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1.
Adv Parasitol ; 113: 1-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620381

RESUMO

Plasmodium knowlesi is endemic across Southeast Asia, and is the commonest cause of zoonotic malaria. The spectrum of clinical disease from P. knowlesi infection ranges from asymptomatic infection, through to severe malaria and death. Over 90% of clinical disease occurs in adults, mostly living in forest edge areas undergoing intensive land use change. With a 24-h asexual life cycle in humans, high parasite counts are possible, but most clinical cases of knowlesi malaria are uncomplicated with low parasitaemia. In co-endemic areas, median parasitaemia in knowlesi malaria is lower than that seen in vivax and falciparum malaria, suggesting a lower fever threshold. Severe malaria occurs in 6-9% of symptomatic adults. Manifestations of severe malaria from P. knowlesi are similar to those seen with falciparum malaria, with the notable absence of coma. Age, parasitaemia, cardiovascular comorbidities and delayed diagnosis are risk factors for severe disease and death, which are only seen in adults. Thrombocytopenia is near-universal in adults, likely related to platelet-red cell binding and clearance. Mechanisms underlying the microvascular sludging seen in fatal disease in non-natural primate hosts and the microvascular accumulation of parasites in fatal human disease are not clear. Marked reductions in deformability of both infected and uninfected red blood cells are associated with disease severity in both humans and other non-natural primate hosts, likely contributing to impaired microvascular perfusion and organ dysfunction. Endothelial activation, endothelial dysfunction, glycocalyx degradation and haemolysis are also associated with, and likely contribute to, severe disease and organ dysfunction, particularly acute kidney injury.

2.
Adv Parasitol ; 113: 45-76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620385

RESUMO

The zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria in parts of Southeast Asia. The parasite is indistinguishable by microscopy from the more benign P. malariae, but can result in high parasitaemias with multiorgan failure, and deaths have been reported. Recognition of severe knowlesi malaria, and prompt initiation of effective therapy is therefore essential to prevent adverse outcomes. Here we review all studies reporting treatment of uncomplicated and severe knowlesi malaria. We report that although chloroquine is effective for the treatment of uncomplicated knowlesi malaria, artemisinin combination treatment is associated with faster parasite clearance times and lower rates of anaemia during follow-up, and should be considered the treatment of choice, particularly given the risk of administering chloroquine to drug-resistant P. vivax or P. falciparum misdiagnosed as P. knowlesi malaria in co-endemic areas. For severe knowlesi malaria, intravenous artesunate has been shown to be highly effective and associated with reduced case-fatality rates, and should be commenced without delay. Regular paracetamol may also be considered for patients with severe knowlesi malaria or for those with acute kidney injury, to attenuate the renal damage resulting from haemolysis-induced lipid peroxidation.

3.
Adv Parasitol ; 113: 77-130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620386

RESUMO

Within the overlapping geographical ranges of P. knowlesi monkey hosts and vectors in Southeast Asia, an estimated 1.5 billion people are considered at risk of infection. P. knowlesi can cause severe disease and death, the latter associated with delayed treatment occurring from misdiagnosis. Although microscopy is a sufficiently sensitive first-line tool for P. knowlesi detection for most low-level symptomatic infections, misdiagnosis as other Plasmodium species is common, and the majority of asymptomatic infections remain undetected. Current point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests demonstrate insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity for differentiating P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium species. Molecular tools including nested, real-time, and single-step PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are sensitive for P. knowlesi detection. However, higher cost and inability to provide the timely point-of-care diagnosis needed to guide appropriate clinical management has limited their routine use in most endemic clinical settings. P. knowlesi is likely underdiagnosed across the region, and improved diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. Reference laboratory molecular testing of malaria cases for both zoonotic and non-zoonotic Plasmodium species needs to be more widely implemented by National Malaria Control Programs across Southeast Asia to accurately identify the burden of zoonotic malaria and more precisely monitor the success of human-only malaria elimination programs. The implementation of specific serological tools for P. knowlesi would assist in determining the prevalence and distribution of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections, the absence of transmission in certain areas, and associations with underlying land use change for future spatially targeted interventions.

