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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

RESUMO

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e231838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681894

RESUMO

Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Rios , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , População Rural , Suínos
3.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(3): 8640-9, 2015 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26345795

RESUMO

We cytogenetically characterized three species of Heptapteridae (Pimelodella sp, Pimelodella taenioptera, and Imparfinis schubarti) by investigating the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NOR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pimelodella sp showed had a diploid number (2n) = 46 chromosomes, 26m + 10sm + 10st, and FN = 92; P. taenioptera, 2n = 52 chromosomes, 26m + 22sm + 4st, and FN = 104; and I. schubarti, 2n = 58 chromosomes, 28m + 28sm + 2st, and FN = 116. The two Pimelodella species had Ag-NORs sites on the submetacentric pair 14, located on the short arm in terminal position. In I. schubarti, the Ag-NORs sites were in an interstitial position on the long arm of the metacentric pair 1. C-banding revealed that Pimelodella sp contained a small amount of constitutive heterochroma-tin, whereas P. taenioptera contained a higher number of heterochromatic regions, in the pericentromeric, interstitial, and telomeric positions. I. schubarti had markers in centromeric and telomeric regions of a few chromosomes, and a large pericentromeric block on pair 1. Fluorochrome chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining revealed positive signals on pair 14 in both Pimelodella species. Treatment with 4ꞌ,6-diamidino- 2-phenylindole (DAPI) revealed no markings in P. taenioptera, but an interstitial marking on the long arm of pair 14 in Pimelodella sp. In I. schubarti, positive signals of CMA3 were detected in the first pair, but negative signals were detected for DAPI staining. These results con-tribute to the karyotypic description of the less-studied species in the Brazilian Midwest.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Animais , Brasil , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Análise Citogenética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Heterocromatina/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , Rios
4.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(2): 157-164, 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-596389

RESUMO

O gênero Plectranthus é considerado um dos mais ricos em óleos essenciais dentro da família Lamiaceae, compreendendo muitas espécies com propriedades medicinais. Algumas destas são conhecidas popularmente como boldo, as quais possuem semelhanças taxonômicas e diversas sinonímias, possuindo ações anti-dispépticas, analgésicas e digestivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quantitativa e qualitativamente os óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas das espécies P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis e P. neochilus. A extração do óleo foi realizada por hidrodestilação, utilizando pentano como solvente extrator, repetida por três vezes para cada uma das espécies. A análise dos componentes dos óleos essenciais das quatro espécies de Plectranthus, através da CG/EM, permitiu identificar 14 componentes químicos, sendo a maioria sesquiterpenos. O trans-cariofileno se apresentou em elevada concentração nos óleos estudados. Alguns componentes químicos demonstraram ser específicos para cada espécie e outros apresentaram ocorrência comum a todas as quatro, possibilitando a diferenciação das mesmas em dois grupos, um formado por P. amboinicus e P. neochilus e o outro por P. grandis e P. barbatus. Conclui-se que as quatro espécies de boldo apresentam diferenças significativas quanto ao teor e à constituição química do óleo essencial.


Plectranthus has been considered one of the richest genera in essential oils within the Lamiaceae family, which includes several species with medicinal properties. Some of them are commonly known as boldo and present taxonomic similarities and several synonymies, with antidyspeptic, analgesic and digestive actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the essential oils from P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis and P. neochilus leaves. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using pentane as extracting solvent and was repeated three times for each species. The analysis of essential oil components by GC/MS in the four Plectranthus species identified 14 chemical components, mostly sesquiterpenes. High concentration of trans-caryophyllene was found in the studied oils. Some chemical components were specific for each species and other components had common occurrence in all four species, allowing their differentiation into two groups, one composed of P. amboinicus and P. neochilus and another one by P. grandis and P. barbatus. In conclusion, the four boldo species had significant differences as to essential oil yield and chemical composition.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Estruturas Vegetais , Plectranthus , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Peumus , Plantas Medicinais
5.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(4): 396-400, 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-611443

RESUMO

O aumento no consumo de plantas medicinais vem se transformando em problema de Saúde Pública, devido ao potencial de contaminação microbiana, principalmente por origem natural e condições inadequadas de uso e armazenamento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a descontaminação fúngica de camomila [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] através de diferentes processos caseiros (decocção, infusão, água morna). Foram analisadas 10 amostras de camomila, procedentes de diferentes estabelecimentos comerciais. Os resultados das análises microbiológicas indicaram redução da contaminação fúngica na maioria das amostras, porém não atingindo os índices considerados satisfatórios, o que evidencia a necessidade de medidas regulatórias e educacionais que garantam a qualidade destes produtos, desde a produção até a colheita.


