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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(15): 1541-1549, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620412

RESUMO

The need for a quantitative and operator-independent assessment of coronary microvascular function is increasingly recognized. We propose the theoretical framework of microvascular resistance reserve (MRR) as an index specific for the microvasculature, independent of autoregulation and myocardial mass, and based on operator-independent measurements of absolute values of coronary flow and pressure. In its general form, MRR equals coronary flow reserve (CFR) divided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) corrected for driving pressures. In 30 arteries, pressure, temperature, and flow velocity measurements were obtained simultaneously at baseline (BL), during infusion of saline at 10 mL/min (rest) and 20 mL/min (hyperemia). A strong correlation was found between continuous thermodilution-derived MRR and Doppler MRR (r = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.93; P < 0.001). MRR was independent from the epicardial resistance, the lower the FFR value, the greater the difference between MRR and CFR. Therefore, MRR is proposed as a specific, quantitative, and operator-independent metric to quantify coronary microvascular dysfunction.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679451

RESUMO

Cardiac transplant-related vasculopathy remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. Recently, coronary angiography-derived vessel fractional flow reserve (vFFR) has emerged as a new diagnostic computational tool to functionally evaluate the severity of coronary artery disease. Although vFFR estimates have been shown to perform well against invasive FFR in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, data on the use of vFFR in heart transplant recipients suffering from cardiac transplant-related arteriopathy are lacking. The aim of the presented study was to validate coronary angiography-derived vessel fractional flow reserve to calculate fractional flow reserve in HTx patients with and without cardiac transplant-related vasculopathy. A prospective, single center study of HTx patients referred for annual check-up, undergoing surveillance coronarography was conducted. Invasive FFR was measured using a motorized device at the speed of 1.0 mm/s in all three major coronary arteries. Angiography-derived pullback FFR was derived from the angiogram and compared with invasive FFR pullback curve. Overall, 18,059 FFR values were extracted from the FFR pullback curves from 23 HTx patients. The mean age was 59.3 ± 9.7 years, the mean time after transplantation was 5.24 years [IQR 1.20, 11.25]. A total of 39 vessels from 23 patients (24 LAD, 11 LCX, 4 RCA) were analyzed. Mean distal vFFR was 0.87 ± 0.14 whereas invasive distal FFR was 0.88 ± 0.17. An excellent correlation was found between invasive distal FFR and vFFR (r = 0.92; p < 0.001). The correlation of the pullback tracing was high, with a correlation coefficient between vFFR and invasive FFR pullback values of 0.72 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.73, p < 0.001). The mean difference between vFFR and invasive FFR pullback values was -0.01 with 0.06 of SD (limits of agreements -0.12 to 0.13). In HTx patients, coronary angiography-derived FFR correlates excellently with invasively measured wire-derived FFR. Therefore, angiography derived FFR could be used as a novel diagnostic tool to quantify the functional severity of graft vasculopathy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The POPular Genetics trial demonstrated that a CYP2C19 genotype-guided P2Y12 inhibitor strategy reduced bleeding rates compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel without increasing thrombotic event rates after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). OBJECTIVE: In this analysis, we aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel. METHODS: A 1-year decision tree based on the POPular Genetics trial in combination with a lifelong Markov model was developed to compare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) between a genotype-guided and a standard P2Y12 inhibitor strategy in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a Dutch healthcare system perspective. Within-trial survival and utility data were combined with lifetime projections to evaluate lifetime cost effectiveness for a cohort of 1000 patients. Costs and utilities were discounted at 4 and 1.5%, respectively, according to Dutch guidelines for health economic studies. Besides deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, several scenario analyses were also conducted (different time horizons, different discount rates, equal prices for P2Y12 inhibitors, and equal distribution of thrombotic events between the two strategies). RESULTS: Base-case analysis with a hypothetical cohort of 1000 subjects demonstrated 8.98 QALYs gained and €725,550.69 in cost savings for the genotype-guided strategy (dominant). The deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model and the cost-effectiveness results. In scenario analyses, the genotype-guided strategy remained dominant. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel resulted in QALYs gained and cost savings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01761786, Netherlands trial register number: NL2872.

