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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736172

RESUMO

Quality of care is a central issue in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) management, and different levels of knowledge and skills are expected and required for primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care. AD is a common skin disease affecting up to 15-20% of children, as well as 2-5% of adults. Disease severity ranges from mild to very severe, and accordingly different levels of care are required to achieve treatment goals.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398959

RESUMO

Allergic diseases now affect over 30% of individuals in many communities, particularly young children, underscoring the need for effective prevention strategies in early life. These allergic conditions have been linked to environmental and lifestyle changes driving the dysfunction of three interdependent biological systems: microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune system. While this is multifactorial, dietary changes are of particular interest in the altered establishment and maturation of the microbiome, including the associated profile of metabolites that modulate immune development and barrier function. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially influence the health of the host by 1) acting as a fermentable substrate for some specific commensal host bacteria leading to the release of short-chain fatty acids in the gut intestinal tract influencing many molecular and cellular processes; 2) acting directly on several compartments and specifically on different patterns of cells (epithelial and immune cells). Nutrients with prebiotic properties are therefore of central interest in allergy prevention for their potential to promote a more tolerogenic environment through these multiple pathways. Both observational studies and experimental models lend further credence to this hypothesis. In this review, we describe both the mechanisms and the therapeutic evidence from preclinical and clinical studies exploring the role of prebiotics in allergy prevention.

5.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179791

RESUMO

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) profoundly affects quality of life (QoL). Dupilumab significantly improves clinical outcomes, is well tolerated, and approved to treat inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe AD in adults; however, its effect on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is not fully characterized. Objective: To evaluate the impact of dupilumab on patient-reported AD symptoms and QoL. Methods: Pooled data were analyzed from two identically designed phase 3 studies, LIBERTY AD SOLO 1 (NCT02277743) and SOLO 2 (NCT02277769), assessing the following PROs: Peak Pruritus Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pruritus Categorical Scale, SCORing AD (SCORAD), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), five-dimension EuroQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D), and patient-assessed disease status and treatment effectiveness. Results: Dupilumab rapidly improved (vs. placebo) Peak Pruritus NRS scores by day 2 (p < .05), anxiety and depression (HADS), and QoL (DLQI) by week 2, and maintained through week 16 (p < .0001). At week 16, more dupilumab-treated than placebo-treated patients reported improvement in SCORAD itch and sleep, and no pain/discomfort (EQ-5D) (p < .0001). Limitations: Cultural differences of translated PROs. Conclusion: Dupilumab had a significant, positive impact on AD symptoms, including itch, sleep, pain, anxiety and depression, and QoL in adults with moderate-to-severe AD.

6.
Paediatr Drugs ; 21(3): 169-175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase III clinical trials of biotherapies for childhood psoriasis are designed for a selected population, which can differ from real-life patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the proportion of children with psoriasis that received biotherapy in the biological treatments for pediatric psoriasis (BiPe) cohort that would be excluded from phase III clinical trials of these treatments. METHODS: Data concerning initiation of the first biotherapy from all patients included in the BiPe cohort were analyzed. Ineligibility was assessed after applying the exclusion criteria used in the principal phase III trials of etanercept, adalimumab, and ustekinumab for childhood psoriasis. RESULTS: Of the 134 patients included, 73 (54.5%) were ineligible for at least one randomized controlled trial based on one or more exclusion criteria. Amongst the 63 children treated with etanercept, 35 (55.5%) were ineligible: 22 because of the type of psoriasis, 12 because of concomitant treatment, and six because of psoriasis severity based on psoriasis assessment severity index (PASI) and physician global assessment (PGA) scores (PASI < 12 and PGA < 3). Amongst the 44 children treated with adalimumab, 32 (72.7%) were ineligible: 17 because of the clinical type of psoriasis, 12 because of psoriasis severity (PASI < 20 and PGA < 4), and seven because of concomitant treatment. Amongst the 27 children patients treated with ustekinumab, 12 (44.4%) were ineligible: eight because of psoriasis severity (PASI < 12 and PGA < 3), five because of the clinical type of psoriasis, and one because of concomitant treatment. Drug survival and the frequency of serious adverse events did not differ between eligible and ineligible patients. CONCLUSION: The majority of children treated with biotherapies in real-life practice differ from those in phase III trials, most commonly because of the clinical type of their psoriasis, the disease severity being lower than required and the use of prior or concomitant psoriasis treatment. Efficacy and safety results from phase III clinical trials in selected populations may not sufficiently reflect what is seen in real life, thus results from real-life cohort studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Terapia Biológica/métodos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024974, 2019 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting 10%-15% of children in Europe. There is a need for new primary preventive therapeutic strategies in at-risk populations. Recent research has indicated that atopic diseases are associated with a disrupted gut microbial 'balance' in early life raising the possibility that interventions which yield optimal patterns of microflora could improve host's health. Prebiotics, sugars with immunomodulatory properties that stimulate the diversity of the digestive microbiota, are ideal candidates for such research. So far, most clinical trials have focused on improving infant gut colonisation postnatally. However, prenatal life is a crucial period during which different tolerance mechanisms are put in place. We aim to determine whether antenatal prebiotics supplementation prevents AD in high-risk children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, trial to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal prebiotic maternal supplementation (galacto-oligosaccharide/inulin) in pregnant women versus placebo on the occurrence of AD at 1 year of age in at-risk children (defined as having a maternal history of atopic disease). Participating women will be randomised to daily ingestion of a prebiotics or placebo (maltodextrin) from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. The primary outcome is the prevalence of AD at 1 year of age, using the version of the UK Working Party Diagnostic Criteria optimised for preventive studies. Key secondary endpoints are AD severity, quality of life and prebiotics tolerance. The target sample size is 376 women (188 patients per group) which will provide 80% power to detect a 33% reduction of the risk of AD in the verum group (α=0.05). The primary analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and at international conferences. Ethics approval for the study was obtained from the institutional ethical review board of 'Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Ouest-Outre-Mer III' of the University Hospital Centre of Bordeaux (2017/13). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03183440; Pre-results.

