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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 916108, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898545

RESUMO

H9N2 viruses have become, over the last 20 years, one of the most diffused poultry pathogens and have reached a level of endemicity in several countries. Attempts to control the spread and reduce the circulation of H9N2 have relied mainly on vaccination in endemic countries. However, the high level of adaptation to poultry, testified by low minimum infectious doses, replication to high titers, and high transmissibility, has severely hampered the results of vaccination campaigns. Commercially available vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in protecting against clinical disease, but variable results have also been observed in reducing the level of replication and viral shedding in domestic poultry species. Antigenic drift and increased chances of zoonotic infections are the results of incomplete protection offered by the currently available vaccines, of which the vast majority are based on formalin-inactivated whole virus antigens. In our work, we evaluated experimental vaccines based on an H9N2 virus, inactivated by irradiation treatment, in reducing viral shedding upon different challenge doses and compared their efficacy with formalin-inactivated vaccines. Moreover, we evaluated mucosal delivery of inactivated antigens as an alternative route to subcutaneous and intramuscular vaccination. The results showed complete protection and prevention of replication in subcutaneously vaccinated Specific Pathogen Free White Leghorn chickens at low-to-intermediate challenge doses but a limited reduction of shedding at a high challenge dose. Mucosally vaccinated chickens showed a more variable response to experimental infection at all tested challenge doses and the main effect of vaccination attained the reduction of infected birds in the early phase of infection. Concerning mucosal vaccination, the irradiated vaccine was the only one affording complete protection from infection at the lowest challenge dose. Vaccine formulations based on H9N2 inactivated by irradiation demonstrated a potential for better performances than vaccines based on the formalin-inactivated antigen in terms of reduction of shedding and prevention of infection.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622570

RESUMO

Mycotoxins should be monitored in order to properly evaluate corn silage safety quality. In the present study, corn silage samples (n = 115) were collected in a survey, characterized for concentrations of mycotoxins, and scanned by a NIR spectrometer. Random Forest classification models for NIR calibration were developed by applying different cut-offs to classify samples for concentration (i.e., µg/kg dry matter) or count (i.e., n) of (i) total detectable mycotoxins; (ii) regulated and emerging Fusarium toxins; (iii) emerging Fusarium toxins; (iv) Fumonisins and their metabolites; and (v) Penicillium toxins. An over- and under-sampling re-balancing technique was applied and performed 100 times. The best predictive model for total sum and count (i.e., accuracy mean ± standard deviation) was obtained by applying cut-offs of 10,000 µg/kg DM (i.e., 96.0 ± 2.7%) or 34 (i.e., 97.1 ± 1.8%), respectively. Regulated and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins achieved accuracies slightly less than 90%. For the Penicillium mycotoxin contamination category, an accuracy of 95.1 ± 2.8% was obtained by using a cut-off limit of 350 µg/kg DM as a total sum or 98.6 ± 1.3% for a cut-off limit of five as mycotoxin count. In conclusion, this work was a preliminary study to discriminate corn silage for high or low mycotoxin contamination by using NIR spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Micotoxinas , Fumonisinas/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Silagem/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Zea mays/química
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679854

RESUMO

Livestock radiated out from domestication centres to most regions of the world, gradually adapting to diverse environments, from very hot to sub-zero temperatures and from wet and humid conditions to deserts. The climate is changing; generally global temperature is increasing, although there are also more extreme cold periods, storms, and higher solar radiation. These changes impact livestock welfare and productivity. This review describes advances in the methodology for studying livestock genomes and the impact of the environment on animal production, giving examples of discoveries made. Sequencing livestock genomes has facilitated genome-wide association studies to localize genes controlling many traits, and population genetics has identified genomic regions under selection or introgressed from one breed into another to improve production or facilitate adaptation. Landscape genomics, which combines global positioning and genomics, has identified genomic features that enable animals to adapt to local environments. Combining the advances in genomics and methods for predicting changes in climate is generating an explosion of data which calls for innovations in the way big data sets are treated. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are now being used to study the interactions between the genome and the environment to identify historic effects on the genome and to model future scenarios.