6.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 35: 100833, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345649

RESUMO

Background: We sought to investigate prognostic implication of microvascular dysfunction as assessed by the index of microcirculatory index (IMR) in patients without residual obstructive CAD with non-flow limiting fractional flow reserve (FFR) (>0.80) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 570 patients who had both post-PCI FFR and IMR values were included in the present analysis; of these, 65 patients had FFR ≤ 0.80 and 505 had FFR > 0.80. Of the 505 patients with FFR > 0.80, 137 had high IMR and 368 had low IMR. The primary outcome of the present analysis is a composite of all-cause death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization. Impaired microvascular function was defined as IMR ≥ 25 (high IMR). Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.0 years, those with FFR > 0.80 and low IMR demonstrated lower rate or primary outcome event than those with FFR ≤ 0.80 (hazard ratio 0.49 [95% confidence interval 0.27-0.92], p = 0.026) and those with FFR > 0.80 and high IMR (hazard ratio 1.60 [0.99-2.16], p = 0.056). The patients with FFR > 0.80 and IMR ≥ 25 had similar rate of primary outcome event compared with those with FFR ≤ 0.80 (p = 0.49). Conclusion: Microvascular dysfunction following PCI is not rare and is associated with adverse events even in the setting of a non-flow limiting FFR; these results suggest that when performing coronary physiologic assessment following PCI, interrogating not only the epicardial vessel, but also the microvasculature is useful for the risk stratification in patients undergoing PCI.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279451

RESUMO

The significant reduction in 'ischemic time' through capillary diffusion of primary percutaneous intervention (pPCI) has rendered myocardial-ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) prevention a major issue in order to improve the prognosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. In fact, while the ischemic damage increases with the severity and the duration of blood flow reduction, reperfusion injury reaches its maximum with a moderate amount of ischemic injury. MIRI leads to the development of post-STEMI left ventricular remodeling (post-STEMI LVR), thereby increasing the risk of arrhythmias and heart failure. Single pharmacological and mechanical interventions have shown some benefits, but have not satisfactorily reduced mortality. Therefore, a multitarget therapeutic strategy is needed, but no univocal indications have come from the clinical trials performed so far. On the basis of the results of the consistent clinical studies analyzed in this review, we try to design a randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the effects of a reasoned multitarget therapeutic strategy on the prevention of post-STEMI LVR. In fact, we believe that the correct timing of pharmacological and mechanical intervention application, according to their specific ability to interfere with survival pathways, may significantly reduce the incidence of post-STEMI LVR and thus improve patient prognosis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize hemodynamics of serial coronary stenoses using fractional flow reserve (FFR) pullbacks and the pullback pressure gradients (PPG) index. BACKGROUND: The cross-talk between stenoses within the same coronary artery makes the prediction of the functional contribution of each lesion challenging. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred seventeen patients undergoing coronary angiography for stable angina were prospectively recruited. Serial lesions were defined as two or more narrowings with visual diameter stenosis >50% on conventional angiography. Motorized FFR pullback tracings were obtained at 1 mm/s. Pullbacks were visually adjudicated as presenting two, one, and no focal pressure drops. The pattern of disease (i.e., focal or diffuse) was quantified using the PPG index. Twenty-five vessels presented serial lesions (mean PPG 0.48 ± 0.17). Two, one or no focal pressure drops were observed in 40% (n = 10; PPG 0.59 ± 0.17), 52% (n = 13; PPG 0.44 ± 0.12) and 8% of cases (n = 2; PPG 0.27 ± 0.01; p-value = 0.01). Distal FFR was similar between vessels with two, one and no focal pressure drops in the pullback curve (p-value = 0.27). The PPG index independently predicted the presence of two focal pressure drops in the pullback curve (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: FFR pullbacks in serial coronary lesions exhibit three distinct functional patterns. High PPG was associated with pullback curves presenting two pressure drops. The PPG provides a quantitative assessment of the pattern of coronary artery disease in cases with serial lesions and might be useful to assess the appropriateness of percutaneous revascularization.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of invasive functional guidance for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) on graft failure. BACKGROUND: Data on the impact of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in guiding CABG are still limited. METHODS: Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis were performed. Primary objective was the risk of graft failure, stratified by FFR. Risk estimates are reported as odds ratios (ORs) derived from the aggregated data using random-effects models. Individual patient data were analyzed using mixed effect model to assess relationship between FFR and graft failure. This meta-analysis is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020180444). RESULTS: Four prospective studies comprising 503 patients referred for CABG, with 1471 coronaries, assessed by FFR were included. Graft status was available for 1039 conduits at median of 12.0 [IQR 6.6; 12.0] months. Risk of graft failure was higher in vessels with preserved FFR (OR 5.74, 95% CI 1.71-19.29). Every 0.10 FFR units decrease in the coronaries was associated with 56% risk reduction of graft failure (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.59). FFR cut-off to predict graft failure was 0.79. CONCLUSION: Surgical grafting of coronaries with functionally nonsignificant stenoses was associated with higher risk of graft failure.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(27): 2630-2642, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059914

