (SMI < 30 cm2/m2 in females and <42 cm2/m2 in males), sarcopenic (30 ≤ SMI < 37 cm2/m2 in females and 42 ≤ SMI < 50 cm2/m2 in males) and non-sarcopenic (SMI ≥ 37 cm2/m2 in females and ≥50 cm2/m2 in males). Patients with cirrhosis and severe sarcopenia had lower muscle radiodensity and higher plasma neutrophil as well as neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio levels than both non- and sarcopenic groups. The frequency of alcohol-induced cirrhosis, refractory ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, CRP > 20 mg/mL, and severe malnutrition was also higher in severe-sarcopenic patients. The interval between sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia may reflect a window of opportunity in which to intervene and mitigate muscle wasting to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA Surg ; 155(10): 942-949, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805015

RESUMO

Importance: Given the risks of postoperative morbidity and its consequent economic burden and impairment to patients undergoing colon resection, evaluating risk factors associated with complications will allow risk stratification and the targeting of supportive interventions. Evaluation of muscle characteristics is an emerging area for improving preoperative risk stratification. Objective: To examine the associations of muscle characteristics with postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), readmission, and mortality in patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 1630 patients who received a diagnosis of stage I to III colon cancer from January 2006 to December 2011 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health care system. Preliminary data analysis started in 2017. Because major complication data were collected between 2018 and 2019, the final analysis using the current cohort was conducted between 2019 and 2020. Exposures: Low skeletal muscle index (SMI) and/or low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) levels were assessed using preoperative computerized tomography images. Main Outcomes and Measures: Length of stay, any complication (≥1 predefined complications) or major complications (Clavien-Dindo classification score ≥3), 30-day mortality and readmission up to 30 days postdischarge, and overall mortality. Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 64.0 (11.3) years and 906 (55.6%) were women. Patients with low SMI or low SMD were more likely to remain hospitalized 7 days or longer after surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.68; OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84, respectively) and had higher risks of overall mortality (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.13-1.74; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85, respectively). Additionally, patients with low SMI were more likely to have 1 or more postsurgical complications (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and had higher risk of 30-day mortality (OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 1.23-19.15). Low SMD was associated with higher odds of having major complications (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.44-4.04). Conclusions and Relevance: Low SMI and low SMD were associated with longer LOS, higher risk of postsurgical complications, and short-term and long-term mortality. Research should evaluate whether targeting potentially modifiable factors preoperatively, such as preserving muscle mass, could reverse the observed negative associations with postoperative outcomes.


Assuntos
Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Surg Res ; 256: 422-432, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) scan quantifying skeletal muscle mass is the gold standard tool to identify sarcopenia. Unfortunately, high cost, limited availability, and radiation exposure limit its use. We suggest that ultrasound of the thigh muscle could be an objective, reproducible, portable, and risk-free tool, used as a surrogate to a CT scan, to help identify frail patients with sarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 49 patients over 64 y old, referred to the acute care surgery service. An ultrasound of thigh muscle thickness was standardized to patient thigh length (U/Swhole/L). CT skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated using skeletal muscle surface area of the L3 region divided by height2. Frailty status was assessed using the Canadian Study of Healthy Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 76 (8) y, and 34% (n = 17) were men. CT-defined sarcopenia was identified in 65% (n = 11) of men and 75% (n = 24) of women. In general, women had longer stay in hospital than men (mean + SD 14 ± 9 versus 7 ± 3 d, P = 0.003). There was a significant positive correlation between thigh U/Swhole/L and CT SMI. There was an inverse correlation between thigh U/Swhole/L and frailty score; a similar relationship was observed between CT SMI and frailty. There was an association between U/Swhole/L and postoperative major complications. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective observational study illustrates that the U/Swhole/L index can be used as a surrogate to CT scan, whereby it can identify elderly frail patients with sarcopenia. Thigh ultrasound should be further tested as an objective tool to assess for stratifying frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
13.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 85: 101776, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862015