4.
Insects ; 12(10)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680666

RESUMO

Understanding the interaction between insects and microclimate can be essential in order to plan informed and efficient treatments against agricultural pests. Microclimatic factors such as humidity and temperature can influence the population dynamics of the invasive agricultural pest Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. The aim of this work was to evaluate the level of transpiration of H. halys in dry, normal and humid microclimates according to the sex, physiological conditions and developmental stage of individuals. Water loss during diapause and the effect of population density on insects' transpiration were also assessed, as were the nutritional preferences of adults upon exiting diapause. Our data demonstrate that microclimatic conditions significantly influence the transpiration of this pest species. The effect of sex and feeding status on insects' water loss is marked, while population density does not influence water loss in diapausing individuals. The first nutritional need of the overwintering generations is represented by hydration, likely due to the water loss during diapause.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201201

RESUMO

Here, we tested the changes occurring in several plasma analytes during different stages of the lactation cycle of high welfare raised multiparous Holstein cows, and provided reference intervals (RI) for plasma analytes concentrations. Eleven high-welfare farms (HWF) located in Northern Italy were selected and their herds used to recruit 361 clinically healthy cows undergoing the dry (from -30 to -10 days from real calving; DFC), the postpartum (from 3 to 7 DFC), the early lactation (from 28 to 45 DFC) and the late lactation phases (from 160 to 305 DFC). Cows affected by subclinical diseases (SCD) were retrospectively excluded, and a subset of 285 cows was selected. Data of plasma analytes underwent ANOVA testing using physiological phases as predictors. The individual effect of each phase was assessed using a pairwise t-test assuming p ≤ 0.05 as a significance limit. A bootstrap approach was used to define the reference interval (RI) for each blood analyte within physiological phases having a pairwise t-test p ≤ 0.05. The concentration of nonesterified fatty acids, albumin, cholesterol, retinol, paraoxonase and tocopherol changed throughout all the physiological phases, whereas the concentration of K, alkaline phosphatase and thiol groups remained stable. Triglycerides, Zn, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power in the dry phase and BHB, Ca, myeloperoxidase, haptoglobin, reactive oxygen metabolites and advanced oxidation of protein product in postpartum differed compared with other physiological phases. During the dry phase, Packed cell volume, Cl, and urea concentrations were similar to during the postpartum phase. Similarly, Na, γ-glutamyl transferase and ß-carotene concentrations were similar to during the early lactation phase; fructosamine and bilirubin concentrations were similar to during the late lactation phase. During the postpartum phase, fructosamine and P concentrations were similar to during the early lactation phase, and the aspartate transaminase concentration was similar to during the late lactation phase. During the early lactation phase, Mg, creatinine, total protein, globulin and ceruloplasmin concentrations were similar to during the postpartum phase, while the urea concentration was similar to during the late lactation phase. All these plasma analytes differed among the other phases. This study identifies physiological trends affecting plasma analytes concentrations during the different stages of the lactation cycle and provides a guideline for the duration and magnitude of their changes when animals are healthy and raised in optimal welfare conditions.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14729, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282202

RESUMO

Population genetic studies provide accurate information on population structure, connectivity, and hybridization. These are key elements to identify units for conservation and define wildlife management strategies aimed to maintain and restore biodiversity. The Mediterranean island of Sardinia hosts one of the last autochthonous mouflon populations, descending from the wild Neolithic ancestor. The first mouflon arrived in Sardinia ~ 7000 years ago and thrived across the island until the twentieth century, when anthropogenic factors led to population fragmentation. We analysed the three main allopatric Sardinian mouflon sub-populations, namely: the native sub-populations of Montes Forest and Mount Tonneri, and the reintroduced sub-population of Mount Lerno. We investigated the spatial genetic structure of the Sardinian mouflon based on the parallel analysis of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial D-loop sequences. The Montes Forest sub-population was found to harbour the ancestral haplotype in the phylogeny of European mouflon. We detected high levels of relatedness in all the sub-populations and a mitochondrial signature of hybridization between the Mount Lerno sub-population and domestic sheep. Our findings provide useful insights to protect such an invaluable genetic heritage from the risk of genetic depletion by promoting controlled inter-population exchange and drawing informed repopulation plans sourcing from genetically pure mouflon stocks.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Demografia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Itália/epidemiologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Ovinos/classificação , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10986, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040003

