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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975133

RESUMO

Background: Mitral valve-in-valve (ViV) and valve-in-ring (ViR) are alternatives to surgical reoperation in patients with recurrent mitral valve failure after previous surgical valve repair or replacement. Our aim was to perform a large-scale analysis examining mid-term outcomes after mitral ViV and ViR. Methods: Patients undergoing mitral ViV and ViR were enrolled in the Valve-in-Valve International Data Registry. Cases were performed between March 2006 and March 2020. Clinical endpoints are reported according to the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium (MVARC) definitions. Significant residual mitral stenosis (MS) was defined as mean gradient ≥10 mmHg and significant residual mitral regurgitation (MR) as ≥ moderate. Results: A total of 1,079 patients (857 ViV, 222 ViR; mean age 73.5 years ± 12.5; 40.8% male) from 90 centers were included. Median STS-PROM score 8.6%; median clinical follow-up 492 days [IQR 76 - 996 days]; median echocardiographic follow-up for patients that survived 1 year 772.5 days [IQR 510 - 1211.75 days]. Four-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 62.5% in ViV vs. 49.5% for ViR (p<0.001). Mean gradient across the mitral valve post-procedure was 5.7 ± 2.8 mmHg (≥5mmHg, 61.4% of patients). Significant residual MS occurred in 8.2% of the ViV and 12.0% of the ViR patients (p=0.09). Significant residual MR was more common in ViR patients (16.6% vs. 3.1%; p<0.001) and was associated with lower survival at 4 years (35.1% vs. 61.6%; p=0.02). The rates of MVARC-defined device success were low for both procedures (39.4% total; 32.0% ViR vs. 41.3% ViV; p=0.01), mostly related to having post-procedural mean gradient ≥5mmHg. Correlates for residual MS were smaller true internal diameter, younger age and larger body mass index. The only correlate for residual MR was ViR. Significant residual MS (SHR 4.67; 95% CI 1.74 - 12.56; p=0.002) and significant residual MR (SHR 7.88; 95% CI 2.88 - 21.53; p<0.001) were both independently associated with repeat mitral valve replacement. Conclusions: Significant residual MS and/or MR were not infrequent after mitral ViV and ViR procedures and were both associated with a need for repeat valve replacement. Strategies to improve post-procedural hemodynamics in mitral ViV and ViR should be further explored.

2.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(5): 567-579, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the incidence, clinical impact, and changes over time of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG-AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Few data exist on the clinical impact and changes in severity over time of MR in patients with LFLG-AS undergoing TAVR. METHODS: A total of 308 TAVR candidates with LFLG-AS were included. Patients were categorized according to MR severity at baseline, and presence of MR improvement at 12-month follow-up. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 and 12 months (+ echocardiography), and yearly thereafter. RESULTS: Baseline mild and moderate-to-severe MR were present in 118 (38.3%) and 115 (37.3%) patients, respectively. MR was of functional and mixed etiology in 77.2% and 22.7% of patients, respectively. A total of 131 patients (42.5%) died after a median follow-up of 2 (1 to 3) years. Baseline moderate-or-greater MR had no impact on mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 2.48) or heart failure hospitalization (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.10). At 1-year follow-up, MR improved in 44.3% of patients and remained unchanged/worsened in 55.7%. The lack of MR improvement was associated with a higher risk of all-cause and cardiac mortality (HR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.17; HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.27 to 7.23, respectively), rehospitalization for cardiac causes (HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.15), and an increased overall-mortality/heart failure rehospitalization (HR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.25 to 3.02). A higher baseline left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and a higher increase in left ventricular ejection fraction were found to be independent predictors of MR improvement at 1-year follow-up (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94; and odds ratio: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.96, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Most TAVR candidates with LFLG-AS had some degree of MR, of functional origin in most cases. MR improved in about one-half of patients, with larger left ventricular size and a higher increase in left ventricular ejection fraction post-TAVR determining MR improvement over time. The lack of MR improvement at 1 year was associated with poorer outcomes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hemodinâmica , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 30(2): 229-235, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to analyse the initial results of the first 50 transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve procedures performed in a single Latin American centre. METHODS: A prospective, single centre, database analysis was conducted to evaluate immediate, 30-day and 1-year postoperative results of 50 consecutive patients who had a transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve procedure from May 2015 to June 2018. All patients were operated on in a hybrid operating room and received a balloon-expandable valve via the transapical approach. Preoperative and postoperative characteristics were analysed and compared between the first 25 and the second 25 patients to evaluate the impact of the learning curve. Twenty patients had a follow-up examination at 1 year. RESULTS: There was a 98% device success rate. The patients had a mean age of 64.8 years; 72% were women; 80% were in New York Heart Association functional class ≥III preoperatively; and 36% of the procedures were urgent. The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores and EuroSCORE II were 8.3% and 12.4%, respectively. Patients had a median of 2 previous operations; valve durability was 12.1 years; and 64% mitral valve disease of rheumatic fever aetiology. Echocardiography showed decreases in the maximum and mean mitral gradients from 23.5 to 14.6 and 11.5 to 6.4 mmHg postoperatively; the overall mean hospitalization period was 15 days. The overall mortality rate at 30 days was 14%, with 1 intraprocedural death. Further subanalyses between the first and the second half of the cases showed a drop in the mortality rate from 20% to 8% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve procedure was shown to be a safe and effective procedure to treat bioprosthetic dysfunction, with potential benefits in patients with rheumatic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(1): 64-70, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566185