RESUMO

Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is widely used for studying body composition, i.e., the proportion of muscle and fat tissues with applications in areas such as nutrition or chemotherapy dose design. In particular, axial CT slices from the 3rd lumbar (L3) vertebral location are commonly used for body composition analysis. However, selection of the third lumbar vertebral slice and the segmentation of muscle/fat in the slice is a tedious operation if performed manually. The objective of this study is to automatically find the middle axial slice at L3 level from a full or partial body CT scan volume and segment the skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) on that slice. The proposed algorithm includes an L3 axial slice localization network followed by a muscle-fat segmentation network. The localization network is a fully convolutional classifier trained on more than 12,000 images. The segmentation network is a convolutional neural network with an encoder-decoder architecture. Three datasets with CT images taken for patients with different types of cancers are used for training and validation of the networks. The mean slice error of 0.87±2.54 was achieved for L3 slice localization on 1748 CT scan volumes. The performance of five class tissue segmentation network evaluated on two datasets with 1327 and 1202 test samples. The mean Jaccard score of 97% was achieved for SM and VAT tissue segmentation on 1327 images. The mean Jaccard scores of 98% and 83% are corresponding to SAT and IMAT tissue segmentation on the same dataset. The localization and segmentation network performance indicates the potential for fully automated body composition analysis with high accuracy.

14.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 11(6): 1570-1579, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantification of skeletal muscle using computed tomography (CT) is accessible using cancer patients' standard oncologic images. Reduced muscle mass may be related to reduced respiratory muscle strength; however, the impact of this on lung functional parameters is not characterized in adult allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHCT) recipients. METHODS: A consecutive retrospective series (n = 296) of patients who had alloHCT at a comprehensive cancer centre between March 2005 and April 2015 were included. Pre-transplant CT scans were used to quantify skeletal muscle and adipose tissue at the fourth thoracic (T4) and/or third lumbar (L3) level. Tumour and patient characteristics were recorded, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) by spirometry. Regression models were created to characterize predictive relationships. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients (♂n = 161; ♀n = 135) were included, all of whom had chest CT as part of standard care; a subset of these (n = 215, 72.6%) also had abdominal CT. Diagnoses were non-Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 165), acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 66), Hodgkin's disease (n = 14), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 14), myelodysplastic syndromes (n = 18), and other (n = 19). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for sex (P < 0.0001), age (P < 0.0001), haematopoietic cell transplantation-specific co-morbidity index (P = 0.010), and parameters of pulmonary function testing (defined by spirometry, P < 0.0001), both T4 muscle index [ß 0.127 (95% confidence interval 0.019; 0.252), P < 0.0001] and T4 muscle radiodensity [ß 0.132 (95% confidence interval 0.087; 0.505), P = 0.006] were independently associated with FEV1 ; disease risk index (P = 0.877) and Karnofsky performance status (P = 0.548) were not associated with FEV1 . Similar conclusions were obtained when L3 muscle index and radiodensity were considered. Unlike T4, L3 muscle index values can be compared with published cut-off values for sarcopenia. Overall rates of sarcopenia were uniformly higher in the HCT population than in age-matched and sex-matched patients with solid tumours [alloHCT ♂64.7% vs. solid tumour ♂56.6% (P < 0.001); alloHCT ♀57.6% vs. solid tumour ♀36.0% (P < 0.001)]. Significant but moderate correlations (P < 0.001) were found for muscle area and radiodensity between L3 and T4, for both men and women; adipose tissue quantity also correlated significantly (P < 0.001) between L3 and T4 for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar or thoracic CT images are useful for body composition assessment in this population and reveal high rates of sarcopenia, similar to those reported in very elderly patients. Reduced muscle mass and radiodensity associate with impaired FEV1 even after adjustment for clinical covariables including co-morbidities, performance status, disease risk, and mild intrinsic pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) defined by spirometry.