RESUMO

Local adaptation of animals to the environment can abruptly become a burden when faced with rapid climatic changes such as those foreseen for the Italian peninsula over the next 70 years. Our study investigates the genetic structure of the Italian goat populations and links it with the environment and how genetics might evolve over the next 50 years. We used one of the largest national datasets including > 1000 goats from 33 populations across the Italian peninsula collected by the Italian Goat Consortium and genotyped with over 50 k markers. Our results showed that Italian goats can be discriminated in three groups reflective of the Italian geography and its geo-political situation preceding the country unification around two centuries ago. We leveraged the remarkable genetic and geographical diversity of the Italian goat populations and performed landscape genomics analysis to disentangle the relationship between genotype and environment, finding 64 SNPs intercepting genomic regions linked to growth, circadian rhythm, fertility, and inflammatory response. Lastly, we calculated the hypothetical future genotypic frequencies of the most relevant SNPs identified through landscape genomics to evaluate their long-term effect on the genetic structure of the Italian goat populations. Our results provide an insight into the past and the future of the Italian local goat populations, helping the institutions in defining new conservation strategy plans that could preserve their diversity and their link to local realities challenged by climate change.


Assuntos
Genômica , Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Seleção Genética
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914832

RESUMO

Weaning is a critical period for piglets, in which unbalanced gut microbiota and/or pathogen colonisation can contribute to diseases that interfere with animal performance. Tannins are natural compounds that could be used as functional ingredients to improve gut health in pig farming thanks to their antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiarrhoeal properties. In this study, a mixture of quebracho and chestnut tannins (1.25%) was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the negative weaning effects on piglet growth. Microbiota composition was assessed by Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stools at the end of the trial. Sequence analysis revealed an increase in the genera Shuttleworthia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Peptococcus, Anaerostipes, and Solobacterium in the tannin-supplemented group. Conversely, this dietary intervention reduced the abundance of the genera Syntrophococcus, Atopobium, Mitsuokella, Sharpea, and Prevotella. The populations of butyrate-producing bacteria were modulated by tannin, and higher butyrate concentrations in stools were detected in the tannin-fed pigs. Co-occurrence analysis revealed that the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the families Veillonellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae occupied the central part of the network in both the control and the tannin-fed animals. Instead, in the tannin group, the OTUs belonging to the families Acidaminococcaceae, Alcaligenaceae, and Spirochaetaceae characterised its network, whereas Family XIII Incertae Sedis occupied a more central position than in the control group. Conversely, the presence of Desulfovibrionaceae characterised the network of the control group, and this family was not present in the network of the tannin group. Moreover, the prediction of metabolic pathways revealed that the gut microbiome of the tannin group possessed an enhanced potential for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, as well as a lower abundance of pathways related to cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis and inorganic ion transport. In conclusion, the tested tannins seem to modulate the gut microbiota, favouring groups of butyrate-producing bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Butiratos/metabolismo , Nozes/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Taninos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Filogenia , Suínos , Taninos/química , Taninos/farmacologia , Desmame
10.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
11.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 159, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their regional economic importance and being increasingly reared globally, the origins and evolution of the llama and alpaca remain poorly understood. Here we report reference genomes for the llama, and for the guanaco and vicuña (their putative wild progenitors), compare these with the published alpaca genome, and resequence seven individuals of all four species to better understand domestication and introgression between the llama and alpaca. RESULTS: Phylogenomic analysis confirms that the llama was domesticated from the guanaco and the alpaca from the vicuña. Introgression was much higher in the alpaca genome (36%) than the llama (5%) and could be dated close to the time of the Spanish conquest, approximately 500 years ago. Introgression patterns are at their most variable on the X-chromosome of the alpaca, featuring 53 genes known to have deleterious X-linked phenotypes in humans. Strong genome-wide introgression signatures include olfactory receptor complexes into both species, hypertension resistance into alpaca, and fleece/fiber traits into llama. Genomic signatures of domestication in the llama include male reproductive traits, while in alpaca feature fleece characteristics, olfaction-related and hypoxia adaptation traits. Expression analysis of the introgressed region that is syntenic to human HSA4q21, a gene cluster previously associated with hypertension in humans under hypoxic conditions, shows a previously undocumented role for PRDM8 downregulation as a potential transcriptional regulation mechanism, analogous to that previously reported at high altitude for hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented introgression signatures within both domestic camelid genomes may reflect post-conquest changes in agriculture and the breakdown of traditional management practices.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Camelídeos Americanos/genética , Domesticação , Introgressão Genética , Genoma , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Filogeografia , Seleção Genética , América do Sul
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 25, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Neolithic, domestic sheep migrated into Europe and subsequently spread in westerly and northwesterly directions. Reconstruction of these migrations and subsequent genetic events requires a more detailed characterization of the current phylogeographic differentiation. RESULTS: We collected 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles of Balkan sheep that are currently found near the major Neolithic point of entry into Europe, and combined these data with published genotypes from southwest-Asian, Mediterranean, central-European and north-European sheep and from Asian and European mouflons. We detected clines, ancestral components and admixture by using variants of common analysis tools: geography-informative supervised principal component analysis (PCA), breed-specific admixture analysis, across-breed [Formula: see text] profiles and phylogenetic analysis of regional pools of breeds. The regional Balkan sheep populations exhibit considerable genetic overlap, but are clearly distinct from the breeds in surrounding regions. The Asian mouflon did not influence the differentiation of the European domestic sheep and is only distantly related to present-day sheep, including those from Iran where the mouflons were sampled. We demonstrate the occurrence, from southeast to northwest Europe, of a continuously increasing ancestral component of up to 20% contributed by the European mouflon, which is assumed to descend from the original Neolithic domesticates. The overall patterns indicate that the Balkan region and Italy served as post-domestication migration hubs, from which wool sheep reached Spain and north Italy with subsequent migrations northwards. The documented dispersal of Tarentine wool sheep during the Roman period may have been part of this process. Our results also reproduce the documented 18th century admixture of Spanish Merino sheep into several central-European breeds. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to a better understanding of the events that have created the present diversity pattern, which is relevant for the management of the genetic resources represented by the European sheep population.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Península Balcânica , Cruzamento/métodos , Domesticação , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia/métodos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271816

