Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 159
Filtrar
1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
2.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 82(6): 528-536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576927

RESUMO

Pterygium pathogenesis has been mainly asso ciated with UV light exposure; however, this association remains quite controversial. The complete mechanism of pterygium also remains to be clarified. Factors such as inflammation, viral infection, oxidative stress, DNA methylation, inflammatory mediators, extracellular matrix modulators, apoptotic and oncogenic proteins, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, lymphangiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition, and alterations in cholesterol metabolism have been identified as causes. Several studies aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth and proliferation of pterygium. Understanding its molecular basis provides new potential therapeutic targets for its prevention and treatment. A comprehensive search of the databases, namely, MedLine, EMBASE, and LILACS, was conducted with the following key words: pterygium, epidemiology, pathogenesis, biomarkers, and review. This review describes the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current investigation of biological mediators involved in pterygium development.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0213956, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze how ocular surface parameters correlate to presence of pterygium and investigate the possible impact of pterygia on tear film findings and meibomian glands findings. METHODS: We investigated objective parameters of the ocular surface such as conjunctival hyperemia, tear film stability and volume, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, corneal topography comparing healthy individuals and correlating with the pterygium clinical presentation. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients were included. Corneal astigmatism induction was 2.65 ± 2.52 D (0.4-11.8). The impact of pterygium on the ocular surface parameters compared to matched controls was seen in: conjunctival hyperemia (control 1.55±0.39/pterygium 2.14±0.69; p = 0.0001), tear meniscus height (control 0.24±0.05 mm/pterygium 0.36±0.14mm; p 0.0002), meiboscore lower eyelid (control 0.29±0.64/pterygium 1.38±0.95; p 0.0001) and meiboscore upper eyelid (control 0.53±0.62/pterygium 0.98±0.75; p = 0.0083). We found a high number of pterygium patients (88%) presented meibomian gland alterations. Interestingly, meibomian gland loss was coincident to the localization of the pterygium in 54% of the upper and 77% lower lids. CONCLUSION: Pterygium greatly impacts on ocular surface by inducing direct alterations in the pattern of meibomian glands besides corneal irregularities, conjunctival hyperemia and lacrimal film alterations, inducing significant symptoms and potential signs of dysfunction.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 374-380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress is a state of threat to the balance of the organism, which can cause biological and psychological changes. In hypertensive patients, stress can interfere with blood pressure levels, influence on food choices and neglect of the diet. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the relationship between stress and dietary intake of hypertensive patients. METHODS: A transversal study was carried out at the Arterial Hypertension Clinic of the Cardiology Institute of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants were aged ≥ 18 years and hypertensive. Blood pressure, food consumption and anthropometric measurements were collected. The variables related to stress were evaluated by the Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory (LSSI) for adults. Significance level of 5% has been considered for all analyzed data. RESULTS: The number of participants was 100. There was a higher prevalence of the female sex (67%), the mean age of the study population was 55.87 ± 12.55 years. Among the participants, 86% were classified in some of the stress phases, on which 57% were in the resistance phase. It was observed that there was no correlation between the presence of stress (as well as their actions), pressure levels and food consumption. The consumption of foods rich in lipids and individuals with a prevalence of psychological symptoms of stress displayed a significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Rich in fat dietary has been the first choice in patients with psychological symptoms of stress. Further studies regarding remodeled dietary intake and blood pressure levels in relation to the stress phases are suggested. These findings are important to contribute to the development of prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of arterial hypertension based on measurements of blood pressure in the office has low accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of masked hypertension (MH) and white-coat hypertension through home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) in pre-hypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive patients. METHOD: Retrospective study, of which sample consisted of individuals with BP ≥ 120/80 mmHg and < 160/100 mmHg at the medical office without the use of antihypertensive medication and who underwent exams on the HBPM platform by telemedicine (TeleMRPA) between May 2017 and September 2018. The four-day MRPA protocol was used, with 24 measurements, using automated, validated, calibrated equipment with a memory function. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,273 participants, of which 739 (58.1%) were women. The mean age was 52.4 ± 14.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 28.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2. The casual BP was higher than the HBPM in 7.6 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 5.2 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), both with statistical significance (p < 0.001). There were 558 (43.8%) normotensive individuals; 291 (22.9%) with sustained hypertension; 145 (11.4%) with MH and 279 (21.9%) with white-coat hypertension (WCH), with a diagnostic error by casual BP in the total sample in 424 (33.3%) patients. In stage 1 hypertensive individuals, the prevalence of WCH was 48.9%; in prehypertensive patients, the prevalence of MH was 20.6%. CONCLUSION: MH and WCH have a high prevalence rate in the adult population; however, in prehypertensive or stage 1 hypertensive patients, the prevalence is higher. Out-of-office BP measurements in these subgroups should be performed whenever possible to prevent misdiagnosis.

