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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696364

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia (ARA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by absent peripheral B cells, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, and absent BTK gene mutations. In ARA, mutations occur in genes encoding the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) or downstream signaling proteins. In this work, we used candidate gene and whole-exome sequencing to investigate the molecular basis of ARA in 6 patients from 4 consanguineous North-African families. Sanger sequencing of candidate genes encoding the pre-BCR components (ΙGΗΜ, CD79A, CD79B, IGLL1, and VPREB1) was initially performed and determined the genetic defect in five patients. Two novel mutations in IGHM (p.Val378Alafs*1 and p.Ile184Serfs*21) were identified in three patients from two unrelated kindred and a novel nonsense mutation was identified in CD79A (p.Trp66*) in two siblings from a third kindred. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the sixth patient who harbored a homozygous stop mutation at position 407 in the RAG2 gene (p.Glu407*). We concluded that conventional gene sequencing, especially when multiple genes are involved in the defect as is the case in ARA, is costly and time-consuming, resulting in delayed diagnosis that contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it fails to identify the involvement of novel and unsuspected gene defects when the phenotype of the patients is atypical. WES has the potential to provide a rapid and more accurate genetic diagnosis in ARA, which is crucial for the treatment of the patients.

2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 516(3): 845-850, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262446

RESUMO

We previously reported that immunoreactivity of recombinant CFP32 (Rv0577), a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was higher when produced in transformed Pichia pastoris as compared to transformed E. coli. In this study, we show that this difference is partly due to the N-glycosylation of the recombinant CFP32 (rCFP32) by the yeast Pichia pastoris. In addition, SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and yeast-produced rCFP32 showed the presence of a band corresponding to a homodimeric state of the protein, unlike that of rCFP32 produced in E. coli. Computational modeling indicates that a single cysteine residue at position 193 of each monomer might bond to stabilize the homodimeric state of CFP32. Computational study showed that this residue is buried inside the protein core of E. coli-produced rCFP32 suggesting that rCFP32 may adopt a different folding in P. pastoris and BCG, in which C193 is solvent exposed. Surprisingly, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a generated monoclonal antibody (14D4) reveals the presence of a differential epitope that appears to be the consequence of the protein dimerization of the yeast- and BCG-, but not E.coli- produced, CFP32 recombinant form. We conclude that, in addition to N-glycosylation, homodimeric folding significantly enhances the immunoreactivity of rCFP32 and may these post-translational modifications may factor into the structure and function of native M. tuberculosis CFP32.

3.
J Dig Dis ; 20(7): 363-370, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 (IL-12Rß1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency that exposes affected individuals to an augmented risk of intracellular pathogen-mediated infections. The paradoxical presence of autoimmune manifestations in immune-deficient patients has been recognized, but the basis of this phenomenon is unclear, with the role of frequent infections being a possible trigger to break tolerance. Our study aimed to analyze extensively a profile of autoantibodies in a clinically well-defined case series of patients with IL-12Rß1 deficiency. METHODS: Eight patients with IL-12Rß1 deficiency referred to Children's Medical Center in Tunis, Tunisia, during 1995-2012 were enrolled in the study. Sixteen age- and gender-matched blood donors served as controls. Serum, liver-related autoantibodies immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, IgA were tested by ELISA and by standard indirect immunofluorescence on Hep-2 cells. RESULTS: We found a significant prevalence of liver autoantibodies in the study group. Regarding primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), two of eight patients were positive for MIT3 autoantibodies, both confirmed by immunofluorescence, and one patient was positive for PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies, sp100. Moreover, two patients had significantly increased gamma-glutamyltransferase levels and one had IgM levels twice the upper limit of normal. Intriguingly two patients were positive for anti-actin antibodies; a typical feature of autoimmune hepatitis type 1, along with a significant increase in IgG levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a serological analysis in patients with an IL-12Rß1 deficiency. Despite the difficulty in interpreting the role of the IL-12, the evidence of liver-specific autoantibodies confirms the importance its signal in liver autoimmunity.