5.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452482

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of understanding the immune response to seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections such as HCoV-NL63, how existing neutralising antibodies to HCoV may modulate responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the utility of seasonal HCoV as human challenge models. Therefore, in this study we quantified HCoV-NL63 neutralising antibody titres in a healthy adult population using plasma from 100 blood donors in Australia. A microneutralisation assay was performed with plasma diluted from 1:10 to 1:160 and tested with the HCoV-NL63 Amsterdam-1 strain. Neutralising antibodies were detected in 71% of the plasma samples, with a median geometric mean titre of 14. This titre was similar to those reported in convalescent sera taken from individuals 3-7 months following asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 2-3 years post-infection from symptomatic SARS-CoV-1 patients. HCoV-NL63 neutralising antibody titres decreased with increasing age (R2 = 0.042, p = 0.038), but did not differ by sex. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutralising antibody to HCoV-NL63 is detectable in approximately 71% of the healthy adult population of Australia. Similar titres did not impede the use of another seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV-229E) in a human challenge model, thus, HCoV-NL63 may be useful as a human challenge model for more pathogenic coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9741, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963210

RESUMO

Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx is associated with mortality in adult falciparum malaria. However, its role in the pathogenesis of non-falciparum malaria is unknown. In Malaysian patients with knowlesi (n = 200) and vivax (n = 61) malaria, and in healthy controls (n = 50), we measured glycocalyx breakdown products plasma syndecan-1 and urinary glycosaminoglycans, and evaluated correlations with biomarkers of disease severity. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were increased in patients with knowlesi and vivax malaria compared to healthy controls, and in knowlesi malaria were highest in those with severe disease. In knowlesi malaria, plasma syndecan-1 was also highest in those with severe disease, and correlated with markers of endothelial activation (angiopoietin-2, osteoprotegerin, ICAM-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and impaired microvascular reactivity. Syndecan-1 also correlated with endothelial activation (ICAM-1, angiopoietin-2) and ADMA in vivax malaria. In knowlesi malaria increased syndecan-1 was associated with acute kidney injury, after controlling for age and parasitemia. In knowlesi malaria, the difference in median syndecan-1 between severe and non-severe disease was more marked in females than males. Endothelial glycocalyx degradation is increased in knowlesi and vivax malaria, and associated with disease severity and acute kidney injury in knowlesi malaria. Agents that inhibit glycocalyx breakdown may represent adjunctive therapeutics for severe non-falciparum malaria.