RESUMO

A substantial number of chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) experience periprocedural myocardial injury or infarction. Accurate diagnosis of these PCI-related complications is required to guide further management given that their occurrence may be associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Due to lack of scientific data, the cut-off thresholds of post-PCI cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation used for defining periprocedural myocardial injury and infarction, have been selected based on expert consensus opinions, and their prognostic relevance remains unclear. In this Consensus Document from the ESC Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart and European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), we recommend, whenever possible, the measurement of baseline (pre-PCI) cTn and post-PCI cTn values in all CCS patients undergoing PCI. We confirm the prognostic relevance of the post-PCI cTn elevation >5× 99th percentile URL threshold used to define type 4a myocardial infarction (MI). In the absence of periprocedural angiographic flow-limiting complications or electrocardiogram (ECG) and imaging evidence of new myocardial ischaemia, we propose the same post-PCI cTn cut-off threshold (>5× 99th percentile URL) be used to define prognostically relevant 'major' periprocedural myocardial injury. As both type 4a MI and major periprocedural myocardial injury are strong independent predictors of all-cause mortality at 1 year post-PCI, they may be used as quality metrics and surrogate endpoints for clinical trials. Further research is needed to evaluate treatment strategies for reducing the risk of major periprocedural myocardial injury, type 4a MI, and MACE in CCS patients undergoing PCI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Traumatismos Cardíacos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Biomarcadores , Consenso , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2021: 9971874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149324

RESUMO

Background: To validate a simplified invasive method for the calculation of the index of microvascular resistance (IMR). Methods: This is a prospective, single-center study of patients with chronic coronary syndromes presenting with nonobstructive coronary artery disease. IMR was obtained using both intravenous (IV) adenosine and intracoronary (IC) papaverine. Each IMR measurement was obtained in duplicate. The primary objective was the agreement between IMR acquired using adenosine and papaverine. Secondary objectives include reproducibility of IMR and time required for the IMR measurement. Results: One hundred and sixteen IMR measurements were performed in 29 patients. The mean age was 68.8 ± 7.24 years, and 27.6% was diabetics. IMR values were similar between papaverine and adenosine (17.7 ± 7.26 and 20.1 ± 8.6, p=0.25; Passing-Bablok coefficient A 0.58, 95% CI -2.42 to 3.53; coefficient B 0.90, 95% CI -0.74 to 1.07). The reproducibility of IMR was excellent with both adenosine and papaverine (ICC 0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.88 and ICC 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.97). The time needed for microvascular assessment was significantly shortened by the use of IC papaverine (3.23 (2.84, 3.78) mins vs. 5.48 (4.94, 7.09) mins, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: IMR can be reliably measured using IC papaverine with similar results compared to intravenous infusion of adenosine with increased reproducibility and reduced procedural time. This approach simplifies the invasive assessment of the coronary microcirculation in the catheterization laboratory.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/normas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Simplificação do Trabalho
13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Trombose Coronária/virologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 38-44, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic coronary syndromes, guidelines mandate invasive functional guidance of revascularization whenever non-invasive proof of ischemia is missing. ISIS-2 survey aimed to evaluate how the adoption of guideline recommendation on ischemia-guided revascularization has evolved over the last 5-7 years. METHODS: In ISIS-2 participants assessed five complete angiograms, presenting only intermediate stenoses without information on non-invasive pre-testing. Fractional flow reserve was known for each stenosis, but remained undisclosed. Participants could determine stenosis significance either by angiography or by requesting an adjunctive invasive diagnostic method (intravascular imaging or functional tests). Primary endpoint was the rate of requesting adjunctive functional assessment. Secondary endpoints were the rate of concordance between angiography-based decisions and know functional severity. ISIS-2 utilized the same web-based platform as ISIS-1 in 2013. (NCT04001452). RESULTS: 334 participants performed 2059 lesion evaluations: 1202 (59%) decisions were based solely on angiography without expressed need for further evaluation. These decisions were discordant with known functional significance in 39%, mainly with potential of overtreatment. Participants requested invasive functional assessment in 643 (31%) and intravascular imaging in 214 (10%) cases. Compared to ISIS-1 the rate of purely angiography-based decisions has decreased (59% vs 66%; p < 0.001), while invasive functional tests were more frequently requested (31% vs 25%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ISIS-2 suggests an evolving pattern in the intention to integrate invasive coronary physiology into the revascularization decisions. However, the disconnect between recommendations and current thinking is still dominant.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome
17.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(3): E351-E355, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837987