RESUMO

In Hong Kong, there is a cattle population of ~1,200 individuals of uncertain origin and genetic diversity. This population shows heterogeneous morphology, both in body type and pigmentation. Once used as draught animals by the local farmers, they were abandoned around the 1970s due to changes in the economy, and since then have lived as feral populations. To explore the origins of these cattle, we analysed ~50k genotype data of 21 Hong Kong feral cattle, along with data from 703 individuals of 36 cattle populations of European, African taurine, and Asian origin, the wild x domestic hybrid gayal, plus two wild bovine species, gaur and banteng. To reduce the effect of ascertainment bias ~4k loci that are polymorphic in the two wild species were selected for further analysis. The stringent SNP selection we applied resulted in increased heterozygosity across all populations studies, compared with the full panel of SNP, thus reducing the impact of ascertainment bias and facilitating the comparison of divergent breeds of cattle. Our results showed that Hong Kong feral cattle have relatively high levels of genetic distinctiveness, possibly due to the low level of artificial selection, and a likely common ancestry with wild species. We found signs of a putative taurine introgression, probably dating to the import of north European breeds during the British colonialism of Hong Kong. We showed that Hong Kong feral cattle, are distinct from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. Our results highlight the distinctiveness of Hong Kong feral cattle and stress the conservation value of this indigenous breed that is likely to harbour adaptive genetic variation, which is a fundamental livestock resource in the face of climate change and diversifying market demands.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Bovinos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Feminino , Variação Genética , Hong Kong , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235592

RESUMO

Hybridisation of wild populations with their domestic counterparts can lead to the loss of wildtype genetic integrity, outbreeding depression, and loss of adaptive features. The Mediterranean island of Sardinia hosts one of the last extant autochthonous European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) populations. Although conservation policies, including reintroduction plans, have been enforced to preserve Sardinian mouflon, crossbreeding with domestic sheep has been documented. We identified panels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could act as ancestry informative markers able to assess admixture in feral x domestic sheep hybrids. The medium-density SNP array genotyping data of Sardinian mouflon and domestic sheep (O. aries aries) showing pure ancestry were used as references. We applied a two-step selection algorithm to this data consisting of preselection via Principal Component Analysis followed by a supervised machine learning classification method based on random forest to develop SNP panels of various sizes. We generated ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels and tested their ability to assess admixture in mouflon x domestic sheep hybrids both in simulated and real populations of known ancestry proportions. All the AIM panels recorded high correlations with the ancestry proportion computed using the full medium-density SNP array. The AIM panels proposed here may be used by conservation practitioners as diagnostic tools to exclude hybrids from reintroduction plans and improve conservation strategies for mouflon populations.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1279, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992729