7.
PLoS Med ; 18(5): e1003567, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax has been proposed to infect and replicate in the human spleen and bone marrow. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum, which is known to undergo microvascular tissue sequestration, little is known about the behavior of P. vivax outside of the circulating compartment. This may be due in part to difficulties in studying parasite location and activity in life. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify organ-specific changes during the early stages of P. vivax infection, we performed 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) at baseline and just prior to onset of clinical illness in P. vivax experimentally induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) and compared findings to P. falciparum IBSM. Seven healthy, malaria-naive participants were enrolled from 3 IBSM trials: NCT02867059, ACTRN12616000174482, and ACTRN12619001085167. Imaging took place between 2016 and 2019 at the Herston Imaging Research Facility, Australia. Postinoculation imaging was performed after a median of 9 days in both species (n = 3 P. vivax; n = 4 P. falciparum). All participants were aged between 19 and 23 years, and 6/7 were male. Splenic volume (P. vivax: +28.8% [confidence interval (CI) +10.3% to +57.3%], P. falciparum: +22.9 [CI -15.3% to +61.1%]) and radiotracer uptake (P. vivax: +15.5% [CI -0.7% to +31.7%], P. falciparum: +5.5% [CI +1.4% to +9.6%]) increased following infection with each species, but more so in P. vivax infection (volume: p = 0.72, radiotracer uptake: p = 0.036). There was no change in FDG uptake in the bone marrow (P. vivax: +4.6% [CI -15.9% to +25.0%], P. falciparum: +3.2% [CI -3.2% to +9.6%]) or liver (P. vivax: +6.2% [CI -8.7% to +21.1%], P. falciparum: -1.4% [CI -4.6% to +1.8%]) following infection with either species. In participants with P. vivax, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count decreased from baseline at the time of postinoculation imaging. Decrements in hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly greater in participants with P. vivax infection compared to P. falciparum. The main limitations of this study are the small sample size and the inability of this tracer to differentiate between host and parasite metabolic activity. CONCLUSIONS: PET/MRI indicated greater splenic tropism and metabolic activity in early P. vivax infection compared to P. falciparum, supporting the hypothesis of splenic accumulation of P. vivax very early in infection. The absence of uptake in the bone marrow and liver suggests that, at least in early infection, these tissues do not harbor a large parasite biomass or do not provoke a prominent metabolic response. PET/MRI is a safe and noninvasive method to evaluate infection-associated organ changes in morphology and glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Malária Falciparum/fisiopatologia , Malária Vivax/patologia , Malária Vivax/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Queensland , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/parasitologia , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Malar J ; 20(1): 93, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New anti-malarial therapeutics are required to counter the threat of increasing drug resistance. Malaria volunteer infection studies (VIS), particularly the induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) model, play a key role in accelerating anti-malarial drug development. Supply of the reference 3D7-V2 Plasmodium falciparum malaria cell bank (MCB) is limited. This study aimed to develop a new MCB, and compare the safety and infectivity of this MCB with the existing 3D7-V2 MCB, in a VIS. A second bank (3D7-V1) developed in 1995 was also evaluated. METHODS: The 3D7-V2 MCB was expanded in vitro using a bioreactor to produce a new MCB designated 3D7-MBE-008. This bank and 3D7-V1 were then evaluated using the IBSM model, where healthy participants were intravenously inoculated with blood-stage parasites. Participants were treated with artemether-lumefantrine when parasitaemia or clinical thresholds were reached. Safety, infectivity and parasite growth and clearance were evaluated. RESULTS: The in vitro expansion of 3D7-V2 produced 200 vials of the 3D7-MBE-008 MCB, with a parasitaemia of 4.3%. This compares to 0.1% in the existing 3D7-V2 MCB, and < 0.01% in the 3D7-V1 MCB. All four participants (two per MCB) developed detectable P. falciparum infection after inoculation with approximately 2800 parasites. For the 3D7-MBE-008 MCB, the parasite multiplication rate of 48 h (PMR48) using non-linear mixed effects modelling was 34.6 (95% CI 18.5-64.6), similar to the parental 3D7-V2 line; parasitaemia in both participants exceeded 10,000/mL by day 8. Growth of the 3D7-V1 was slower (PMR48 of 11.5 [95% CI 8.5-15.6]), with parasitaemia exceeding 10,000 parasites/mL on days 10 and 8.5. Rapid parasite clearance followed artemether-lumefantrine treatment in all four participants, with clearance half-lives of 4.01 and 4.06 (weighted mean 4.04 [95% CI 3.61-4.57]) hours for 3D7-MBE-008 and 4.11 and 4.52 (weighted mean 4.31 [95% CI 4.16-4.47]) hours for 3D7-V1. A total of 59 adverse events occurred; most were of mild severity with three being severe in the 3D7-MBE-008 study. CONCLUSION: The safety, growth and clearance profiles of the expanded 3D7-MBE-008 MCB closely resemble that of its parent, indicating its suitability for future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials registry numbers: P3487 (3D7-V1): ACTRN12619001085167. P3491 (3D7-MBE-008): ACTRN12619001079134.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum
9.
Malar J ; 20(1): 97, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases plasma levels of the cytokine Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), a haematopoietic factor associated with dendritic cell (DC) expansion. It is unknown if the zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi impacts Flt3L or DC in human malaria. This study investigated circulating DC and Flt3L associations in adult malaria and in submicroscopic experimental infection. METHODS: Plasma Flt3L concentration and blood CD141+ DC, CD1c+ DC and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) numbers were assessed in (i) volunteers experimentally infected with P. falciparum and in Malaysian patients with uncomplicated (ii) P. falciparum or (iii) P. knowlesi malaria. RESULTS: Plasmodium knowlesi caused a decline in all circulating DC subsets in adults with malaria. Plasma Flt3L was elevated in acute P. falciparum and P. knowlesi malaria with no increase in a subclinical experimental infection. Circulating CD141+ DCs, CD1c+ DCs and pDCs declined in all adults tested, for the first time extending the finding of DC subset decline in acute malaria to the zoonotic parasite P. knowlesi. CONCLUSIONS: In adults, submicroscopic Plasmodium infection causes no change in plasma Flt3L but does reduce circulating DCs. Plasma Flt3L concentrations increase in acute malaria, yet this increase is insufficient to restore or expand circulating CD141+ DCs, CD1c+ DCs or pDCs. These data imply that haematopoietic factors, yet to be identified and not Flt3L, involved in the sensing/maintenance of circulating DC are impacted by malaria and a submicroscopic infection. The zoonotic P. knowlesi is similar to other Plasmodium spp in compromising DC in adult malaria.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Malária/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/química , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(11): e1209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282291