4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 105(2): 229-232, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702767

RESUMO

The 10th Federation of African Immunological Societies (FAIS) Congress, held in Tunisia in November 2017, marked a significant scientific milestone. It enabled scientists from across the continent to promote immunology research and to showcase major achievements made by immunologists throughout Africa. This issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology (JLB) features manuscripts from the FAIS Congress. As noted in these papers, research in infectious diseases remains the focus of the African immunology community; however, increasingly noncommunicable diseases-such as autoimmunity, allergy, primary immunodeficiency, cancer and transplantation immunology-are also an emerging priority. This overview gives a brief history of the FAIS meeting, which also commemorated the 25th anniversary of the FAIS. It describes the current activities of the organization, as well as its history and the future opportunities for this Federation.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Sociedades Científicas , África , Animais , História do Século XX , Humanos , Camundongos , Sociedades Científicas/história
6.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500079

RESUMO

The aromatic hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that plays a role in mediating toxicity to xenobiotics. Its key role in immune regulation has been recently demonstrated. Recent data pointed to the efficacy of ITE (2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester), a nontoxic ligand of AhR, in experimental models of inflammatory diseases. Such effect was mainly through the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Similarly, TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a toxic ligand of AhR, has been shown to exert comparable effects on Tregs in mice. Herein, we showed that ITE has no effects on natural Tregs. However, it supports the de novo generation of Tregs in humans while promoting their suppressive functions. Our data bring new elements supporting the use of ITE in human therapy of inflammatory diseases.

7.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 10(1): e2018065, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416697

RESUMO

Skin manifestations are frequent among patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Their prevalence varies according to the type of immunodeficiency. This review provides the reader with an up-to-date summary of the common dermatologic manifestations of PIDs among Tunisian children. We conducted a prospective study on two hundred and ninety children with immune deficiency. Demographic details (including age, sex, and consanguinity) with personal and family history were recorded. Special attention was paid to cutaneous manifestations. Dermatological involvements were grouped according to the etiology of their most prominent sign. Cutaneous manifestations were found in 164 patients (56.5%). They revealed the diagnosis of PIDs in 71 patients (24.5 %). The mean age at presentation was 21 months. Overall the most prominent cutaneous alterations were infectious. They accounted for 106 cases (36.55%). The most prevalent causes of cutaneous infections were bacterial: 93 cases (32.06%). Immuno-allergic skin diseases were among the common findings in our study. These include eczematous dermatitis found in 62 cases (21.38%). Malignancy related PIDs was seen in a boy with Wiskott Aldrich syndrome. He developed Kaposi's sarcoma at the age of 14 months. Cutaneous changes are common among children with PIDs. In pediatric patients with failure to thrive, chronic refractory systemic manifestations often present in other family members, recurrent cutaneous infections unresponsive to adequate therapy, atypical forms of eczematous dermatitis or unusual features should arouse the suspicion of PIDs and prompt specialized immunologic consultation should be made.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283745

RESUMO

Tuberculosis, a human infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The success of M.tb as a pathogen relies mainly on its ability to divert the host innate immune responses. One way by which M.tb maintains a persistent infection in a "silent" granuloma is to inhibit inflammation and induce an immunoregulatory phenotype in host macrophages (MΦs). However, M.tb effectors governing the switch of MΦs from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype remain to be determined. The Early Secreted Antigenic Target 6 kDa or ESAT-6, has been implicated in the virulence and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Here, we investigated roles of ESAT-6 in MΦ differentiation and polarization. We found that treatment of human monocytes with ESAT-6 did not interfere with differentiation of M1 MΦs. However, ESAT-6 promoted differentiation of M0 and M2 MΦs toward the M1 phenotype, as indicated by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α, and induction of a typical M1 transcriptional signature. Interestingly, we found that ESAT-6 switched terminal full activation of M1 polarized MΦs to the M2 phenotype. Indeed, in the pro-inflammatory M1 MΦs, ESAT-6 was able to inhibit IL-12 and TNF-α secretion and stimulate that of IL-10. Moreover, gene expression profiling of these cells showed that ESAT-6 induced downregulation of M1 MΦ cell surface molecules CD80 and CD86, transcription factors IRF5 and c-MAF, cytokines IL-12, IL-10, and IL-6, as well as chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL1. Overall, our findings suggest ESAT-6 as being one of the effectors used by M.tb to induce the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype at the primo-infection; a prerequisite step to promote granuloma formation and subsequently drive the phenotype switch of MΦ polarization from M1 to M2 at a later stage of the infection. Our study improves current knowledge regarding mechanisms of virulence of M.tb and may be helpful to develop novel tools targeting ESAT-6 for a better and more efficient treatment of tuberculosis.

