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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are numerous guidelines developed for bone health. Yet, it is unclear whether the differences in guideline development methods explain the variability in the recommendations for vitamin D and calcium intake. The objective of this systematic review was to collate and compare recommendations for vitamin D and calcium across bone health guidelines, assess the methods used to form the recommendations, and explore which methodological factors were associated with these guideline recommendations. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other databases indexing guidelines to identify records in English between 2009 and 2019. Guidelines or policy statements on bone health or osteoporosis prevention for generally healthy adults aged ≥40 years were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted recommendations on daily vitamin D and calcium intake, supplement use, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and sunlight exposure; assessed guideline development methods against 25 recommended criteria in the World Health Organization (WHO) handbook for guideline development; and, identified types identified types of evidence underpinning the recommendations. RESULTS: we included 47 eligible guidelines from 733 records: 74% of the guidelines provided vitamin D (200~600-4000 IU/day) and 70% provided calcium (600-1200 mg/day) recommendations, 96% and 88% recommended vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, and 70% recommended a specific 25(OH)D concentration. On average, each guideline met 10 (95% CI: 9-12) of the total of 25 methodological criteria for guideline development recommended by the WHO Handbook. There was uncertainty in the association between the methodological criteria and the proportion of guidelines that provided recommendations on daily vitamin D or calcium. Various types of evidence, including previous bone guidelines, nutrient reference reports, systematic reviews, observational studies, and perspectives/editorials were used to underpin the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability in vitamin D and calcium recommendations and in guideline development methods in bone health guidelines. Effort is required to strengthen the methodological rigor of guideline development and utilize the best available evidence to underpin nutrition recommendations in evidence-based guidelines on bone health.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos
2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835353

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that sleep disturbances are positively correlated with sensory sensitivities in children with ASD. Most of these studies, however, were based on cross-sectional analyses, where the relationship across symptom domains was examined at a single time-point. Here, we examined the development of 103 pre-school children with ASD over a 1-3-year period. The results revealed that spontaneous longitudinal changes in sleep disturbances were specifically correlated with changes in sensory sensitivities and not with changes in other sensory processing domains nor with changes in core ASD symptoms. These finding demonstrate a consistent longitudinal relationship between sleep disturbances and sensory sensitivities, which suggests that these symptoms may be generated by common or interacting underlying physiological mechanisms.

3.
Autism Res ; 14(4): 699-708, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006231

RESUMO

In many countries, parents can place autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children in either mainstream or special education settings, which differ in their ability to provide structured early intervention programs. There are no clear guidelines for how to make initial placement decisions and ongoing debate about the benefits and drawbacks of each educational setting. Previous studies have mostly examined placement of school-age children and reported that those with poorer cognitive abilities and more severe ASD symptoms tend to be placed in special education. The placement of younger children has rarely been studied. Here, we utilized the database at the National Autism Research Center of Israel to examine whether ASD severity, cognitive abilities, and parent education influenced the placement of 242 children. We performed the analyses separately for 1-3-year-old children who were placed in daycare centers and 3-5-year-old children who were placed in pre-school kindergartens. Our analyses revealed surprisingly small differences across special and mainstream education settings, particularly in daycare centers. Cognitive scores and parent education were significantly higher in ASD children placed in mainstream education, but these differences were of moderate effect size and explained a relatively small percentage of the variability in placement choices (<15%). Indeed, we found considerable overlap in the characteristics of ASD children across educational settings, which suggests that initial placement decisions are performed with little regard to the children's abilities. Given the importance of optimal early intervention, further studies are warranted to determine whether children with specific abilities and needs benefit more from placement in either educational setting. LAY SUMMARY: Currently, there are no clear recommendations for placing young children with ASD in special versus mainstream education settings. We examined the influence of ASD severity, cognitive abilities, and parent education on the initial placement of 242 children. While we found significantly higher cognitive scores and parental education in children placed in mainstream education, there was a remarkable overlap in the characteristics of children across both settings, suggesting that initial placement is performed with limited regard to the children's abilities. Autism Res 2021, 14: 699-708. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals LLC.

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