The increase in the consumption of medicinal plants has become a Public Health problem due to potential microbiological contamination, especially due to their natural origin and inadequate conditions of use and storage. The present study aimed to evaluate the fungal decontamination of chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] through different home procedures (decoction, infusion, warm water). Ten chamomile samples from different commercial establishments were analyzed. The results of microbiological analyses indicated a reduction in fungal contamination in most samples which, however, did not reach the indexes considered satisfactory, evidencing the need of regulatory and educational measures to guarantee the quality of these products, from production to harvest.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Descontaminação/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Plantas Medicinais , Cultivos Agrícolas , Produção de Produtos
6.
Acta Radiol ; 47(10): 1029-35, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17135004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of cardiac sympathetic innervation in patients whose clinical features consisted of chest pain, transient ST-segment elevation, left ventricular apical akinesis, minimal elevation of cardiac enzymes, and onset of symptoms shortly after a severe stress condition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five female patients, mean age 67+/-14 years, underwent thoracic 123I-MIBG (planar and SPECT) and 67Ga citrate (planar) scans within 5 days after the onset of symptoms. The 123I-MIBG myocardial washout rate between early (30 min) and delayed (3 hours) planar images was calculated. All patients presented findings consistent with takotsubo-like syndrome. Echocardiograms showed the characteristic wall motion pattern of significant apical dysfunction. Acute-phase coronary angiographies revealed a non-obstructive pattern. A peculiar apical akinesis and basal normokinesis were observed on the ventriculograms. RESULTS: Impairment of cardiac neuronal uptake of 123I-MIBG based on a reduction of the heart-to-mediastinum uptake ratio was observed in all patients, while the washout rate was raised in four patients. All patients presented an apical uptake defect in the 123I-MIBG SPECT and planar images and a normal 67Ga scintigraphy. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that ampulla cardiomyopathy (AC) is associated with a cardiac sympathetic innervation deficit characterized by a reduced global 123I-MIBG uptake and an apical uptake defect. The lack of 67Ga uptake in the acute phase of this syndrome indicates that AC is probably not associated with an inflammatory process.


Assuntos
3-Iodobenzilguanidina , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio Atordoado/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Citratos , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Gálio , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Síndrome
7.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 74(2 Pt 2): 026702, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17025562

RESUMO

We are concerned with improving the forecast capabilities of the global approach to time series. We assume that the normal techniques of global mapping are applied, the noise reduction is performed, etc. Then, using the mathematical foundations behind such approaches, we propose a method that, without a great computational cost, greatly increases the accuracy of the corresponding forecasting.

8.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 74(6): 467-72, 1998.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14685590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify rubella prevalence in different ages and population groups and rubella susceptibility of pregnant and postpartum women according to age, number of children and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of sero-survey type. Children and students were selected in day-care centers and schools distributed by health districts of Fortaleza. Pregnant and postpartum healthy women were recruited in two large maternity units and three antenatal clinics; individuals previously vaccinated and presenting chronic or acute diseases where excluded. Written consent was obtained from participants or their caretakers. Anti-rubella IgG qualitative detection was performed with an Elisa-sandwich assay. RESULTS: Mean age-specific sero-prevalence rates of 999 samples were: 2 to 5 years= 59% (136/231); 6 to 9 years= 47% (95/204); 10 to 19 years= 56% (243/432) and 20 to 39 years= 80% (106/132). The mean age of 187 pregnant and postpartum women was 23 years (10-39) with a sero-prevalence of 76% (142/187), where 62% sero-positives aged 15 to 19 and 83% aged 26 to 39 years. A higher sero-prevalence was related to womens age (p<0.001), history of spontaneous abortion (p= 0.03), and two or more children (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The high sero-prevalence of rubella in preschool age children reflects the intense viral transmission in child-care centers. The high susceptibility in adolescents (45%), among whom pregnancy is common, emphasizes the need to introduce rubella vaccine early and keep high immunization coverages in youngsters in order to eradicate congenital rubella syndrome. Also, postpartum routine immunization against rubella in this age group is of particular benefit.

9.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 72(6): 374-8, 1996.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14688903

RESUMO

Stillbirths are a common event in areas where reproductive health care is poorly delivered, such as the Northeast region of Brazil. This case-control study aimed to identify risk factors associated to foetal deaths occurred in a major obstetric facility of Fortaleza, 1.7 million inhabitants, Northeastern Brazil. 125 stillborn foetus over 20 weeks of gestation (cases) were compared to 250 healthy newborns (controls), in relation to socioeconomic, reproductive, behavioral and morbidity characteristics of their mothers. Crude and adjusted Odds Ratios were then calculated. After adjustment for confounders, the following characteristics of the mother remained as risk factors for stillbirths, with OR statistically significant at the 95% level: attending <5 antenatal consultations during pregnancy (OR=3.30; CI=1.92 - 5.07 ), illiterate mother (OR=3.30; CI=1.84 - 5.92 ), mother's age above 19 (OR=2.73; CI=1.42 - 5.24 ), monthly family income of 1 minimum wage or less (OR=2.12; CI=1.03 - 4.35 ) and severe illnesses or complication during pregnancy (OR=1.75; CI=1.01 - 3.03 ). Inadequate attendance to antenatal care consultations was the risk factor most strongly associated to stillbirths. Similarly, it was the condition most amenable to change in a short term, among those identified as risk factors.

10.
Transplantation ; 59(4): 541-4, 1995 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7878759

RESUMO

A severe episodic bone pain syndrome of unknown cause was first described in renal transplant recipients in France and associated with the use of cyclosporine. We have retrospectively and prospectively evaluated this pain syndrome in our transplant patients. This pain is bilateral, of acute onset and episodic, primarily involving the knees and/or ankles. It usually occurs at night or with recumbency, and is often relieved with elevation or walking. Physical examination of the affected areas is unrevealing. Kidney, liver, pancreas, heart, lung and combined organ transplant recipients on cyclosporine were available from the University of Washington Transplant Services and were retrospectively evaluated by chart review (n = 351) or prospective clinical evaluation (n = 38) for evidence of this clinical syndrome. In the retrospective chart review, 19.1% of patients had episodes of bone pain. The highest prevalence occurred in renal transplant recipients (27.7%). The bone pain syndrome was documented in the charts of 14 patients who subsequently developed significant osteonecrosis. Prospectively, 21 of 22 patients with the bone pain syndrome experienced complete relief of this pain upon treatment with calcium channel blockers (95.4% response rate). The pathophysiology of this bone pain syndrome is unknown, although its response to the vasodilatory effects of calcium channel blockers suggests a vascular etiology.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Órgãos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Osteonecrose/etiologia , Dor/complicações , Dor/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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