RESUMO

Cattle domestication occurred at least twice independently and gave rise to the modern taurine and indicine cattle breeds. European cattle diversity is generally dominated by taurine cattle, although elevated levels of indicine ancestry have been recorded in several breeds from southern Europe. Here we use genome-wide high-density SNP genotyping data to investigate the taurine and indicine ancestry in southern European cattle, based on a dataset comprising 508 individuals from 23 cattle breeds of taurine, indicine and mixed ancestry, including three breeds from Central Italy known to exhibit the highest levels of indicine introgression among southern European breeds. Based on local genomic ancestry analyses, we reconstruct taurine and indicine ancestry genome-wide and along chromosomes. We scrutinise local genomic introgression signals and identify genomic regions that have introgressed from indicine into taurine cattle under positive selection, harbouring genes with functions related to body size and feed efficiency. These findings suggest that indicine-derived traits helped enhance Central Italian cattle through adaptive introgression. The identified genes could provide genomic targets for selection for improved cattle performance. Our findings elucidate the key role of adaptive introgression in shaping the phenotypic features of modern cattle, aided by cultural and livestock exchange among historic human societies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Itália
16.
PeerJ ; 7: e7895, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660272

RESUMO

Background: European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) has been reintroduced in mainland Europe since the 18th-century sourcing from the Sardinian and Corsican autochthonous mouflon populations. The European mouflon is currently considered the feral descendent of the Asian mouflon (O. orientalis), and the result of first wave of sheep domestication occurred 11,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, and brought to Corsica and Sardinia ca. 6,000 years ago, where they still live as autochthonous populations. However, this phylogeny is based on mitogenome sequences of European mouflon individuals exclusively. Methods: We sequenced the first complete mtDNA of the long-time isolated Sardinian mouflon and compared it with several ovine homologous sequences, including mouflon from mainland Europe and samples representative of the five known mitochondrial domestic sheep haplogroups. We applied Bayesian inference, Maximum Likelihood and Integer Neighbour-Joining network methods and provided a robust, fully-resolved phylogeny with strong statistical support for all nodes. Results: We identified an early split (110,000 years ago) of the Sardinian mouflon haplotype from both sheep and mainland European mouflon belonging to haplogroup B, the latter two sharing a more recent common ancestor (80,000 years ago). Further, the Sardinian mouflon sequence we generated had the largest genetic distance from domestic sheep haplogroups (0.0136 ± 0.004) among mouflon species. Our results suggest the Sardinian mouflon haplotype as the most ancestral in the HPG-B lineage, hence partially redrawing the known phylogeny of the genus Ovis.

17.
Evol Appl ; 12(5): 951-963, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080507

RESUMO

The divergence between indicine cattle (Bos indicus) and taurine cattle (Bos taurus) is estimated to have occurred approximately 250,000 years ago, but a small number of European cattle breeds still display shared ancestry with indicine cattle. Additionally, following the divergence of African and European taurine, the gene flow between African taurine and southern European cattle has also been proposed. However, the extent to which non-European cattle ancestry is diffused across southern European cattle has not been investigated thoroughly. Also, in recent times, many local breeds have suffered severe reductions in effective population size. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the pattern of genetic diversity in various European cattle based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified from whole-genome sequencing data. Additionally, we also employed unlinked and phased SNP-based approaches on high-density SNP array data to characterize non-European cattle ancestry in several southern European cattle breeds. Using heterozygosity-based parameters, we concluded that, on average, nucleotide diversity is greater in southern European cattle than western European (British and commercial) cattle. However, an abundance of long runs of homozygosity (ROH) and the pattern of Linkage disequilibrium decay suggested recent bottlenecks in Maltese and Romagnola. High nucleotide diversity outside ROH indicated a highly diverse founder population for southern European and African taurine. We also show that Iberian cattle display shared ancestry with African cattle. Furthermore, we show that Podolica is an ancient cross-bred between Indicine zebu and European taurine. Additionally, we also inferred similar ancestry profile of non-European cattle ancestry in different Balkan and Italian cattle breeds which might be an indication of the common origin of indicine ancestry in these breeds. Finally, we discuss several plausible demographic scenarios which might account for the presence of non-European cattle ancestry in these cattle breeds.