6.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1816-1823, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263210

RESUMO

The values used to define the presence of white-coat or masked blood pressure (BP) effects are arbitrary. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of several cutoff points based on the difference between office and home BP (ΔBP) values to detect white-coat uncontrolled (WUCH) and masked uncontrolled (MUCH) hypertension, which are phenotypes with adverse prognoses, in a large cohort of treated hypertensive patients. This multicenter cross-sectional study included 6,049 treated hypertensive patients (40% males, mean age 59.1 ± 14.4 years) who underwent office and home BP monitoring. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC), and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of several ΔBP cutoffs to detect WUCH and MUCH. The 15/9 mmHg cutoff, which reflects a 1.0 standard deviation of the ΔBP, showed the best AUC (0.783, 95% CI = 0.772-0.794) for the detection of WUCH, particularly in individuals with office grade 1 hypertension (AUC = 0.811, 95% CI = 0.793-0.829). The -1/-1 mmHg cutoff, which considers all individuals who had lower systolic or diastolic BP levels in the office than at home, had the highest AUC (0.822, 95% CI = 0.808-0.836) for the detection of MUCH. Both cutoff values also had the best performances for identifying all patients with higher and lower office-than-home BP grades. In conclusion, the 15/9 and -1/-1 mmHg cutoffs showed the best performance for the detection of treated hypertensive patients with WUCH and MUCH, respectively, and therefore might be markers of significant white-coat and masked effects and could be useful for identifying preferential targets for more routine home BP measures.

7.
Eur Radiol ; 29(12): 6772-6779, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whole-body CT scans are commonly performed to assess trauma patients, and often reveal incidental findings (IFs) the patient may be unaware of. We assessed the prevalence, associations, and adequacy of follow-up of IFs. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 1113 patients who had a chest CT to assess for traumatic injuries (6-year interval). We coded the radiology reports for IFs and queried our EMR regarding clinical history and adherence to follow-up recommendations for IFs mentioned in the reports. RESULTS: IFs are much more likely (62.2%) to be found in a chest CT scan than acute traumatic injuries (ATI, 32.4%), in patients being evaluated for potential traumatic injuries. A total of 86.4% of patients who had IFs also had another relevant ICD-10 diagnosis (RD). Lung nodules were the most common IF (45.7%). A multivariate logistic regression model (MLR) demonstrated an accuracy of 89% to predict IFs; the 3 statistically significant predictors (p < 0.05) were any RD (FDR logworth 68.6), followed by smoking history (29.8) and age (4.1). Radiologists recommended follow-up for IF 53.5% of the time, but only 13.9% of patients ever received a follow-up imaging exam or invasive procedure. CONCLUSIONS: IFs are much more common than ATI and can be accurately predicted based on MLR utilizing only 3 clinical variables. While radiologists often recommend follow-up for IFs in trauma patients, most are never effectively followed up or addressed, leading to increased risk of poor outcomes. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of IFs and develop systems for appropriate, evidence-based recommendations, and effective management. KEY POINTS: • Incidental findings (IFs) are much more common (2×) than acute traumatic injuries (ATI) in chest CTs performed in trauma patients. • IFs can be accurately predicted via logistic regression modeling with only 3 variables (any relevant ICD-10 diagnosis; positive smoking history; age), which may help radiologist to focus their attention on higher risk patients. • Radiologists recommend follow-up for IFs more than half of the time; however, IFs are seldom followed up appropriately (less than 14%), leading to missed opportunities and potentially poor patient outcomes.

