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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(30): e202404874, 2024 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709977

RESUMO

The development of improved solid electrolytes (SEs) plays a crucial role in the advancement of bulk-type solid-state battery (SSB) technologies. In recent years, multicomponent or high-entropy SEs are gaining increased attention for their advantageous charge-transport and (electro)chemical properties. However, a comprehensive understanding of how configurational entropy affects ionic conductivity is largely lacking. Herein we investigate a series of multication-substituted lithium argyrodites with the general formula Li6+x[M1aM2bM3cM4d]S5I, with M being P, Si, Ge, and Sb. Structure-property relationships related to ion mobility are probed using a combination of diffraction techniques, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and charge-transport measurements. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental evidence of a direct correlation between occupational disorder in the cationic host lattice and lithium transport. By controlling the configurational entropy through compositional design, high bulk ionic conductivities up to 18 mS cm-1 at room temperature are achieved for optimized lithium argyrodites. Our results indicate the possibility of improving ionic conductivity in ceramic ion conductors via entropy engineering, overcoming compositional limitations for the design of advanced electrolytes and opening up new avenues in the field.

2.
Adv Mater ; 36(18): e2309842, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269958

RESUMO

Cation doping is an effective strategy for improving the cyclability of layered oxide cathode materials through suppression of phase transitions in the high voltage region. In this study, Mg and Sc are chosen as dopants in P2-Na0.67Ni0.33Mn0.67O2, and both have found to positively impact the cycling stability, but influence the high voltage regime in different ways. Through a combination of synchrotron-based methods and theoretical calculations it is shown that it is more than just suppression of the P2 to O2 phase transition that is critical for promoting the favorable properties, and that the interplay between Ni and O activity is also a critical aspect that dictates the performance. With Mg doping, the Ni activity can be enhanced while simultaneously suppressing the O activity. This is surprising because it is in contrast to what has been reported in other Mn-based layered oxides where Mg is known to trigger oxygen redox. This contradiction is addressed by proposing a competing mechanism between Ni and Mg that impacts differences in O activity in Na0.67MgxNi0.33- xMn0.67O2 (x < 0 < 0.33). These findings provide a new direction in understanding the effects of cation doping on the electrochemical behavior of layered oxides.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 62(21): 8093-8100, 2023 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37188333

RESUMO

K2SiH6, crystallizing in the cubic K2PtCl6 structure type (Fm3̅m), features unusual hypervalent SiH62- complexes. Here, the formation of K2SiH6 at high pressures is revisited by in situ synchrotron diffraction experiments, considering KSiH3 as a precursor. At the investigated pressures, 8 and 13 GPa, K2SiH6 adopts the trigonal (NH4)2SiF6 structure type (P3̅m1) upon formation. The trigonal polymorph is stable up to 725 °C at 13 GPa. At room temperature, the transition into an ambient pressure recoverable cubic form occurs below 6.7 GPa. Theory suggests the existence of an additional, hexagonal, variant in the pressure interval 3-5 GPa. According to density functional theory band structure calculations, K2SiH6 is a semiconductor with a band gap around 2 eV. Nonbonding H-dominated states are situated below and Si-H anti-bonding states are located above the Fermi level. Enthalpically feasible and dynamically stable metallic variants of K2SiH6 may be obtained when substituting Si partially by Al or P, thus inducing p- and n-type metallicity, respectively. Yet, electron-phonon coupling appears weak, and calculated superconducting transition temperatures are <1 K.

4.
Chemistry ; 29(27): e202300174, 2023 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36807370

RESUMO

The Li+ ion conductor Li27-x [P4 O7+x N9-x ]O3 (x≈1.9) has been synthesized from P3 N5 , Li3 N and Li2 O in a Ta ampoule at 800 °C under Ar atmosphere. The cubic compound crystallizes in space group I 4 ‾ 3 d ${I\overline 4 3d}$ with a=12.0106(14) Å and Z=4. It contains both non-condensed [PO2 N2 ]5- and [PO3 N]4- tetrahedra as well as O2- ions, surrounded by Li+ ions. Charge neutrality is achieved by partial occupancy of Li positions, which was refined with neutron powder diffraction data. Measurements of the partial ionic and electronic conductivity show a total ionic conductivity of 6.6×10-8  S cm-1 with an activation energy of 0.46±0.02 eV and a bulk ionic conductivity of 4×10-6  S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is close to the ionic conductivity of amorphous lithium nitridophosphate. This makes Li27-x [P4 O7+x N9-x ]O3 an interesting candidate for investigation of structural factors affecting ionic conductivity in lithium oxonitridophosphates.