RESUMO

Objective: CD4+ T cells are critical mediators of immunity to Plasmodium spp. infection, but their characteristics during malarial episodes and immunopathology in naturally infected adults are poorly defined. Flow cytometric analysis of PBMCs from patients with either P. falciparum or P. knowlesi malaria revealed a pronounced population of CD4+ T cells co-expressing very high levels of CD4 and CD38 we have termed CD4hiCD38hi T cells. We set out to gain insight into the function of these novel cells. Methods: CD4+ T cells from 18 patients with P. falciparum or P. knowlesi malaria were assessed by flow cytometry and sorted into populations of CD4hiCD38hi or CD4norm T cells. Gene expression in the sorted populations was assessed by qPCR and NanoString. Results: CD4hiCD38hi T cells expressed high levels of CD4 mRNA and canonical type 1 regulatory T-cell (TR1) genes including IL10, IFNG, LAG3 and HAVCR2 (TIM3), and other genes with relevance to cell migration and immunomodulation. These cells increased in proportion to malaria disease severity and were absent after parasite clearance with antimalarials. Conclusion: In naturally infected adults with acute malaria, a prominent population of type 1 regulatory T cells arises that can be defined by high co-expression of CD4 and CD38 (CD4hiCD38hi) and that correlates with disease severity in patients with falciparum malaria. This study provides fundamental insights into T-cell biology, including the first evidence that CD4 expression is modulated at the mRNA level. These findings have important implications for understanding the balance between immunity and immunopathology during malaria.

11.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003359, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay in receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria (UM) is often reported to increase the risk of developing severe malaria (SM), but access to treatment remains low in most high-burden areas. Understanding the contribution of treatment delay on progression to severe disease is critical to determine how quickly patients need to receive treatment and to quantify the impact of widely implemented treatment interventions, such as 'test-and-treat' policies administered by community health workers (CHWs). We conducted a pooled individual-participant meta-analysis to estimate the association between treatment delay and presenting with SM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search using Ovid MEDLINE and Embase was initially conducted to identify studies on severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria that included information on treatment delay, such as fever duration (inception to 22nd September 2017). Studies identified included 5 case-control and 8 other observational clinical studies of SM and UM cases. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and all studies were ranked as 'Good', scoring ≥7/10. Individual-patient data (IPD) were pooled from 13 studies of 3,989 (94.1% aged <15 years) SM patients and 5,780 (79.6% aged <15 years) UM cases in Benin, Malaysia, Mozambique, Tanzania, The Gambia, Uganda, Yemen, and Zambia. Definitions of SM were standardised across studies to compare treatment delay in patients with UM and different SM phenotypes using age-adjusted mixed-effects regression. The odds of any SM phenotype were significantly higher in children with longer delays between initial symptoms and arrival at the health facility (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64 for a delay of >24 hours versus ≤24 hours; p = 0.009). Reported illness duration was a strong predictor of presenting with severe malarial anaemia (SMA) in children, with an OR of 2.79 (95% CI:1.92-4.06; p < 0.001) for a delay of 2-3 days and 5.46 (95% CI: 3.49-8.53; p < 0.001) for a delay of >7 days, compared with receiving treatment within 24 hours from symptom onset. We estimate that 42.8% of childhood SMA cases and 48.5% of adult SMA cases in the study areas would have been averted if all individuals were able to access treatment within the first day of symptom onset, if the association is fully causal. In studies specifically recording onset of nonsevere symptoms, long treatment delay was moderately associated with other SM phenotypes (OR [95% CI] >3 to ≤4 days versus ≤24 hours: cerebral malaria [CM] = 2.42 [1.24-4.72], p = 0.01; respiratory distress syndrome [RDS] = 4.09 [1.70-9.82], p = 0.002). In addition to unmeasured confounding, which is commonly present in observational studies, a key limitation is that many severe cases and deaths occur outside healthcare facilities in endemic countries, where the effect of delayed or no treatment is difficult to quantify. CONCLUSIONS: Our results quantify the relationship between rapid access to treatment and reduced risk of severe disease, which was particularly strong for SMA. There was some evidence to suggest that progression to other severe phenotypes may also be prevented by prompt treatment, though the association was not as strong, which may be explained by potential selection bias, sample size issues, or a difference in underlying pathology. These findings may help assess the impact of interventions that improve access to treatment.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Benin/epidemiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Progressão da Doença , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/economia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1910-1917, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815508

RESUMO

Liver transaminase elevations after treatment in malaria volunteer infection studies (VISs) have raised safety concerns. We investigated transaminase elevations from two human Plasmodium vivax VISs where subjects were treated with chloroquine (n = 24) or artefenomel (n = 8) and compared them with studies in Thailand (n = 41) and Malaysia (n = 76). In the VISs, alanine transaminase (ALT) increased to ≥ 2.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) in 11/32 (34%) volunteers, peaking 5-8 days post-treatment. Transaminase elevations were asymptomatic, were not associated with elevated bilirubin, and resolved by day 42. The risk of an ALT ≥ 2.5 × ULN increased more than 4-fold (odds ratio [OR] 4.28; 95% CI: 1.26-14.59; P = 0.02) for every log10 increase in the parasite clearance burden (PCB), defined as the log-fold reduction in parasitemia 24 hours post-treatment. Although an elevated ALT ≥ 2.5 × ULN was more common after artefenomel than after chloroquine (5/8 [63%] versus 6/24 [25%]; OR 5.0; 95% CI: 0.91-27.47; P = 0.06), this risk disappeared when corrected for PCB. Peak ALT also correlated with peak C-reactive protein (R = 0.44; P = 0.012). Elevations in ALT (≥ 2.5 × ULN) were less common in malaria-endemic settings, occurring in 1/41 (2.5%) Thai patients treated with artefenomel, and in none of 76 Malaysians treated with chloroquine or artemisinin combination therapy. Post-treatment transaminase elevations are common in experimental P. vivax infection but do not appear to impact on participant safety. Although the mechanism of these changes remains uncertain, host inflammatory response to parasite clearance may be contributory.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxidos/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/parasitologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malásia , Masculino , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Malar J ; 19(1): 306, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is an emerging public health issue in Southeast Asia. In Sabah, Malaysia, P. knowlesi is now the dominant cause of human malaria. Molecular detection methods for P. knowlesi are essential for accurate diagnosis and in monitoring progress towards malaria elimination of other Plasmodium species. However, recent commercially available PCR malaria kits have unpublished P. knowlesi gene targets or have not been evaluated against clinical samples. METHODS: Two real-time PCR methods currently used in Sabah for confirmatory malaria diagnosis and surveillance reporting were evaluated: the QuantiFast™ Multiplex PCR kit (Qiagen, Germany) targeting the P. knowlesi 18S SSU rRNA; and the abTES™ Malaria 5 qPCR II kit (AITbiotech, Singapore), with an undisclosed P. knowlesi gene target. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using 52 P. knowlesi, 25 Plasmodium vivax, 21 Plasmodium falciparum, and 10 Plasmodium malariae clinical isolates, and 26 malaria negative controls, and compared against a validated reference nested PCR assay. The limit of detection (LOD) for each PCR method and Plasmodium species was also evaluated. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the QuantiFast™ and abTES™ assays for detecting P. knowlesi was comparable at 98.1% (95% CI 89.7-100) and 100% (95% CI 93.2-100), respectively. Specificity of the QuantiFast™ and abTES™ for P. knowlesi was high at 98.8% (95% CI 93.4-100) for both assays. The QuantiFast™ assay demonstrated falsely-positive mixed Plasmodium species at low parasitaemias in both the primary and LOD analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of both PCR kits for detecting P. vivax, P. falciparum, and P. malariae was comparable to P. knowlesi. The abTES™ assay demonstrated a lower LOD for P. knowlesi of ≤ 0.125 parasites/µL compared to QuantiFast™ with a LOD of 20 parasites/µL. Hospital microscopy demonstrated a sensitivity of 78.8% (95% CI 65.3-88.9) and specificity of 80.4% (95% CI 67.6-89.8) compared to reference PCR for detecting P. knowlesi. CONCLUSION: The QuantiFast™ and abTES™ commercial PCR kits performed well for the accurate detection of P. knowlesi infections. Although the QuantiFast™ kit is cheaper, the abTES™ kit demonstrated a lower LOD, supporting its use as a second-line referral-laboratory diagnostic tool in Sabah, Malaysia.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium malariae/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008202, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645098

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread and difficult to treat cause of human malaria. The development of vaccines against the blood stages of P. vivax remains a key objective for the control and elimination of vivax malaria. Erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) protein family members such as Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) are of critical importance to erythrocyte invasion and have been the major target for vivax malaria vaccine development. In this study, we focus on another member of EBL protein family, P. vivax erythrocyte binding protein (PvEBP). PvEBP was first identified in Cambodian (C127) field isolates and has subsequently been showed its preferences for binding reticulocytes which is directly inhibited by antibodies. We analysed PvEBP sequence from 316 vivax clinical isolates from eight countries including China (n = 4), Ethiopia (n = 24), Malaysia (n = 53), Myanmar (n = 10), Papua New Guinea (n = 16), Republic of Korea (n = 10), Thailand (n = 174), and Vietnam (n = 25). PvEBP gene exhibited four different phenotypic clusters based on the insertion/deletion (indels) variation. PvEBP-RII (179-479 aa.) showed highest polymorphism similar to other EBL family proteins in various Plasmodium species. Whereas even though PvEBP-RIII-V (480-690 aa.) was the most conserved domain, that showed strong neutral selection pressure for gene purifying with significant population expansion. Antigenicity of both of PvEBP-RII (16.1%) and PvEBP-RIII-V (21.5%) domains were comparatively lower than other P. vivax antigen which expected antigens associated with merozoite invasion. Total IgG recognition level of PvEBP-RII was stronger than PvEBP-RIII-V domain, whereas total IgG inducing level was stronger in PvEBP-RIII-V domain. These results suggest that PvEBP-RII is mainly recognized by natural IgG for innate protection, whereas PvEBP-RIII-V stimulates IgG production activity by B-cell for acquired immunity. Overall, the low antigenicity of both regions in patients with vivax malaria likely reflects genetic polymorphism for strong positive selection in PvEBP-RII and purifying selection in PvEBP-RIII-V domain. These observations pose challenging questions to the selection of EBP and point out the importance of immune pressure and polymorphism required for inclusion of PvEBP as a vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Ásia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/química , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Seleção Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568664

RESUMO

Orientia tsutsugamushi, spotted fever group rickettsioses, and typhus group rickettsioses (TGR) are reemerging causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Southeast Asia. To further delineate extent, we enrolled patients >4 weeks of age with nonmalarial AFI in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2013-2015. We confirmed rickettsioses (past or acute, IgG titer >160) in 126/354 (36%) patients. We confirmed acute rickettsioses (paired 4-fold IgG titer rise to >160) in 38/145 (26%) patients: 23 O. tsutsugamushi, 9 spotted fever group, 4 TGR, 1 O. tsutsugamushi/spotted fever group, and 1 O. tsutsugamushi/TGR. PCR results were positive in 11/319 (3%) patients. Confirmed rickettsioses were more common in male adults; agricultural/plantation work and recent forest exposure were risk factors. Dizziness and acute hearing loss but not eschars were reported more often with acute rickettsioses. Only 2 patients were treated with doxycycline. Acute rickettsioses are common (>26%), underrecognized, and untreated etiologies of AFI in East Malaysia; empirical doxycycline treatment should be considered.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Tifo por Ácaros , Adulto , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia
16.
Infect Immun ; 88(5)2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122938

RESUMO

Endothelial activation and microvascular dysfunction are key pathogenic processes in severe malaria. We evaluated the early role of these processes in experimentally induced Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection. Participants were enrolled in induced blood-stage malaria clinical trials. Plasma osteoprotegerin, angiopoietin-2, and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) levels were measured as biomarkers of endothelial activation. Microvascular function was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry and near-infrared spectroscopy, and the endothelial glycocalyx was assessed by sublingual videomicroscopy and measurement of biomarkers of degradation. Forty-five healthy, malaria-naive participants were recruited from 5 studies. Osteoprotegerin and vWF levels increased in participants following inoculation with P. vivax (n = 16) or P. falciparum (n = 15), with the angiopoietin-2 level also increasing in participants following inoculation with P. falciparum For both species, the most pronounced increase was seen in osteoprotegerin. This was particularly marked in participants inoculated with P. vivax, where the osteoprotegerin level correlated with the levels of parasitemia and the malaria clinical score. There were no changes in measures of endothelial glycocalyx or microvascular function. Plasma biomarkers of endothelial activation increased in early P. falciparum and P. vivax infection and preceded changes in the endothelial glycocalyx or microvascular function. The more pronounced increase in osteoprotegerin suggests that this biomarker may play a role in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Vivax/metabolismo , Microvasos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiopoietina-2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(3): 361-367, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaysia aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, while cases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have decreased substantially, the incidence of zoonotic malaria from Plasmodium knowlesi continues to increase, presenting a major challenge to regional malaria control efforts. Here we report incidence of all Plasmodium species in Sabah, including zoonotic P. knowlesi, during 2015-2017. METHODS: Microscopy-based malaria notification data and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were obtained from the Sabah Department of Health and State Public Health Laboratory, respectively, from January 2015 to December 2017. From January 2016 this was complemented by a statewide prospective hospital surveillance study. Databases were matched, and species was determined by PCR, or microscopy if PCR was not available. RESULTS: A total of 3867 malaria cases were recorded between 2015 and 2017, with PCR performed in 93%. Using PCR results, and microscopy if PCR was unavailable, P. knowlesi accounted for 817 (80%), 677 (88%), and 2030 (98%) malaria cases in 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. P. falciparum accounted for 110 (11%), 45 (6%), and 23 (1%) cases and P. vivax accounted for 61 (6%), 17 (2%), and 8 (0.4%) cases, respectively. Of those with P. knowlesi, the median age was 35 (interquartile range: 24-47) years, and 85% were male. CONCLUSIONS: Malaysia is approaching elimination of the human-only Plasmodium species. However, the ongoing increase in P. knowlesi incidence presents a major challenge to malaria control and warrants increased focus on knowlesi-specific prevention activities. Wider molecular surveillance in surrounding countries is required.


Assuntos
Malária , Plasmodium knowlesi , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium knowlesi/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002928, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in areas of emerging chloroquine resistance. We undertook a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) with or without primaquine (PQ) on the risk of recurrent P. vivax. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clinical efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. vivax treated with DP or AL and published between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2018, were identified by conducting a systematic review registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42016053310. Investigators of eligible studies were invited to contribute individual patient data that were pooled using standardised methodology. The effect of mg/kg dose of piperaquine/lumefantrine, ACT administered, and PQ on the rate of P. vivax recurrence between days 7 and 42 after starting treatment were investigated by Cox regression analyses according to an a priori analysis plan. Secondary outcomes were the risk of recurrence assessed on days 28 and 63. Nineteen studies enrolling 2,017 patients were included in the analysis. The risk of recurrent P. vivax at day 42 was significantly higher in the 384 patients treated with AL alone (44.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 38.7-49.8) compared with the 812 patients treated with DP alone (9.3%, 95% CI 7.1-12.2): adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 12.63 (95% CI 6.40-24.92), p < 0.001. The rates of recurrence assessed at days 42 and 63 were associated inversely with the dose of piperaquine: AHRs (95% CI) for every 5-mg/kg increase 0.63 (0.48-0.84), p = 0.0013 and 0.83 (0.73-0.94), p = 0.0033, respectively. The dose of lumefantrine was not significantly associated with the rate of recurrence (1.07 for every 5-mg/kg increase, 95% CI 0.99-1.16, p = 0.0869). In a post hoc analysis, in patients with symptomatic recurrence after AL, the mean haemoglobin increased 0.13 g/dL (95% CI 0.01-0.26) for every 5 days that recurrence was delayed, p = 0.0407. Coadministration of PQ reduced substantially the rate of recurrence assessed at day 42 after AL (AHR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.10-0.41, p < 0.001) and at day 63 after DP (AHR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.70, p = 0.0233). Results were limited by follow-up of patients to 63 days or less and nonrandomised treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed the risk of P. vivax recurrence at day 42 to be significantly lower following treatment with DP compared with AL, reflecting the longer period of post-treatment prophylaxis; this risk was reduced substantially by coadministration with PQ. We found that delaying P. vivax recurrence was associated with a small but significant improvement in haemoglobin. These results highlight the benefits of PQ radical cure and also the provision of blood-stage antimalarial agents with prolonged post-treatment prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Plasmodium vivax , Recidiva , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Malar J ; 18(1): 312, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a major consequence of malaria, caused by the removal of both infected and uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation. Complement activation and reduced expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on RBCs are an important pathogenic mechanism in severe malarial anaemia in both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. However, little is known about loss of CRPs on RBCs during mild malarial anaemia and in low-density infection. METHODS: The expression of CRP CR1, CD55, CD59, and the phagocytic regulator CD47, on uninfected normocytes and reticulocytes were assessed in individuals from two study populations: (1) P. falciparum and P. vivax-infected patients from a low transmission setting in Sabah, Malaysia; and, (2) malaria-naïve volunteers undergoing P. falciparum induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM). For clinical infections, individuals were categorized into anaemia severity categories based on haemoglobin levels. For IBSM, associations between CRPs and haemoglobin level were investigated. RESULTS: CRP expression on RBC was lower in Malaysian individuals with P. falciparum and P. vivax mild malarial anaemia compared to healthy controls. CRP expression was also reduced on RBCs from volunteers during IBSM. Reduction occurred on normocytes and reticulocytes. However, there was no significant association between reduced CRPs and haemoglobin during IBSM. CONCLUSIONS: Removal of CRPs occurs on both RBCs and reticulocytes during Plasmodium infection even in mild malarial anaemia and at low levels of parasitaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/parasitologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/complicações , Malária Vivax/complicações , Adulto , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 151, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria causes a reduction in haemoglobin that is compounded by primaquine, particularly in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contributions to red cell loss of malaria and primaquine in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax. METHODS: A systematic review identified P. vivax efficacy studies of chloroquine with or without primaquine published between January 2000 and March 2017. Individual patient data were pooled using standardised methodology, and the haematological response versus time was quantified using a multivariable linear mixed effects model with non-linear terms for time. Mean differences in haemoglobin between treatment groups at day of nadir and day 42 were estimated from this model. RESULTS: In total, 3421 patients from 29 studies were included: 1692 (49.5%) with normal G6PD status, 1701 (49.7%) with unknown status and 28 (0.8%) deficient or borderline individuals. Of 1975 patients treated with chloroquine alone, the mean haemoglobin fell from 12.22 g/dL [95% CI 11.93, 12.50] on day 0 to a nadir of 11.64 g/dL [11.36, 11.93] on day 2, before rising to 12.88 g/dL [12.60, 13.17] on day 42. In comparison to chloroquine alone, the mean haemoglobin in 1446 patients treated with chloroquine plus primaquine was - 0.13 g/dL [- 0.27, 0.01] lower at day of nadir (p = 0.072), but 0.49 g/dL [0.28, 0.69] higher by day 42 (p < 0.001). On day 42, patients with recurrent parasitaemia had a mean haemoglobin concentration - 0.72 g/dL [- 0.90, - 0.54] lower than patients without recurrence (p < 0.001). Seven days after starting primaquine, G6PD normal patients had a 0.3% (1/389) risk of clinically significant haemolysis (fall in haemoglobin > 25% to < 7 g/dL) and a 1% (4/389) risk of a fall in haemoglobin > 5 g/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Primaquine has the potential to reduce malaria-related anaemia at day 42 and beyond by preventing recurrent parasitaemia. Its widespread implementation will require accurate diagnosis of G6PD deficiency to reduce the risk of drug-induced haemolysis in vulnerable individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42016053312. The date of the first registration was 23 December 2016.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica/etiologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Malária Vivax/complicações , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos
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