8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314549

RESUMO

Small pulmonary nodules are most often managed by surveillance imaging with chest computed tomography (CT), but the optimal frequency and duration of surveillance are unknown. The Watch the Spot Trial is a multi-center, pragmatic, comparative effectiveness trial with cluster randomization by hospital or health system that compares more vs. less intensive strategies for active surveillance of small pulmonary nodules. The study plans to enroll approximately 35,200 patients with a small pulmonary nodule that is newly detected on chest CT, either incidentally or by screening. Study protocols for more and less intensive surveillance were adapted from published guidelines. The primary outcome is the percentage of cancerous nodules that progress beyond American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition (AJCC 7) stage T1aN0M0. Secondary outcomes include patient-reported anxiety and emotional distress, nodule-related health care utilization, radiation exposure, and adherence with the assigned surveillance protocol. Distinctive aspects of the trial include: (1) the pragmatic integration of study procedures into existing clinical workflow; (2) the use of cluster-randomization by hospital or health system; (3) the implementation and evaluation of a system-level intervention for protocol-based care; (4) the use of highly efficient, technology-enabled methods to identify and (passively) enroll participants; (5) reliance on data collected as part of routine clinical care, including data from electronic health records and state cancer registries; (6) linkage with state cancer registries for complete ascertainment of the primary study outcome; and (7) intensive engagement with a diverse group of patient and non-patient stakeholders in the design and execution of the study.

9.
Acta Pharm ; 69(1): 99-109, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259713

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate gellan gum as binder in pellet formulations, with theophylline as the model drug, in comparison with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). A full 32 factorial design was realized, with binder and diluent factors at three levels each. Pellets were produced by the extrusion/spheronization technique, and dried in a fluid-ized bed. Physical tests and dissolution tests were conducted. The results showed that the binder factor was not significant for pellet size and granulometry distribution. Rather, trends of a different response of gellan gum were identified, in comparison with PVP, in aspect ratio and dissolution tests: more round pellets were obtained in formulations with gellan gum, and more variable dissolution resulted when this polysaccharide was present. Therefore, if the usage of this compound in immediate release pellet formulations is verified, this justifies the interest in the development of sustained release systems using gellan gum.

10.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 129: 116-123, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153126

RESUMO

In this study, (1→3)(1→6)-ß-D-glucan (botryosphaeran) from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 was used, for the first time, to immobilize laccase on a carbon black paste electrode modified with gold nanoparticles. The physicochemical characterization of the proposed laccase-biosensor was performed using transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of this novel bio-device was evaluated by choosing hydroquinone as a typical model of a phenolic compound. For hydroquinone determination, experimental variables such as enzyme concentration, pH and operational parameters of the electroanalytical technique were optimized. From square-wave voltammograms, a linear dependence between the cathodic current peak and the hydroquinone concentration was observed within the range 2.00-56.5µmolL-1, with a theoretical detection limit of 0.474µmolL-1. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine hydroquinone in dermatological cream, and samples from biological and environmental niches. The proposed biosensor device presented good selectivity in the presence of uric acid, various inorganic ions, as well as other phenolic compounds, demonstrating the potential application of this biosensing platform in complex matrices. Operational and analytical stability of the laccase biosensor were evaluated, and demonstrated good intra-day (SD=0.3%) and inter-day (SD=3.4%) repeatability and long storage stability (SD=4.9%).