RESUMO

Importance: In low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG AS), the severity of left ventricular dysfunction remains a key factor in the evaluation of aortic valve replacement. Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with LFLG AS and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter registry is a substudy of the True or Pseudo-Severe Aortic Stenosis-TAVI registry that included patients with classic LFLG AS, defined as a mean transvalvular gradient less than 35 mm Hg, an effective orifice area less than 1.0 cm2, and an LVEF of 40% or less. Patients were divided in groups with very low (<30%) LVEF and low (30%-40%) LVEF. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed before TAVR in a subset with very low LVEF, and presence of contractile reserve was defined as an increase of 20% or more in stroke volume. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 and 12 months and yearly thereafter, and echocardiography was performed at 1-year follow-up. Retrospective data were collected from 2007 to 2013 and prospective data from January 2013 to March 2018. Data were analyzed from March to October 2018. Exposures: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with LFLG AS. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in LVEF over time; periprocedural and late mortality. Results: A total of 293 patients were included, including 128 (43.7%) with very low LVEF and 165 with low LVEF (56.3%). Their mean (SD) age was 80 (7) years, and most (214 [73.0%]) were men. The mean (SD) LVEF in the very low LVEF group was 22% (5%), compared with 37% (7%) in the low LVEF group (P < .001). There were no differences between groups in rates of periprocedural mortality and late mortality (median [interquartile range], 23 [6-38] months). Patients with very low LVEF displayed a greater increase in LVEF at the 1-year follow-up examination (mean absolute increase, 11.9% [95% CI, 8.8%-15.1%]), than the low LVEF group (3.6% [95% CI, 1.1%-6.1%]; P < .001). In 92 patients with very low LVEF who had preprocedural DSE, results showed a lack of contractile reserve in 45 (49%), but this had no effect on clinical outcomes or changes in LVEF over time. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with LFLG AS and severe left ventricular dysfunction, TAVR was associated with similar clinical outcomes as in counterparts with milder left ventricular dysfunction. The TAVR procedure was associated with a significant increase in LVEF, irrespective of contractile reserve. These results support TAVR for LFLG AS, irrespective of the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and DSE results.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
5.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 87(3): 540-8, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26577250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) for severely calcified native mitral valve disease recently emerged as a treatment option in patients deemed inoperable by conventional techniques. Yet no systematic appraisal currently exists characterizing this novel treatment paradigm. METHODS: A systematic literature review summarizing the clinical, anatomical, peri- and post-procedural characteristics underscoring the technical feasibility of this procedure was performed. RESULTS: Nine publications describing 11 patients [mean age 68 ± 10 years, 82% female, 82% severe mitral stenosis (MS), 18% severe mitral regurgitation (MR)] were identified. Mean STS score, trans-mitral gradient and effective orifice area were 10.5 ± 4.6%, 12 ± 2.4 mm Hg and 0.93 ± 0.06 cm(2) respectively. All patients had severe, circumferential mitral annular calcification on imaging. Dedicated balloon-expanding transcatheter aortic valves were used in 10/11 cases, with 8/11 cases involving a true percutaneous approach with peri-procedural 3D trans-esophageal echocardiographic guidance; 3/11 cases involved an open left atrial approach. Following initial balloon inflation and valve deployment, procedural success rate was 73%, without residual paravalvular leaks (PVL). Successful immediate re-deployment of a 2nd valve was needed in 2 instances following significant PVL detection. Residual trans-valvular gradients ranged from 3 to 7 mm Hg, with no patient demonstrating >grade 2 MR. All patients survived the procedure, with 2 reported deaths on days 10- and 41 post-TMVI being non-cardiac-related. Mid-term clinical follow-up, reported in 8 patients, revealed 6 patients to be alive at 3-months with much improved functional status. CONCLUSIONS: TMVI for native severely calcified mitral valve disease appears technically feasible with acceptable initial acute and mid-term hemodynamic and clinical outcomes. The outcomes of an ongoing, dedicated global Sapien TMVI registry will shed further light on this evolving treatment paradigm.