9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211958

RESUMO

Nearly two billion people are latently infected with Mtb (LTBI). Detection of LTBI with high risk to develop active tuberculosis (aTB) is considered the cornerstone to control the disease. The current challenge is to identify markers that better classify LTBI versus aTB. It has been previously shown that Rv0140, a reactivation-associated antigen of Mtb, induces significantly higher IFN-γ production in LTBI individuals as compared to aTB patients. Herein, we show that Rv0140 induces high granzyme B level by PBMCs derived from LTBI (n = 34) as compared to aTB (n = 18). Receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the capacity of Rv0140 to discriminate between LTBI and aTB by measuring IFN-γ and granzyme B secretion. Our results show that, in response to Rv0140, granzyme B seems to allow better discrimination of LTBI from aTB with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.98) as compared to IFN-γ with AUC of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.96) even though CI overlap. Intracellular staining (ICS) experiments and the use of anti-MHC I antibody showed that granzyme B is mainly produced by CD8+ T cells in response to Rv0140. Thus, we propose granzyme B as a host marker to help identify LTBI individuals.

10.
Cytokine ; 108: 182-189, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684755

RESUMO

The mechanisms leading to the disruption of self-tolerance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain elusive. Herein, we aimed to decipher the molecular basis of the impaired response of mononuclear cells to TGF-ß1. The Smad3-pathway was explored on CD3+ lymphocytes in either active or non active SLE patients. An impaired transcription of TGF-ß1 target genes was demonstrated in the CD3+ lymphocytes of active SLE patients confirming that the defect involves T cells and pointing to its extrinsic nature. We further demonstrate that the defect did not result from an impaired TGF-ßRII expression or Smad2/3 phosphorylation suggesting that the mechanism lies downstream Smad2/3 translocation. Interestingly, the TGF-1 signaling defect did not correlate with an increased expression of soluble or membrane-bound IL-15. However, it was associated with an overexpression of IL-22. This suggests that an excessive activation of AhR pathway (through UV radiations, infections, etc.) could lead to the inhibition of immunosuppressive actions of TGF-ß thus disrupting immune homeostasis in SLE. Collectively, our data suggest that the impaired response to TGF-ß in SLE patients is associated with disease activity and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SLE since it could establish the link between the environmental factors and the aberrancies of the immune system usually described in SLE.

11.
Cytokine ; 108: 160-167, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625335

RESUMO

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuro-Behçet's Disease (NBD) are two recurrent disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) by causing inflammation and irreversible damage. Inaugural clinical symptoms for both diseases might be very similar and definitive diagnosis could be delayed. The present study aimed to find out possible differences at early stages in the transcription factors/cytokines expression profiles in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS and NBD patients which could be useful discriminative markers. Cytokines and transcription factors related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory populations were studied by quantitative RT-PCR simultaneously in PBMCs and CSF, from 40 patients presenting a first episode of clinical features related to CNS inflammation and 22 controls with non inflammatory neurological diseases enrolled mainly for severe headache. The follow up of 12 months did allow a definitive diagnosis of remitting relapsing MS (RRMS) in 21 patients and of NBD in the other 19 among those with CNS inflammation compared to controls. In initial blood samples, T-bet was significantly increased in NBD patients only while IFN-γ was elevated in patients who evolved into RRMS or NBD. IL-17a, GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly lower in RRMS patients than in the NBD group. In initial CSF samples, ROR-γt, IL-17a and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls. The most striking finding was the significant increase of CSF IL-10 that we did observe in NBD patients only. Thus, we propose CSF IL-10 as a predictive marker to help clinicians discriminating between these two neurological disorders.

12.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 15(6): 610-617, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400703

RESUMO

Hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the CD40 ligand gene. The CD40 ligand has been recently highlighted as playing a key role in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis. In the present study, we assessed an extensive set of serum autoantibodies in a series of well-defined patients with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome. Serum, liver-related and liver-not-related autoantibodies IgG, IgM and IgA were tested by ELISA and standard indirect immunofluorescence in HEp-2 cells in 13 Tunisian patients (8 males and 5 females, aged 1-12 years) with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome during 1995-2012 and, as controls, 21 age- and gender-matched blood donors. The level of IgM antibody against MIT3 was significantly higher in patients than in controls (35.8 vs 10.7, P=0.002). Half of the hyperimmunoglobulin M syndrome patients were found to be anti-MIT3 IgM positive vs none of the controls (P<0.0001). Twenty-three percent of patients were found to be anti-sp100 antibody positive vs only 0.05% of controls. By immunofluorescence, 92.3% of patients were MIT3 IgM positive vs none of the controls. In conclusion, the IgM class of anti-MIT3 antibodies was shown to be present by both ELISA and immunofluorescence in most of the patients with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome. The presence of the hallmark of primary biliary cholangitis, a disease where the CD40 ligand is a key player, in an immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the CD40 ligand gene is very intriguing and opens new scenarios in understanding the immune pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis.