15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 600-618, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in evaluation of body composition show body mass index to be inadequate in differentiating between body compartments in cirrhosis. Given the limitations of body mass index, body composition evaluation using computed tomography has been increasingly used as a non-invasive clinical tool with prognostic value. Another factor influencing prognosis includes sex-specific differences in body composition that are seen in cirrhosis. AIM: To review current knowledge regarding the frequency and clinical implications of abnormal body composition features in cirrhosis. METHODS: We searched PubMed database and limited the literature search to full-text papers published in English. Studies using inappropriate landmarks or demarcation of body composition components on computed tomography images were eliminated. RESULTS: Sarcopenia is a well established factor affecting morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Other important body composition components that have been overlooked thus far include subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. Female patients with cirrhosis and low subcutaneous adiposity have a higher risk of mortality, whereas male patients with high visceral adiposity have a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and recurrence following liver transplantation. Increased adipose tissue radiodensity has been associated with risk of decompensation and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Further evaluation of body composition abnormalities may help with development of targeted therapeutic strategies and improve outcome in patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, recognition of these abnormalities could improve prioritisation for liver transplantation as our current method based solely on liver function might lead to risk misclassification.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiologia
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(21): 2438-2453, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based guidance on the clinical management of cancer cachexia in adult patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature collected evidence regarding nutritional, pharmacologic, and other interventions, such as exercise, for cancer cachexia. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs published from 1966 through October 17, 2019. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. RESULTS: The review included 20 systematic reviews and 13 additional RCTs. Dietary counseling, with or without oral nutritional supplements, was reported to increase body weight in some trials, but evidence remains limited. Pharmacologic interventions associated with improvements in appetite and/or body weight include progesterone analogs and corticosteroids. The other evaluated interventions either had no benefit or insufficient evidence of benefit to draw conclusions on efficacy. Limitations of the evidence include high drop-out rates, consistent with advanced cancer, as well as variability across studies in outcomes of interest and methods for outcome assessment. RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary counseling may be offered with the goals of providing patients and caregivers with advice for the management of cachexia. Enteral feeding tubes and parenteral nutrition should not be used routinely. In the absence of more robust evidence, no specific pharmacological intervention can be recommended as the standard of care; therefore, clinicians may choose not to prescribe medications specifically for the treatment of cancer cachexia. Nonetheless, when it is decided to trial a drug to improve appetite and/or improve weight gain, currently available pharmacologic interventions that may be used include progesterone analogs and short-term (weeks) corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Caquexia/terapia , Neoplasias/complicações , Humanos
17.
Oncologist ; 25(8): 722-728, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445194

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early integration of palliative care (PC) with oncological care is associated with improved outcomes in patients with advanced cancer. Limited information exists on the frequency, timing, and predictors of PC consultation in patients receiving oncological care. The Cross Cancer Institute (CCI) is the sole tertiary cancer center serving the northern half of the Canadian province of Alberta, located in the city of Edmonton. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of patients with advanced cancer at the CCI who received consultation by the CCI PC program and the comprehensive integrated PC program in Edmonton, and to determine the timing and predictors of consultation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this secondary analysis of routinely collected health data, adult patients who died between April 2013 and March 2014, and had advanced disease while under the care of a CCI oncologist, were eligible. Data from the Alberta Cancer Registry, electronic medical records, and Edmonton PC program database were linked. RESULTS: Of 2,253 eligible patients, 810 (36%) received CCI PC consultation. Median time between consultation and death was 2 months (range, 1.1-5.4). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age, residence, income, cancer type, and interval from advanced cancer diagnosis to death influenced odds of receiving consultation. Among 1,439 patients residing in Edmonton, 1,121 (78%) were referred to the Edmonton PC program. CONCLUSION: A minority of patients with advanced cancer received PC consultation at the tertiary cancer center, occurring late in the disease trajectory. Frequency and timing of PC consultation varied significantly, according to multiple factors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinical and demographic factors are associated with variations in frequency and timing of palliative care consultation at a cancer center and may, in some cases, reflect barriers to access that warrant attention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Canadá , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dados de Saúde Coletados Rotineiramente
18.
Heliyon ; 6(3): e03617, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258472

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the relationship of reduced numbers of occluding teeth and dietary intake (DI), nutrition impact symptoms (NIS), and weight loss (WL) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods: As a part of the standard of care, treatment-naïve HNC patients (n = 104) completed dental evaluation (number of teeth, total anterior/posterior occlusal teeth, Eichner Index (EI) classification), WL, DI questionnaire and HNC Symptom Checklist©. Descriptive statistics (Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher-exact, χ2 tests) and (uni-) multi-variable logistic regression. Results: Overall, 42, 45 and 13% of patients were in EI-class A, B and C with a median of 8, 3, and 0 total posterior occlusal teeth. EI-class B/C patients were older, more likely to have impaired DI (OR = 3.88; 95%CI:1.63-9.26; P = 0.002) and reported interference with DI by 11 NIS (p < 0.05). DI was, however, reported as unimpaired in 77, 49 and 39% of patients in EI-class A, B and C, respectively. The subset of EI-class B/C patients with impaired DI, had more NIS interference with DI (P < 0.05; difficulty chewing, pain, early satiety, lack of energy); EI-class C patients additionally had dry mouth, thick saliva and dysphagia (P < 0.05). In logistic regression, EI-classes B/C patients with reduced (vs unimpaired) DI were more likely to have ≥5% WL (OR = 10.1; 95%CI:2.0-50.0), higher NIS interference (range OR 4.3-10.7). Conclusions: More than half of these HNC patients had reduced numbers of occlusal teeth or were edentulous. EI-class B/C patients did not necessarily have impaired DI, however the combination of EI-class B/C and a constellation of NIS, associated with reduced DI. Clinical significance: Treatment naïve head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with reduced occlusal and masticatory performance (Eichner Index B/C) and reduced dietary intake are at high risk for weight loss. Identifying HNC patients at risk may improve their oral health, dietary intake and reduce their risk of weight loss.