Assuntos
Calcinose/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/terapia , Valva Mitral , Idoso , Valvuloplastia com Balão , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
EuroIntervention ; 10(9): 1127-31, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24832489

RESUMO

AIMS: Elevated filling pressures of the left atrium (LA) are associated with poorer outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. The V-Wave is a new percutaneously implanted device intended to decrease the LA pressure by the shunting of blood from the LA to the right atrium. This report describes the first-in-man experience with the V-Wave device. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 70-year-old man with a history of heart failure of ischaemic origin, left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF: 35%, pulmonary wedge: 19 mmHg), no right heart dysfunction, NYHA Class III and orthopnoea despite optimal treatment, was accepted for V-Wave device implantation. The device consists of an ePTFE encapsulated nitinol frame that is implanted at the level of the interatrial septum and contains a trileaflet pericardium tissue valve sutured inside which allows a unidirectional LA to right atrium shunt. The procedure was performed through a transfemoral venous approach under fluoroscopic and TEE guidance. The device was successfully implanted and the patient was discharged 24 hours after the procedure with no complications. At three-month follow-up a left-to-right shunt through the device was confirmed by TEE. The patient was in NYHA Class II, without orthopnoea, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy index was 77.6 (from 39.1 at baseline) and NT-proBNP was 322 ng/mL (from 502 ng/mL at baseline). The QP/QS was 1.17 and the pulmonary wedge was 8 mmHg, with no changes in pulmonary pressure or right ventricular function. CONCLUSIONS: Left atrial decompression through a unidirectional left-to-right interatrial shunt represents a new concept for the treatment of patients with left ventricular failure. The present report shows the feasibility of applying this new therapy with the successful and uneventful implantation of the V-Wave device, which was associated with significant improvement in functional, quality of life and haemodynamic parameters at 90 days.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia , Idoso , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/cirurgia
9.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 7(9): 1022-32, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25234675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the degree of residual aortic regurgitation (AR) and acuteness of presentation of AR after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on outcomes. BACKGROUND: The degree of residual AR after TAVR leading to excess mortality remains controversial, and little evidence exists on the impact of the acuteness of presentation of AR. METHODS: A total of 1,735 patients undergoing TAVR with balloon-expandable or self-expanding valves were included. The presence and degree of AR were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography; acute AR was defined as an increase in AR severity of ≥1 degree compared with pre-procedural echocardiography. RESULTS: Residual AR was classified as mild in 761 patients (43.9%) and moderate to severe in 247 patients (14.2%). The presence of moderate to severe AR was an independent predictor of mortality at a mean follow-up of 21 ± 17 months compared with none to trace (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32 to 2.48; p < 0.001) and mild AR (adjusted HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.24; p < 0.001) groups. There was no increased risk in patients with mild AR compared with those with none to trace AR (p = 0.393). In patients with moderate to severe AR, acute AR was observed in 161 patients (65%) and chronic AR in 86 patients (35%). Acute moderate to severe AR was independently associated with increased risk of mortality compared with none/trace/mild AR (adjusted HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.53 to 3.66; p < 0.001) and chronic moderate to severe AR (adjusted HR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.17 to 4.30; p = 0.015) [corrected]. No differences in survival rate were observed between patients with chronic moderate to severe and none/trace/mild AR (p > 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: AR occurred very frequently after TAVR, but an increased risk of mortality at ∼2-year follow-up was observed only in patients with acute moderate to severe AR.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valvuloplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Cateterismo Cardíaco/mortalidade , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Desenho de Prótese , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 566-582, jul. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-113638