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Glucanos/química , Hidroquinonas/análise , Lacase/química , Fuligem/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Estabilidade Enzimática , Desenho de Equipamento , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(12): 7826-7832, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196295

RESUMO

Rattlesnakes are easily recognized by a rattle on the tail. Despite the advances in molecular, morphological, and evolutionary studies about several aspects of rattles, there are no studies elucidating these nanoscale topographical features using high-resolution techniques. Here we propose a set of approaches to show these micro/nano surface features searching for patterns or hidden signatures. The results showed that the older rattle ring (segment 8) presented higher roughness values when compared to other segments. Cluster analysis allowed the observation of similarities/differences among some groups, which reinforced the strong discrepancy of the segment 8 when compared to the others and enable possible topographical transitions among each segment features, considering their linkages and Euclidean distances. Attractive forces and surface hardness were also significant increased on segment 8, while adhesion was significantly decreased on the segments 5, 6, and 7 compared to segment 1 (P < 0.05). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed typical profiles of keratin spectra considering the amino acids present in this protein structure. Energy dispersive spectroscopy results indicated possible different molecular composition on each segment. These set of approaches applied on the present study represents an array of new possibilities towards the qualitative and quantitative analyses of this type of biomaterials enabling to address several structural, chemical and mechanical questions ongoing on scientific world.

12.
Radiographics ; 39(4): 957-976, 2019 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199712

RESUMO

Quantitative imaging has been proposed as the next frontier in radiology as part of an effort to improve patient care through precision medicine. In 2007, the Radiological Society of North America launched the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), an initiative aimed at improving the value and practicality of quantitative imaging biomarkers by reducing variability across devices, sites, patients, and time. Chest CT occupies a strategic position in this initiative because it is one of the most frequently used imaging modalities, anatomically encompassing the leading causes of mortality worldwide. To date, QIBA has worked on profiles focused on the accurate, reproducible, and meaningful use of volumetric measurements of lung lesions in chest CT. However, other quantitative methods are on the verge of translation from research grounds into clinical practice, including (a) assessment of parenchymal and airway changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (b) analysis of perfusion with dual-energy CT biomarkers, and (c) opportunistic screening for coronary atherosclerosis and low bone mass by using chest CT examinations performed for other indications. The rationale for and the key facts related to the application of these quantitative imaging biomarkers in cardiothoracic chest CT are presented. ©RSNA, 2019 See discussion on this article by Buckler (pp 977-980).

13.
J Thorac Imaging ; 34(5): 299-312, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094899

RESUMO

Lung transplantation is an established therapeutic option for patients with irreversible end-stage pulmonary disease limiting life expectancy and quality of life. Common indications for lung transplantation include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Complications of lung transplantation can be broadly divided etiologically into surgical, infectious, immunologic, or neoplastic. Moreover, specific complications often occur within a certain time interval following surgery, which can be broadly classified as early (<6 wk), intermediate (6 wk to 6 mo), and late (>6 mo). Thus, each group of complications can further be categorized on the basis of the time continuum from transplantation. Imaging, primarily by high-resolution computed tomography, plays a critical role in early diagnosis of complications after lung transplantation. Early recognition of complications by the radiologist, and initiation of therapy, contributes to improved morbidity and mortality. However, accurate diagnosis is only feasible if one has a thorough understanding of the major etiologic categories of complications and how they relate to the time course since transplantation. We review imaging manifestations of lung transplant complications via a framework that includes the following major etiologic categories: surgical; infectious; immunologic; and neoplastic; and the following time frames: surgery to 6 weeks; 6 weeks to 6 months; and beyond 6 months. We propose this approach as a logical, evidence-based algorithm to construct a narrow, optimal differential diagnosis of lung transplantation complications.

14.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 141: 58-69, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078739

RESUMO

Drug repositioning may be defined as a process when new biological effects for known drugs are identified, leading to recommendations for new therapeutic applications. Niclosamide, present in the Model List of Essential Medicines, from the World Health Organization, has been used since the 1960s for tapeworm infection. Several preclinical studies have been shown its impressive anticancer effects, which led to clinical trials for colon and prostate cancer. Despite high expectations, proof of efficacy and safety are still required, which are associated with diverse biopharmaceutical challenges, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug and its oral absorption, and their relationship with clinical outcomes. Nanostructured systems are innovative drug delivery strategies, which may provide interesting pharmaceutical advantages for this candidate. The aim of this review is to discuss challenges involving niclosamide repositioning for cancer diseases, and the opportunities of therapeutic benefits from nanosctrutured system formulations containing this compound.