19.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 11(5): 1258-1269, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body composition from computed tomography (CT) scans is associated with cancer outcomes including surgical complications, chemotoxicity, and survival. Most studies manually segment CT scans, but Automatic Body composition Analyser using Computed tomography image Segmentation (ABACS) software automatically segments muscle and adipose tissues to speed analysis. Here, we externally evaluate ABACS in an independent dataset. METHODS: Among patients with non-metastatic colorectal (n = 3102) and breast (n = 2888) cancer diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente, expert raters annotated tissue areas at the third lumbar vertebra (L3). To compare ABACS segmentation results to manual analysis, we quantified the proportion of pixel-level image overlap using Jaccard scores and agreement between methods using intra-class correlation coefficients for continuous tissue areas. We examined performance overall and among subgroups defined by patient and imaging characteristics. To compare the strength of the mortality associations obtained from ABACS's segmentations to manual analysis, we computed Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by tertile of tissue area. RESULTS: Mean ± SD age was 63 ± 11 years for colorectal cancer patients and 56 ± 12 for breast cancer patients. There was strong agreement between manual and automatic segmentations overall and within subgroups of age, sex, body mass index, and cancer stage: average Jaccard scores and intra-class correlation coefficients exceeded 90% for all tissues. ABACS underestimated muscle and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas by 1-2% versus manual analysis: mean differences were small at -2.35, -1.97 and -2.38 cm2 , respectively. ABACS's performance was lowest for the <2% of patients who were underweight or had anatomic abnormalities. ABACS and manual analysis produced similar associations with mortality; comparing the lowest to highest tertile of skeletal muscle from ABACS versus manual analysis, the HRs were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.00-1.52) versus 1.38 (95% CI: 1.11-1.70) for colorectal cancer patients and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.01-1.66) versus 1.29 (95% CI: 1.00-1.65) for breast cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the first study to externally evaluate a commercially available software to assess body composition, automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissues using ABACS was similar to manual analysis and associated with mortality after non-metastatic cancer. Automated methods will accelerate body composition research and, eventually, facilitate integration of body composition measures into clinical care.

20.
Clin Nutr ; 39(11): 3319-3330, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in skeletal muscle mass (SMM), total adipose tissue mass (TAT) or bone mineral density (BMD) have been described in patients with cancer undergoing various treatments; simultaneous variations of all 3 tissues has not been reported. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected in a clinical study (NCT00489697) including patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer who received 4 cycles of bevacizumab in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Computerized tomography (CT) at baseline and after chemotherapy was used to quantify skeletal muscle and adipose tissue cross-sectional areas, and mean lumbar spine BMD using validated approaches. RESULTS: After exclusion of patients lacking adequate CT images or missing data, 72 subjects were included. Patients were 63% male, aged 63.2 ± 10.3 years, 100% had liver metastases and 54%, 24% and 22% respectively has 0, 1 and ≥2 extrahepatic metastases. 100% tolerated 4 cycles of treatment and none showed progressive disease at the end of treatment. The scan interval was 70 days (95% CI, 62.3 to 80.5). Thresholds for loss of tissue were defined as loss ≥ measurement error. 10% of patients showed no loss of any tissue and a further 43% lost one tissue (SMM, TAT or BMD); 47% of patients lost 2 tissues (16.5% lost SMM + TAT, 8% lost SMM + BMD, 10% lost TAT + BMD) or all 3 tissues (12.5%). Catabolic behavior (2 or 3 tissue loss vs 0 or 1 tissue loss) associated with disease burden, including unresectable primary tumor (p = 0.010), presence of extrahepatic (EH) metastases (p = 0.039) and number of EH metastases (p = 0.004). No association was found between the number of tissues lost and treatment response, which was uniformly high, or treatment toxicity, which was uniformly low. CONCLUSION: Multiple tissues can be measured in routine CT images and these show considerable inter-individual variation. Substantial losses in some individuals appear to associate with disease burden.

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