5.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 78(Pt 4): 637-642, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975830

RESUMO

Vanadate compounds, such as V3O7·H2O, are of high interest due to their versatile applications as electrode material for metal-ion batteries. In particular, V3O7·H2O can insert different ions such as Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+. In that case, well resolved crystal structure data, such as crystal unit-cell parameters and atom positions, are needed in order to determine the structural information of the inserted ions in the V3O7·H2O structure. In this work, fundamental crystallographic parameters, i.e. atomic displacement parameters, are determined for the atoms in the V3O7·H2O structure. Furthermore, vanadium ions were substituted by molybdenum in the V3O7·H2O structure [(V2.85Mo0.15)O7·H2O] and the crystallographic positions of the molybdenum ions and their oxidation state are elucidated.

6.
Small ; 18(25): e2201522, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607746

RESUMO

Lithium- and manganese-rich layered oxides (LMLOs, ≥ 250 mAh g-1 ) with polycrystalline morphology always suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling because of the anisotropic lattice strain and oxygen release induced chemo-mechanical breakdown. Herein, a Co-free single-crystalline LMLO, that is, Li[Li0.2 Ni0.2 Mn0.6 ]O2 (LLNMO-SC), is prepared via a Li+ /Na+ ion-exchange reaction. In situ synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (sXRD) results demonstrate that relatively small changes in lattice parameters and reduced average micro-strain are observed in LLNMO-SC compared to its polycrystalline counterpart (LLNMO-PC) during the charge-discharge process. Specifically, the as-synthesized LLNMO-SC exhibits a unit cell volume change as low as 1.1% during electrochemical cycling. Such low strain characteristics ensure a stable framework for Li-ion insertion/extraction, which considerably enhances the structural stability of LLNMO during long-term cycling. Due to these peculiar benefits, the average discharge voltage of LLNMO-SC decreases by only ≈0.2 V after 100 cycles at 28 mA g-1 between 2.0 and 4.8 V, which is much lower than that of LLNMO-PC (≈0.5 V). Such a single-crystalline strategy offers a promising solution to constructing stable high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).

7.
RSC Adv ; 11(48): 30283-30294, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480254

RESUMO

We investigated why commercial Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with Nb- and Ta substitution shows very low mobility on a local scale, as observed with temperature-dependent NMR techniques, compared to Al and W substituted samples, although impedance spectroscopy on sintered pellets suggests something else: conductivity values do not show a strong dependence on the type of substituting cation. We observed that mechanical treatment of these materials causes a symmetry reduction from garnet to hydrogarnet structure. To understand the impact of this lower symmetric structure in detail and its effect on the Li ion conductivity, neutron powder diffraction and 6Li NMR were utilized. Despite the finding that, in some materials, disorder can be beneficial with respect to ionic conductivity, pulsed-field gradient NMR measurements of the long-range transport indicate a higher Li+ diffusion barrier in the lower symmetric hydrogarnet structure. The symmetry reduction can be reversed back to the higher symmetric garnet structure by annealing at 1100 °C. This unintended phase transition and thus a reduction in conductivity is crucial for the processing of LLZO materials in the fabrication of all-solid state batteries.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(36): 14200-14209, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403777

RESUMO

Solid electrolytes with superionic conductivity are required as a main component for all-solid-state batteries. Here we present a novel solid electrolyte with three-dimensional conducting pathways based on "lithium-rich" phosphidosilicates with ionic conductivity of σ > 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature and activation energy of 30-32 kJ mol-1 expanding the recently introduced family of lithium phosphidotetrelates. Aiming toward higher lithium ion conductivities, systematic investigations of lithium phosphidosilicates gave access to the so far lithium-richest compound within this class of materials. The crystalline material (space group Fm3m), which shows reversible thermal phase transitions, can be readily obtained by ball mill synthesis from the elements followed by moderate thermal treatment of the mixture. Lithium diffusion pathways via both tetrahedral and octahedral voids are analyzed by temperature-dependent powder neutron diffraction measurements in combination with maximum entropy method and DFT calculations. Moreover, the lithium ion mobility structurally indicated by a disordered Li/Si occupancy in the tetrahedral voids plus partially filled octahedral voids is studied by temperature-dependent impedance and 7Li NMR spectroscopy.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 58(4): 2888-2898, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730126