15.
J Hypertens ; 37(6): 1126-1147, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882601

RESUMO

: The prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the metabolic syndrome continues to increase in Latin America, while the rates of diagnosis, treatment and control of these disorders remain low. The frequency of the risk factors that constitute the metabolic syndrome and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease has not diminished since the publication of the previous consensus. This document discusses the socioeconomic, demographic, environmental and cultural characteristics of most associated Latin American countries and partially explains the lack of better results in improving clinical and public health actions that allow high morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular diseases and DM2 to be reduced through programs aligned with the so-called precision medicine, which should be predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory. The Consensus ratifies the diagnostic criteria expressed in the previous consensus to define hypertension and DM2 but, for the metabolic syndrome, and in the absence of evidence, the recommendation is to implement a cohort study that determines the abdominal perimeter value associated with hard outcomes, such as DM2 and CVD. Meanwhile, we recommend modifying the criterion to more than 94 cm in men and more than 84 cm in women according to WHO recommendations. We also recommend the carrying out of a study that identifies the situation of hypertension and DM2 in people of African ancestry who, in Latin America, exceed 75 million and whose epidemiology does not include solid studies. With respect to the proposed therapeutic targets, we recommended maintaining those defined in the previous consensus, but insisting that early pharmacological management of prediabetes with metformin should be introduced, as should the treatment of diabetic hypertensive patients with a combination therapy of two fixed-dose antihypertensive drugs and management with statins. To increase adherence, the use of different drugs combined in a single pill (polypill) is recommended. The simplification of the therapeutic regimen is accompanied by greater control of cardiovascular risk factors, both in primary and secondary prevention, and has been shown to be cost-effective. The consensus recommends the use of the currently available polypill combining an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a statin and aspirin for secondary cardiovascular prevention and in patients with a high cardiovascular risk, such as hypertension patients with DM2.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a complex multi-dimensional combination of behaviors, which include ineffective impulse control, premature decision-making and inability to delay gratification. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to explore how food odor perception and its emotional value, is affected in impulsive children. METHODS: Here we compared two cohorts of impulsive and control children, with ages between 10 and 16 years. Both groups underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, in which food-related odor-cues were presented to all of them. RESULTS: Differences in regions of blood oxygen level dependent activation, as well as connectivity, were calculated. Activations were significant for all odors in the impulsive group in the temporal lobe, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, frontal cortex, medial cingulate cortex, insula, precuneus, precentral, para-hippocampal and calcarine cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Connectivity results showed that the expected emotional reward, based on odor perceived and processed in temporal lobes, was the main cue driving responses of impulsive children. This was followed by self-consciousness, the sensation of interaction with the surroundings and feelings of comfort and happiness, modulated by the precuneus together with somatosensory cortex and cingulum. Furthermore, reduced connectivity to frontal areas as well as to other sensory integration areas (piriform cortex), combined to show different sensory processing strategies for olfactory emotional cues in impulsive children. Finally, we hypothesize that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in modulating decision-making for impulsive children.