9.
Trials ; 20(1): 184, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is a highly prevalent, chronic, relapsing disease in both adults and children. On the severity spectrum, lower-end patients benefit from small amounts of topical anti-inflammatory treatments (TAT), whereas higher-end patients need systemic immunosuppressants; in-between patients are treated with TAT and phototherapy. The major therapeutic challenge in this population is the long-term control of disease activity, and the current TAT-based pro-active strategy does not meet all their needs. Immunosuppressants are used as long-term control add-on treatments, but they are restricted to the most severely affected patients because of safety concerns. In addition, neither immunosuppressants nor other strategies have been properly evaluated in the long term despite long-term control having been acknowledged as one of the most important core outcome domains to be targeted in atopic dermatitis trials. Safe add-on therapies, rigorously evaluated for long-term control of the disease, are therefore needed. Phototherapy and vitamin D supplementation are both good candidates. METHODS: This is a multicenter, national, randomized, superiority, crossover trial testing add-on phototherapy (one winter under spaced sessions of phototherapy and one winter under observation) among subjects receiving standard care (i.e., TAT). On the same population, we will test the long-term control provided by oral supplementation of vitamin D versus placebo in a randomized, superiority, double-blind, parallel-group trial. The primary outcomes are (1) repeat measures of the PO-SCORAD severity score over 1 year and (2) cumulate consumption of TAT (number of tubes) during the winter. They will be tested following a hierarchical testing procedure. The secondary outcomes will be measures repeated over 2 years of investigator-based severity scores, patient-reported severity and quality of life scores, serum vitamin D levels, weeks during which the disease is well-controlled, inter-visit cumulate consumption of TAT, and synthetic patient-reported satisfaction at the end of each winter. DISCUSSION: This study includes two separate 2-year pragmatic trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation and pro-active phototherapy for primary care atopic dermatitis patients receiving TAT on long-term control of disease activity. The experimental design enables the study of both interventions and exploration of the interaction between vitamin D and phototherapy. A pragmatic trial is particularly suited to the assessment of long-term control. This study explores the possibility of new and safe therapeutic strategies for the control of long-term atopic dermatitis, and is an example of efficacy research that is unlikely to be sponsored by industrialists. A potentially effective low-cost therapeutic strategy for long-term control is essential for patients and public health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02537509 , first received: 1 September 2015.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estações do Ano , Terapia Ultravioleta/métodos , Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Estudos Cross-Over , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , França , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
10.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(1): 143-151, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dupilumab is the first biologic available to treat atopic dermatitis (AD). Its effectiveness and safety were demonstrated in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of dupilumab in adults with AD in a real-life French multicenter retrospective cohort. METHODS: We included patients treated during March 2017-April 2018. Efficacy outcomes, including Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores, were collected at baseline and 3 months when available. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at follow-up. RESULTS: We included 241 patients. The median ± interquartile range (IQR) follow-up time was 3.8 ± 3.7 months. A ≥75% improvement in SCORAD was achieved in 27 of 163 (16.6%) patients, and a ≥75% improvement in EASI was achieved in 40 of 82 (48.8%) patients. The median SCORAD and EASI scores at 3 months were significantly lower than those at baseline (SCORAD ± IQR, 25 ± 21 vs 56 ± 27.4, P < 10-9 and EASI ± IQR, 4.1 ± 6.8 vs 17.9 ± 15.4, P < 10-9, respectively). Conjunctivitis was reported in 84 of 241 (38.2%) patients. The proportion with eosinophilia (>500 cells/mm3) during follow-up (57%) was higher than that at baseline (33.7%) (n = 172, P < 10-6). Dupilumab was stopped in 42 cases; 27 patients stopped because of AEs. LIMITATIONS: No control group, missing data. CONCLUSION: This real-life study demonstrated a similar dupilumab effectiveness as that seen in clinical trials, but it also revealed a higher frequency of conjunctivitis and eosinophilia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(2): 242-246, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762251

RESUMO

Early development of extensive acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a key feature in some patients who have hypochondroplasia (HCH) in association with FGFR3 mutations. We here report regarding five new patients with HCH who exhibited AN, and we compare their characteristics to the eight patients previously described in the literature. In these patients, the AN lesions began in childhood, and they were extensive. These lesions were located on the torso, the abdomen, and the face, in addition to the typical skin fold sites. Other skin lesions were frequently reported: café-au-lait macules, melanocytic nevi, lentigines, and seborrheic keratosis. The Lys650Thr mutation was the predominant reported mutation of FGFR3.


Assuntos
Acantose Nigricans/genética , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Nanismo/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Lordose/genética , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Acantose Nigricans/complicações , Adulto , Criança , Nanismo/complicações , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/complicações , Lordose/complicações , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(6): 539-543, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810215

RESUMO

Methotrexate has demonstrated its efficiency for the treatment of juvenile localized scleroderma but some patients may be resistant. The aim of our study was to define the profile of such patients. We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study between 2007 and 2016 and included all children seen in the French Paediatric Dermatology and Rheumatology departments with active localized scleroderma treated by methotrexate for a minimum of 4 months. Metho-trexate efficacy was assessed clinically and/or by imaging between the fourth to twelfth months of treatment. A total of 57 patients were included. Metho-trexate dosage ranged from 7 to 15 mg/m2/week. Only 4 patients were resistant. No common features could be identified between these 4 patients. Children with localized scleroderma are rarely resistant to metho-trexate and we did not identify a clinical profile for those resistant patients.

13.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

14.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 24(9): 977-994, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder in which the most frequent complication in children is learning disabilities. Over the past decade, growing arguments support the idea that executive dysfunction is a core deficit in children with NF1. However, some data remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of impairment for each executive function (EF) and clarify the impact of methodological choices and participant's characteristics on EFs. METHODS: In this meta-analysis, 19 studies met the selection criteria and were included with data from a total of 805 children with NF1 and 667 controls. Based on the Diamond's model (2013), EF measures were coded separately according to the following EF components: working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, planning/problem solving. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews; CRD42017068808). RESULTS: A significant executive dysfunction in children with NF1 is demonstrated. Subgroup analysis showed that the impairment varied as a function of the specific component of executive functioning. The effect size for working memory and planning/problem solving was moderate whereas it was small for inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. Executive dysfunction seems to be greater with increasing age whereas assessment tool type, intellectual performance, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and control group composition did not seem to affect EF results. CONCLUSIONS: EF deficits are a core feature in children with NF1 and an early identification of executive dysfunctions is essential to limit their impact on the quality of life. (JINS, 2018, 24, 977-994).

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1784-1790, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135486

RESUMO

X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2 or Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, MIM #302960) is caused by mutations in the EBP gene. Affected female patients present with Blaschkolinear ichthyosis, coarse hair or alopecia, short stature, and normal psychomotor development. The disease is usually lethal in boys. Nevertheless, few male patients have been reported; they carry a somatic mosaicism in EBP or present with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we report CDPX2 patients belonging to a three-generation family, carrying the splice variant c.301 + 5 G > C in intron 2 of EBP. The grandfather carries the variant as mosaic state and presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis. The mother also presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis and the female fetus with severe limb and vertebrae abnormalities and no skin lesions, with random X inactivation in both. This further characterizes the phenotypical spectrum of CDPX2, as well as intrafamilial variability, and raises the question of differential EBP mRNA splicing between the different target tissues.

18.
Trials ; 19(1): 340, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slow-flow superficial vascular malformations (VMs) are rare congenital anomalies that can be responsible for pain and functional impairment. Currently, we have no guidelines for their management, which can involve physical bandages, sclerotherapy, surgery, anti-inflammatory or anti-coagulation drugs or no treatment. The natural history is progressive and worsening. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that acts as a master switch in cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism and angio/lymphangiogenesis. Sirolimus directly inhibits the mTOR pathway, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and angio/lymphangiogenesis. Case reports and series have reported successful use of sirolimus in children with different types of vascular anomalies, with heterogeneous outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sirolimus in children with complicated superficial slow-flow VMs. METHODS/DESIGN: This French multicenter randomized observational-phase, phase 2 trial aims to include 50 pediatric patients 6 to 18 years old who have slow-flow (lymphatic, venous or lymphatico-venous) voluminous complicated superficial VM. Patients will be followed up for 12 months. All patients will start with an observational period (no treatment). Then at a time randomly selected between month 4 and month 8, they will switch to the experimental period (switch time), when they will receive sirolimus until month 12. Each child will undergo MRI 3 times: at baseline, at the switch time, and at month 12. For both periods (observational and treatment), we will calculate the relative change in volume of the VM divided by the study period duration. This relative change weighted by the study period duration will constitute the primary endpoint. VM will be measured by MRI images, which will be centralized and interpreted by the same radiologist who will be blinded to the study period. Hence, each patient will be his/her own control. Secondary outcomes will include assessment of safety and efficacy by viewing standardized digital photographs and according to the physician, the patient or proxy; impact on quality of life; and evolution of biological makers (coagulation factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue factor). DISCUSSION: The main benefit of the study will be to resolve uncertainty concerning the efficacy of sirolimus in reducing the volume of VMs and limiting related complications and the safety of the drug in children with slow-flow VMs. This trial design is interesting in these rare conditions because all included patients will have the opportunity to receive the drug and the physician can maintain it after the end of the protocol if is found efficient (which would not be the case in a classical cross-over study). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02509468 , first received: 28 July 2015. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT Number: 2015-001096-43.

19.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 6(3): e00399, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736244

RESUMO

Propranolol has become the first choice therapy for complicated Infantile Hemangiomas (IH). The pharmacokinetics of propranolol were evaluated after repeated oral administration of a new pediatric solution of propranolol at 3 mg kg-1 day-1 given twice daily (BID) in infants (77-243 days) with IH. A population model was built to describe the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in infants and to simulate different dosing regimens. One hundred and sixty-seven plasma concentrations from 22 infants were used in the population analysis. Weight effect was tested on apparent clearance and volume of distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed for 4 dosing regimens: BID dosing with irregular or strict 12-hour intervals and 2 different 3 time daily dosing (TID) regimens. The best model was a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rates. The weight affected the clearance but not the volume. Typical oral clearance was estimated at 3.06 L hour-1 kg-1 (95% CI: 1.14-8.61 L hour-1 kg-1), close to adult clearance data. When regular BID dosing was compared to TID or irregular BID regimens, simulated median Cmin and Cmax were <20% different. To conclude, a model using a weight allometric function on clearance was established and confirmed that the dose in mg/kg should be used without adaptation by range of age in treatment of complicated IH. The simulations support the use of a BID dosing preferably to a TID dosing thanks to close Cmin and Cmax at steady state between both regimen and showed the possibility of irregular BID dosing, allowing early administration in the evening when needed.

20.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 98(2): 251-255, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110021

RESUMO

Patients with an inherited autosomal-dominant disorder, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), frequently have mutations in Ras P21 protein activator 1 (RASA1). The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of germline RASA1 variants in a French multicentre national cohort of children, age range 2-12 years, with sporadic occurrence of capillary malformation (CM) of the legs, whatever the associated abnormalities, and to identify genotype-phenotype correlates. DNA was extracted from leukocytes in blood samples, purified and amplified, and all exons of the RASA1 gene were analysed. Among 113 children analysed, 7 had heterozygous variants (6.1%). Four different variants were identified; 2 were new. In children with RASA1 variants, CMs were more frequently bilateral and multifocal. In conclusion, RASA1 variants are rarely found in children with sporadic CM of lower limbs without CM-AVM syndrome. CMs in this study were heterogeneous, and no disease-causing relationship could be proven.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Capilares/anormalidades , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Polimorfismo Genético , Mancha Vinho do Porto/genética , Proteína p120 Ativadora de GTPase/genética , Fatores Etários , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Mancha Vinho do Porto/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
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