RESUMO

Lattice thermal expansion (LTE) has been investigated in double perovskites LaPbMSbO6 (M = Mn, Co, Ni). Ordinary LTE behavior with good thermal stability is identified for the Mn sample, whereas unusual LTE with a preferably expanded interplanar distance of (040) is revealed for Co and Ni samples. Temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction patterns ( T-XRD), Raman spectra ( T-Raman), and specific heat capacities ( T- Cp) consistently indicate that a rare isostructural displacive phase transition (IDPT) with a second-order phase transition nature is predominant near the critical temperature. Refinements of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and in situ T-XRD data present temperature-sensitive bond parameters which are relevant to planar oxygen O1. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) further confirm the Jahn-Teller (J-T) activated Co2+ (HS) or Ni3+ (HS/LS) cations at the B-site sublattice. This unusual LTE behavior could be understood by the cooperative J-T effect contributed by a Pb2+ ion and Co2+/Ni3+ ion from A- and B-site sublattices, respectively. The importance of 6s(Pb)-2p(O)-3d(Co/Ni) extended orbital hybridization on affecting thermal expansion behavior is highlighted on the basis of temperature-induced phonon mode softening. This study presents a microscopic description of connection between anisotropic thermal expansion and a cooperative J-T effect, which inspired exploration of thermal-mechanical coupled functional materials based on LaPbMSbO6 double perovskites.

10.
Chemistry ; 22(19): 6598-609, 2016 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027661

RESUMO

An investigation into the substitution effects in Li15 Si4 , which is discussed as metastable phase that forms during electrochemical charging and discharging cycles in silicon anode materials, is presented. The novel partial substitution of lithium by magnesium and zinc is reported and the results are compared to those obtained for aluminum substitution. The new lithium silicides Li14 MgSi4 (1) and Li14.05 Zn0.95 Si4 (2) were synthesized by high-temperature reactions and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal data. The magnetic properties and thermodynamic stabilities were investigated and compared with those of Li14.25 Al0.75 Si4 (3). The substitution of a small amount of Li in metastable Li15 Si4 for more electron-rich metals, such as Mg, Zn, or Al, leads to a vast increase in the thermodynamic stability of the resulting ternary compounds. The (6,7) Li NMR chemical shift and spin relaxation time T1 -NMR spectroscopy behavior at low temperatures indicate an increasing contribution of the conduction electrons to these NMR spectroscopy parameters in the series for 1-3. However, the increasing thermal stability of the new ternary phases is accompanied by a decrease in Li diffusivity, with 2 exhibiting the lowest activation energy for Li mobility with values of 56, 60, and 62 kJ mol(-1) for 2, Li14.25 Al0.75 Si14 , and 1, respectively. The influence of the metastable property of Li15 Si4 on NMR spectroscopy experiments is highlighted.

11.
Chemistry ; 20(46): 15077-88, 2014 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25267571

RESUMO

Single-phase samples of the compounds K8Al8Si38 (1), Rb8Al8Si38 (2), and Cs7.9Al7.9Si38.1 (3) were obtained with high crystallinity and in good quantities by using a novel flux method with two different flux materials, such as Al and the respective alkali-metal halide salt (KBr, RbCl, and CsCl). This approach facilitates the removal of the product mixture from the container and also allows convenient extraction of the flux media due to the good solubility of the halide salts in water. The products were analyzed by means of single-crystal X-ray structure determination, powder X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments, (27)Al-MAS NMR spectroscopy measurements, quantum chemical calculations, as well as magnetic and transport measurements (thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient). Due to the excellent quality of the neutron diffraction data, the difference between the nuclear scattering factors of silicon and aluminum atoms was sufficient to refine their mixed occupancy at specific sites. The role of variable-range hopping for the interpretation of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.

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