18.
Radiology ; : 180867, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457486

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate management strategies and treatment options for patients with ground-glass nodules (GGNs) by using decision-analysis models. Materials and Methods A simulation was developed for 1 000 000 hypothetical patients with GGNs undergoing follow-up per the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) recommendations. The initial age range was 55-75 years (mean, 64 years). Nodules could grow and develop solid components over time. Clinically significant malignancy rates were calibrated to data from the National Lung Screening Trial. Annual versus 3-year-interval follow-up of Lung-RADS category 2 nodules was compared, and different treatment strategies were tested (stereotactic body radiation therapy, surgery, and no therapy). Results Overall, 2.3% (22 584 of 1 000 000) of nodules were clinically significant malignancies; 6.3% (62 559 of 1 000 000) of nodules were treated. Only 30% (18 668 of 62 559) of Lung-RADS category 4B or 4X nodules were clinically significant malignancies. The risk of clinically significant malignancy for persistent nonsolid nodules after baseline was higher than Lung-RADS estimates for categories 2 and 3 (3% vs <1% and 1%-2%, respectively). Overall survival (OS) at 10 years was 72% (527 827 of 737 306; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 71%, 72%) with annual follow-up and 71% (526 507 of 737 306; 95% CI: 71%, 72%) with 3-year-interval follow-up (P < .01). At 10 years, OS among patients whose nodules progressed to Lung-RADS category 4B or 4X was 80% after radiation therapy (49 945 of 62 559; 95% CI: 80%, 80%), 79% after surgery (49 139 of 62 559; 95% CI: 78%, 79%), and 74% after no therapy (46 512 of 62 559; 95% CI: 74%, 75%) (P < .01). Conclusion Simulation modeling suggests that the follow-up interval for evaluating ground-glass nodules can be increased from 1 year to 3 years with minimal change in outcomes. Stereotactic body radiation therapy demonstrated the best outcomes compared with lobectomy and with no therapy for nonsolid nodules. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421373

RESUMO

Formaldehyde (FA) is a carcinogenic aldehyde illegally added to creams as a hair straightening agent for the Brazilian blowout (BB). This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of occupational exposure to FA on global DNA methylation in salon workers with different exposure levels. FA exposure was monitored using environmental and biological measurements. The study included 49 salon workers divided by FA levels in the workplace into group A (FA < 0.01 ppm; n = 8), group B (0.03 ppm < FA < 0.06 ppm; n = 15), and group C (0.08 ppm < FA < 0.24 ppm; n = 26). The global DNA methylation levels were 3.12%, 4.55%, and 4.29% for groups A, B, and C, respectively, with statistically higher values for groups B and C compared to group A (p = 0.002). A correlation was found between FA in passive samplers and global DNA methylation (rs = 0.307, p = 0.032). Additionally, when only taking into account the hairdressers that performed the BB on clients instead of the whole group, a stronger correlation was observed between FA in personal passive samplers and global DNA methylation (rs = 0.764, p = 0.006). For the first time, an increase in DNA methylation was observed in subjects occupationally exposed to FA. In conclusion, our results indicated that even low levels of FA exposure could cause a disturbance in DNA methylation, leading to epigenetic changes, which is associated with cancer development. These data suggest a possible contribution of FA to cancer development through occupational exposure.

20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 131: 116-124, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423438

RESUMO

Relationships within satyrine butterflies have been notoriously difficult to resolve using both morphology and Sanger sequencing methods, and this is particularly true for the mainly Neotropical subtribe Euptychiina, which contains about 400 described species. Known larvae of Euptychiina feed on grasses and sedges, with the exception of the genus Euptychia, which feed on mosses and lycopsids, and the butterflies occur widely in rainforest, cloudforest and grassland habitats, where they are often abundant. Several previous molecular and morphological studies have made significant progress in tackling the systematics of the group, but many relationships remain unresolved, with long-branch-attraction artifacts being a major problem. Additionally, the monophyly of the clade remains uncertain, with Euptychia possibly not being closely related to the remainder of the clade. Here we present a backbone phylogeny of the subtribe based on 106 taxa, 368 nuclear loci, and over 180,000 bps obtained through hybrid enrichment. Using both concatenation and species tree approaches (IQ-TREE, EXABAYES, ASTRAL), we can for the first time strongly confirm the monophyly of Euptychiina with Euptychia being the sister group to the remainder of the clade. The Euptychiina is divided into nine well supported clades, but the placement of a few genera such as Hermeuptychia, Pindis and the Chloreuptychia catharina group still remain uncertain. As partially indicated in previous studies, the genera Cissia, Chloreuptychia, Magneuptychia, Megisto, Splendeuptychia and Euptychoides, among others, were found to be highly polyphyletic and revisions are in preparation. The phylogeny will provide a strong backbone for the analysis of datasets in development that are much more taxonomically comprehensive but have orders of magnitude fewer loci. This study therefore represents a critical step towards resolving the higher classification and studying the evolution of this highly diverse lineage.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA