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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1549, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid progress in information and communication technologies has promoted the development of smartphone applications (apps) for a wide variety of purposes including workplace safety. However, no specific apps for occupational risk prevention in the police domain seemingly exist as yet. In this work, an app running under the iOS and Android operating systems was developed to help police officers become acquainted with policing-related occupational risks and to prevent their damaging consequences. RESULTS: The proposed app, which uses an iterative user-centered design to avoid occupational risks in policing activities, was assessed for performance by a group of users and experts through a System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. The mean overall score for the questionnaire was 82.3. The app has backend support to facilitate continual improvement through contributions from users and administrators. A field test revealed increased awareness of policing occupational risks after using the app in many users. CONCLUSIONS: A novel product that covers the needs of ORP requirements of police officers has been developed.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMO

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491917

RESUMO

Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub that produces berries with a high content in antioxidant compounds. Since these compounds have demonstrated a positive effect on human health, the interest on berries and their usages has increased. However, environmental conditions may affect the productivity of these species and consequently the quality of wild myrtle. Ecotypes from diverse geographical origins may result in significant variations in terms of bioactive compounds content as well as in chemical traits. For this reason, in this work ecotypes from two different localizations have been studied to determine if their differences in morphological and anthocyanins traits can be attributed to their origin and the environmental characteristics of these locations. For this, chemometric analyses such as Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, were employed. The results showed differences between the ecotypes depending on their location. In particular, myrtle berries from maritime zones present greater fruit size and amount of bioactive compounds, which means an improvement in the quality of the final product based on this raw material. It can be concluded that both morphological and anthocyanins traits are related to the location of the ecotype and allow selecting the best ecotype for the required applications.

4.
Talanta ; 203: 235-241, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202332

RESUMO

According to European Union regulations, honey is a pure product and adding to or removing from it any kind of substance is illegal. Nevertheless, its adulteration by adding inexpensive and artificial adulterants is a common practice. This paper deals with the use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) combined with chemometric tools as a screening technique for the identification and quantification of different types of adulterants (inverted sugar, rice syrup, brown cane sugar and fructose syrup) added to high-quality honey (Granada Protected Designation of Origin, Spain) at different levels (5%-50%). A complete discrimination between non-adulterated and adulterated samples was achieved. A general regression model to quantify the adulteration levels was developed as well as specific models for each adulterant. The coefficients of determination were higher than 0.96 for all the models. These results demonstrate the capacity of Vis-NIRS combined with chemometric tools for honey quality control.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Frutose/análise , Glucose/análise , Análise Multivariada , Oryza/química , Saccharum/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Sacarose/análise
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987373

RESUMO

Nowadays, adulteration of honey is a frequent fraud that is sometimes motivated by the high price of this product in comparison with other sweeteners. Food adulteration is considered a deception to consumers that may have an important impact on people's health. For this reason, it is important to develop fast, cheap, reliable and easy to use analytical methods for food control. In the present research, a novel method based on headspace-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-IMS) for the detection of adulterated honey by adding high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been developed. A Box-Behnken design combined with a response surface method have been used to optimize a procedure to detect adulterated honey. Intermediate precision and repeatability studies have been carried out and coefficients of variance of 4.90% and 4.27%, respectively, have been obtained. The developed method was then tested to detect adulterated honey. For that purpose, pure honey samples were adulterated with HFCS at different percentages (10-50%). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed a tendency of the honey samples to be classified according to the level of adulteration. Nevertheless, a perfect classification was not achieved. On the contrary, a full classification (100%) of all the honey samples was performed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This is the first time the technique of HS-IMS has been applied for the determination of adulterated honey with HFCS in an automatic way.

6.
Talanta ; 199: 189-194, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952245

RESUMO

The destructive nature of fire together with a variety of interfering products from pyrolysis or background compounds among others, still offer a challenge on the proper identification of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs) in fire investigations. Nowadays, analysts use chromatography-mass spectrometry to try and classify ignitable liquids (IL) into one of the classes in the American Standards Testing Material method (ASTM E1618). In this study, an alternative approach is proposed to such analysis of fire debris. The proposed method would be based on ion mobility spectrometry sum spectrum (IMSSS) from headspace analysis, in combination with pattern recognition tools (Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA). Four different substrates (pinewood, cork, paper, and cotton sheet) were burnt with and without different ILs (gasoline, diesel, ethanol, and paraffin). According to LDA, 100% of fire debris samples were correctly classified for presence/absence and type of IL. A characteristic fingerprint for each ILR was created for quick discrimination. These results demonstrate the potential of using IMSSS for a fast, objective and easy interpretation of fire debris data. In addition, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) presents some advantages over traditional techniques such as its real-time monitoring capability and its capacity to work at atmospheric pressure, which allow the development of portable devices that would perform the analysis at the fire scene.

7.
Food Chem ; 277: 6-11, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502191

RESUMO

During the ageing period, diverse physicochemical changes occur affecting the quality of the final product. For this reason, it is important to study and optimize this step. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques combined with multivariate analysis were used to obtain regression models to correlate both spectroscopic data and chromatic parameters with the ageing level of high quality Sherry wines. Three spectral ranges were obtained that contain the highest variance: two different fingerprint ranges in FT-IR (1100-2000 cm-1 and 2300-2999 cm-1) and one range in the visible region (380-450 nm). The regression model has enabled full differentiation between the seven levels of ageing in the wine explored. A good linear regression fit (R2 above 0.95) was obtained regardless of the ranges used. The results demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques can be used to optimize the ageing process in a simple and fast way.


Assuntos
Vinho/análise , Cor , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espanha , Espectrofotometria , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Food Chem ; 270: 264-272, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174045

RESUMO

A highly sensitive, selective method has been developed and validated for determination of capsiate and dihydrocapsiate for the first time using HPLC-ESI/MS(QTOF). For both capsinoids, LODs and LOQs were 0.02 and 0.05 µmol/l, respectively. The intra- and interday repeatability values (RSD %) were 0.26-0.41% for retention time, and 2.25-2.11% for peak area. Recoveries were up to 98% and 97% for capsiate and dihydrocapsiate, respectively. This method was successfully applied to quantify capsiate and dihydrocapsiate in eight pepper fruit accessions. Capsinoids were found in the range of 1.21-544.59 µg/g DW for capsiate and of 0.61-81.95 µg/g DW for dihydrocapsiate. In the 'Tabasco' accession, capsiate and dihydrocapsiate were quantified for the first time, ranging from 3.09 to 58.76 and 1.80 to 6.94 µg/g DW, respectively. Additionally, the ESI-MS/MS(QTOF) analysis has allowed the tentative identification of two other minor capsinoids by exact mass and fragmentation pattern, in the 'Bhut Jolokia' accession.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Capsaicina/análise , Frutas
9.
Talanta ; 188: 288-292, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029378

RESUMO

Honey is a pure product for which the addition of any other substance is prohibited by international regulations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable analytical methods to guarantee its authenticity. Visible-near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) combined with chemometric tools, like hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), has been used for the discrimination of honey adulterated with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Different honey samples from the Granada Protected Designation of Origin (Spain) were adulterated with HFCS at different percentages (10 - 90%). LDA was able to discriminate 100% of the samples. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to predict the level of adulteration. The best prediction model used 10 factors with a high coefficient of determination near 1. The developed method showed high precision (coefficient of variation below 4%). Vis-NIRS combined with chemometrics can be used for the rapid and non-destructive detection of honey adulteration. The obtained results demonstrate that the application of this technique as a screening method could be a useful tool for quality monitoring analysis in routine laboratories.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espanha , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(7)2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986465

RESUMO

In recent years pollution due to hydrocarbon spills has increased markedly as a result of the numerous advances in technologies and industrial processes. Anthropogenic activities (accidental or illegal) are responsible for most of these incidents. In some cases, the spills are not detected at the moment they occur and the contaminants are subjected to different degradation phenomena that may change the chemical composition of the hydrocarbon over time. An incorrect or ineffective identification of the spill could lead to significant consequences, bearing in mind that most spills are hazardous to the environment. In the present work the capacity of the analytical technique based on the Electronic Nose (eNose) combined with chemometrics in the identification and discrimination of different weathered petroleum-derived products (PDPs) was studied. Different volumes (40 μL and 80 μL) of PDPs (gasoline, diesel, and paraffin) were poured onto different supports (wood, cork, paper, and cotton sheet) and subjected to a natural weathering process by evaporation for one month. The porosity of the support was also studied. The application of linear discriminant analysis allowed the full discrimination of the samples according to the presence/absence of PDP and a 97.7% of correct discrimination of the different PDPs regardless of the weathering time, support or volume used. The results show that the system is capable of detecting and discriminating the presence of petroleum-derived products in any of the situations studied.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(1)2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304020

RESUMO

In a fire investigation the rapid detection of the presence of ignitable liquids like gasoline is of great importance as it allows appropriate treatment of the remains, the identification of prevention methods and detects the possible presence of an arsonist. In some cases, analysts cannot access the fire scene in the first few hours due to the dangers involved in the situation and, as a consequence, phenomena such as weathering start. Ignitable liquid weathering is an evaporation process that results in an increase in the abundance of non-volatile compounds relative to volatile compounds, and this process changes the chemical composition. In the present work, the weathering of samples of gasoline at different times (from 0 h to a month) has been studied using an electronic nose (eNose). The influence of the volume used (40 µL and 80 µL) and the type of support (cork, wood, paper and cotton sheet) has been studied. Chemometric tools have been used with the aim of ascertaining the weathering time for which the developed method is capable of detecting the presence of gasoline. The eNose was able to discriminate samples of weathered gasoline. The support used for the samples did not seem to have an influence on the detection and the system.

12.
Food Chem ; 239: 217-224, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873562

RESUMO

A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with a C18 reverse-phase fused-core column has been developed for the determination and quantification of the main capsaicinoids (nornordihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in Naga Jolokia peppers. A fused-core Kinetex™ C18 column (50×2.1mm i.d.; 2.6µm) was used for the analysis. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a gradient method in which the mobile phase was water (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent A and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent B. The separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 3min with a total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 10min. The robustness of the method was evaluated. The method showed excellent repeatability and intermediate precision expressed as coefficient of variance of less than 2%. The developed method was employed for the quantification of the major capsaicinoids present in different peppers and commercial products containing chilli peppers.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Capsaicina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Solventes , Verduras , Água
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(11)2017 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113069

RESUMO

Characterization of petroleum-derived products is an area of continuing importance in environmental science, mainly related to fuel spills. In this study, a non-separative analytical method based on E-Nose (Electronic Nose) is presented as a rapid alternative for the characterization of several different petroleum-derived products including gasoline, diesel, aromatic solvents, and ethanol samples, which were poured onto different surfaces (wood, cork, and cotton). The working conditions about the headspace generation were 145 °C and 10 min. Mass spectroscopic data (45-200 m/z) combined with chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), later principal component analysis (PCA), and finally linear discriminant analysis (LDA) allowed for a full discrimination of the samples. A characteristic fingerprint for each product can be used for discrimination or identification. The E-Nose can be considered as a green technique, and it is rapid and easy to use in routine analysis, thus providing a good alternative to currently used methods.

14.
Molecules ; 22(6)2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587278

RESUMO

Some cultural practices that are carried out during the grape ripening period are associated with vine stress, including leaf removal, grape bunch removal, and vegetable cover crops. Additionally, several nitrogen and sulfur supplements have also been used directly on leaves during the last stage of the ripening period. In the work described here, five different cultural practices and the reference were applied in three replicates in the same vineyard. The evolution of tryptophan levels was evaluated from just after grape veraison until the harvest date. In some cases, certain specific treatments were also evaluated after the regular harvest date. The cultural techniques that involved the application of nitrogen led to higher levels of tryptophan at the harvest day when compared to other cultural techniques. It was also found that the application of nitrogen without sulfur had a faster effect on the level of tryptophan. It was established that a period of around 20 days is needed for the grapes to show clear differences in tryptophan levels after the application of nitrogen.


Assuntos
Triptofano/análise , Triptofano/química , Vitis/química , Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
Molecules ; 22(5)2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467391

RESUMO

The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper (Capsicum frutescens) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Capsaicinoids were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and the extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection. A significant increase in the total content of capsaicinoids was observed in the early days (between 12 and 33). Between day 33 and 40 there was a slight reduction in the total capsaicinoid content (3.3% decrease). C was the major capsaicinoid, followed by DHC, n-DHC, h-C and h-DHC. By considering the evolution of standardized values of the capsaicinoids it was verified that n-DHC, DHC and h-DHC (dihydrocapsaicin-like capsaicinoids) present a similar behavior pattern, while h-C and C (capsaicin-like capsaicinoids) show different evolution patterns.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Capsaicina/isolamento & purificação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Food Chem ; 219: 23-32, 2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765221

RESUMO

New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments. Two response variables were considered: total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds. Extraction temperature and solvent composition were found to be the most influential parameters for anthocyanins (48°C and 76%) and phenolic compounds (64°C and 61%). The developed methods showed high reproducibility and repeatability (RSD<5%). Finally, the new methods were successfully applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in several mulberry jams.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Frutas/química , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Fenóis/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 220: 331-336, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855908

RESUMO

Adulteration of olive oil is not only a major economic fraud but can also have major health implications for consumers. In this study, a combination of visible spectroscopy with a novel multivariate curve resolution method (CR), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is proposed for the authentication of virgin olive oil (VOO) samples. VOOs are well-known products with the typical properties of a two-component system due to the two main groups of compounds that contribute to the visible spectra (chlorophylls and carotenoids). Application of the proposed CR method to VOO samples provided the two pure-component spectra for the aforementioned families of compounds. A correlation study of the real spectra and the resolved component spectra was carried out for different types of oil samples (n=118). LDA using the correlation coefficients as variables to discriminate samples allowed the authentication of 95% of virgin olive oil samples.


Assuntos
Azeite de Oliva/química , Clorofila , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise Espectral
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 13(8): 1068-75, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27416068

RESUMO

The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(5)2016 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187407

RESUMO

Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45-200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses.

20.
Talanta ; 134: 256-263, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25618665

RESUMO

In this work a multivariate statistical tool (Derringer and Suich optimization) was proposed for the separation of seventeen capsinoids (natural and synthetic) using the UHPLC-DAD chromatography. Capsinoids were analyzed at 280 nm. The variables optimized were the mobile phase (water (0.1% acetic acid as solvent A) and acetonitrile (0.1% as solvent B)), gradient time and flow rate. Two columns with different length (50 and 100 mm) were used for the chromatographic separation. The two columns used properly separated the seventeen capsinoids, however the 100 mm column length showed a better chromatographic separation with a shorter run time and smaller peak widths. These results provided better values of limit of detection and quantification for the 100 mm column length. The better conditions of separation with the 100 mm column length were established with: initial mobile phase with 41.8% of solvent B; 3.96 min of linear gradient time to reach 100% of solvent B; flow rate of 0.679 mL min(-1). A validation of the method has been done with excellent values of repeatability (RSD<1.92) and intermediate precision (RSD<3.92). The developed method has been applied to real samples. Capsiate has been identified and quantified in some varieties of peppers.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/isolamento & purificação , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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