RESUMO

AIMS: In the randomized GRAFFITI trial, surgeons drew their strategy based on coronary angiography. When patients were randomized to fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guidance, surgeons were informed of the FFR values and asked to redraw their strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes induced by FFR knowledge. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intended and performed strategy (before and after FFR) were compared. Among 172 patients, 84 with 300 lesions were randomized to the FFR-guided group. The intended strategy was to bypass 236 stenoses:108 with a venous and 128 with an arterial graft. After disclosing FFR, a change in strategy occurred in 64 lesions (21.3%) of 48 (55%) patients. Among 64 lesions for which the intended strategy was medical therapy, 16 (25%) were bypassed after disclosing FFR. The number of procedures with >1 venous graft planned was significantly reduced from 37 to 27 patients (p = .031). The proportion of on-pump surgery was significantly reduced from 71 to 61 patients (p = .006). The rates of clinical events at 1 year were similar between patients with or without at least one change in strategy. DISCUSSION: FFR-guided CABG is associated with a simplified surgical procedure in 55% of the patients, with similar clinical outcomes.

18.
Heart ; 107(18): 1510-1517, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789972
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 334: 10-17, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y12 inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically. METHODS: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding). RESULTS: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively. CONCLUSION: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Ticagrelor , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830399

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Wire-based coronary physiology pullback performed before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) discriminates coronary artery disease (CAD) distribution and extent, and is able to predict functional PCI result. No research investigated if quantitative flow ratio (QFR)-based physiology assessment is able to provide similar information. METHODS: In 111 patients (120 vessels) treated with PCI, QFR was measured both before and after PCI. Pre-PCI QFR trace was used to discriminate functional patterns of CAD (focal, serial lesions, diffuse disease, combination). Functional CAD patterns were identified analyzing changes in the QFR virtual pullback trace (qualitative method) or after computation of the QFR virtual pullback index (QVPindex) (quantitative method). QVPindex calculation was based on the maximal QFR drop over 20 mm and the length of epicardial coronary segment with QFR most relevant drop. Then, the ability of the different functional patterns of CAD to predict post-PCI QFR value was tested. RESULTS: By qualitative method, 51 (43%), 20 (17%), 15 (12%), and 34 (28%) vessels were classified as focal, serial focal lesions, diffuse disease, and combination, respectively. QVPindex values >0.71 and ≤0.51 predicted focal and diffuse patterns, respectively. Suboptimal PCI result (post-PCI QFR value ≤0.89) was present in 22 (18%) vessels. Its occurrence differed across functional patterns of CAD (focal 8% vs. serial lesions 15% vs. diffuse disease 33% vs. combination 29%, p=0.03). Similarly, QVPindex was correlated with post-PCI QFR value (r=0.62, 95% CI 0.50-0.72). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that functional patterns of CAD based on pre-PCI QFR trace can predict the functional outcome after PCI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT02811796. Date of registration: June 23, 2016.

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