18.
Evol Appl ; 12(1): 105-122, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622639

RESUMO

The introduction of Iberian cattle in the Americas after Columbus' arrival imposed high selection pressures on a limited number of animals over a brief period of time. Knowledge of the genomic regions selected during this process may help in enhancing climatic resilience and sustainable animal production. We first determined taurine and indicine contributions to the genomic structure of modern Creole cattle. Second, we inferred their demographic history using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), linkage disequilibrium (LD) and N e Slope (NeS) analysis. Third, we performed whole genome scans for selection signatures based on cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and population differentiation (F ST) to disentangle the genetic mechanisms involved in adaptation and phenotypic change by a rapid and major environmental transition. To tackle these questions, we combined SNP array data (~54,000 SNPs) in Creole breeds with their modern putative Iberian ancestors. Reconstruction of the population history of Creoles from the end of the 15th century indicated a major demographic expansion until the introduction of zebu and commercial breeds into the Americas ~180 years ago, coinciding with a drastic N e contraction. NeS analysis provided insights into short-term complexity in population change and depicted a decrease/expansion episode at the end of the ABC-inferred expansion, as well as several additional fluctuations in N e with the attainment of the current small N e only towards the end of the 20th century. Selection signatures for tropical adaptation pinpointed the thermoregulatory slick hair coat region, identifying a new candidate gene (GDNF), as well as novel candidate regions involved in immune function, behavioural processes, iron metabolism and adaptation to new feeding conditions. The outcomes from this study will help in future-proofing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR) by providing molecular tools that allow selection for improved cattle performance, resilience and welfare under climate change.

19.
Front Genet ; 9: 385, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333851

RESUMO

East Coast fever (ECF) is a fatal sickness affecting cattle populations of eastern, central, and southern Africa. The disease is transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and caused by the protozoan Theileria parva parva, which invades host lymphocytes and promotes their clonal expansion. Importantly, indigenous cattle show tolerance to infection in ECF-endemically stable areas. Here, the putative genetic bases underlying ECF-tolerance were investigated using molecular data and epidemiological information from 823 indigenous cattle from Uganda. Vector distribution and host infection risk were estimated over the study area and subsequently tested as triggers of local adaptation by means of landscape genomics analysis. We identified 41 and seven candidate adaptive loci for tick resistance and infection tolerance, respectively. Among the genes associated with the candidate adaptive loci are PRKG1 and SLA2. PRKG1 was already described as associated with tick resistance in indigenous South African cattle, due to its role into inflammatory response. SLA2 is part of the regulatory pathways involved into lymphocytes' proliferation. Additionally, local ancestry analysis suggested the zebuine origin of the genomic region candidate for tick resistance.

20.
Genet Sel Evol ; 50(1): 37, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of native and locally developed Russian cattle breeds is linked to the historical, social, cultural, and climatic features of the diverse geographical regions of Russia. In the present study, we investigated the population structure of nine Russian cattle breeds and their relations to the cattle breeds from around the world to elucidate their origin. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Bestuzhev (n = 26), Russian Black-and-White (n = 21), Kalmyk (n = 14), Kholmogor (n = 25), Kostromsky (n = 20), Red Gorbatov (n = 23), Suksun (n = 20), Yakut (n = 25), and Yaroslavl cattle breeds (n = 21) was done using the Bovine SNP50 BeadChip. SNP profiles from an additional 70 breeds were included in the analysis as references. RESULTS: The observed heterozygosity levels were quite similar in eight of the nine studied breeds (HO = 0.337-0.363) except for Yakut (Ho = 0.279). The inbreeding coefficients FIS ranged from -0.028 for Kalmyk to 0.036 for Russian Black-and-White and were comparable to those of the European breeds. The nine studied Russian breeds exhibited taurine ancestry along the C1 axis of the multidimensional scaling (MDS)-plot, but Yakut was clearly separated from the European taurine breeds on the C2 axis. Neighbor-Net and admixture analyses, discriminated three groups among the studied Russian breeds. Yakut and Kalmyk were assigned to a separate group because of their Turano-Mongolian origin. Russian Black-and-White, Kostromsky and Suksun showed transboundary European ancestry, which originated from the Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Danish Red breeds, respectively. The lowest level of introgression of transboundary breeds was recorded for the Kholmogor, Yaroslavl, Red Gorbatov and Bestuzhev breeds, which can be considered as an authentic genetic resource. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-genome SNP analysis revealed that Russian native and locally developed breeds have conserved authentic genetic patterns in spite of the considerable influence of Eurasian taurine cattle. In this paper, we provide fundamental genomic information that will contribute to the development of more accurate breed conservation programs and genetic improvement strategies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/classificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genética Populacional , Heterozigoto , Endogamia , Federação Russa
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