RESUMO

Las técnicas percutáneas para el tratamiento de la insuficiencia mitral han generado gran interés en los últimos años. La anuloplastia mitral percutánea se puede realizar por vía indirecta a través de dispositivos implantados en el seno coronario o por vía directa a través de un acceso retrógrado. Sin embargo, los resultados de la anuloplastia percutánea son todavía escasos, dispares y asociados a una alta tasa de complicaciones con algunos dispositivos. La técnica más utilizada de reparación percutánea mitral consiste en la plicatura de los velos mitrales mediante la implantación de uno o varios clips percutáneos (MitraClip) imitando la técnica quirúrgica de Alfieri. Este dispositivo, que actualmente acumula la mayor experiencia clínica, se asocia a una mejoría de la insuficiencia mitral en un alto porcentaje de pacientes bien seleccionados. Sin embargo, su eficacia se ha demostrado inferior a la de la reparación quirúrgica en el que hasta el momento es el único estudio aleatorizado (EVEREST), y se está a la espera de los resultados de nuevos estudios aleatorizados que clarifiquen qué tipo de pacientes pueden obtener mayor beneficio con esta técnica. Otros dispositivos de remodelado de ventrículo izquierdo, implantación de cuerdas tendinosas o ablación de valvas se encuentran en fase de desarrollo preclínico o primeras experiencias en humanos. Finalmente, el desarrollo de prótesis biológicas para reemplazo mitral percutáneo está en una fase incipiente, hay múltiples experiencias prometedoras en fase preclínica y las primeras experiencias en humanos proliferarán muy probablemente en un futuro próximo. Los estudios aleatorizados, sin embargo, deberán establecer el verdadero papel de esta técnica en el tratamiento de la valvulopatía mitral (AU)


Percutaneous techniques for the treatment of mitral regurgitation have aroused much interest in recent years. Percutaneous mitral annuloplasty can be performed indirectly by using devices implanted in the coronary sinus or directly by using a retrograde approach. However, as yet, the results of these techniques are scarce and some devices have a high complications rate. The most frequent percutaneous mitral valve repair technique consists of mitral leaflet plication by implanting 1 or more percutaneous clips (MitraClip) in an imitation of the Alfieri surgical technique. Clinical experience with this device is broader than that with any other. The MitraClip device is associated with improved mitral regurgitation in a high percentage of carefully-selected patients. However, the single randomized study performed to date (EVEREST) showed its efficacy to be less than that of surgical repair and we await the results of new randomized studies that should clarify which patient-type can benefit most from this technique. Other left ventricular remodeling devices, tendinous cord implantation, and leaflet ablation are currently undergoing preclinical development or first-in-human experimentation. Finally, the development of biological prostheses for percutaneous mitral valve replacement is at an early stage. Many promising experiments at the preclinical phase and initial experiments in humans will very probably multiply in the near future. However, the true role of this technique in treating mitral valve disease will have to be evaluated in appropriately designed randomized controlled studies (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/prevenção & controle , /métodos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/instrumentação , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Cordas Tendinosas/anormalidades , Cordas Tendinosas/cirurgia , Cordas Tendinosas , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/estatística & dados numéricos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Comorbidade , Fluoroscopia/instrumentação , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Estudos de Coortes
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