13.
Vaccine ; 36(13): 1711-1719, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478755

RESUMO

Widespread administration of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has decreased global incidence of poliomyelitis by ≈99.9%. However, the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) is threatening polio-eradication program. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are at higher risks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and prolonged excretion of immunodeficiency-associated VDPV (iVDPV). We searched Embase, Medline, Science direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and CDC and WHO databases by 30 September 2016, for all reports of iVDPV cases. Patient-level data were extracted form eligible studies. Data on immunization coverage and income-level of countries were extracted from WHO/UNICEF and the WORLD BANK databases, respectively. We assessed bivariate associations between immunological, clinical, and virological parameters, and exploited multivariable modeling to identify independent determinants of poliovirus evolution and patients' outcomes. Study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016052931). 4329 duplicate-removed titles were screened. A total of 107 iVDPV cases were identified from 68 eligible articles. The majority of cases were from higher income countries with high polio-immunization coverage. 74 (69.81%) patients developed VAPP. Combined immunodeficiency patients showed lower rates of VAPP (p < .001) and infection clearance (p = .02), compared to humoral immunodeficiency patients. The rate of poliovirus genomic evolution was higher at early stages of replication, decreasing over time until reaching a steady state. Independent of replication duration, higher extent (p = .04) and rates (p = .03) of genome divergence contributed to a less likelihood of virus clearance. PID type (p < .001), VAPP occurrence (p = .008), and income-level of country (p = .04) independently influenced patients' survival. With the use of OPV, new iVDPVs will emerge independent of the rate of immunization coverage. Inherent features of PIDs contribute to the clinical course of iVDPV infection and virus evolution. This finding could shed further light on poliomyelitis pathogenesis and iVDPV evolution pattern. It also has implications for public health, the polio eradication effort and the development of effective antiviral interventions.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/etiologia , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/efeitos adversos , Poliovirus/imunologia , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Poliomielite/história , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliovirus/classificação , Poliovirus/genética , Vacina Antipólio Oral/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sorogrupo , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
14.
J Leukoc Biol ; 103(3): 501-508, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345341

RESUMO

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease due to impaired Fas-Fas ligand apoptotic pathway. It is characterized by chronic nonmalignant, noninfectious lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune manifestations primarily directed against blood cells. Herein, we review the heterogeneous ALPS molecular bases and discuss recent findings revealed by the study of consanguineous patients. Indeed, this peculiar genetic background favored the identification of a novel form of AR ALPS-FAS associated with normal or residual protein expression, expanding the spectrum of ALPS types. In addition, rare mutational mechanisms underlying the splicing defects of FAS exon 6 have been identified in AR ALPS-FAS with lack of protein expression. These findings will help decipher critical regions required for the tight regulation of FAS exon 6 splicing. We also discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and disease severity in AR ALPS-FAS. Altogether, the study of ALPS molecular bases in endogamous populations helps to better classify the disease subgroups and to unravel the Fas pathway functioning.

15.
Tunis Med ; 96(10-11): 672-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDs) is a set of 330 rare hereditary diseases that increase susceptibility to infections, allergies, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. North American registries give higher prevalence than Maghreb ones, whereas consanguinity is high. The purpose of this study is to compare prevalence and coverage rate of Maghreb PID registries with estimates based on USA. METHODS: We searched the prevalence of PIDs in the Maghreb registers. Next, we estimated the expected values based on recent publications. Finally, we calculated the coverage rate of the Maghreb registries compared to the new estimates and we evaluated the impact of consanguinity. RESULTS: The total number is N1 = 2456 patients. The current Maghreb PID Prevalence is 2.56 / 100,000 inhabitants (population of 94,804,694 Million in 2017). Tunisia leads with a prevalence of 8.70 followed by Morocco 2.09, Libya 1.65 and Algeria 1.46/100.000 habitants. We did not find values for Mauritania. If we extrapolate the prevalence of the USA to the Maghreb population, the number of patients in the Maghreb would be N2 = 27,588 and the coverage rate (N1 / N2) would be 8.90%. This low coverage rate is however better than the World average (1.21%), that of Latin America 1.19% and Africa 0.36%. The Maghreb prevalence is close to that of the Arab world 2.04 / 100,000 (population of 391,449,544 in 2017). Using the incidence found in the USA, the number of patients would be 9765 new patients per year in the Maghreb and 40,319 in Arab countries. CONCLUSION: PID Maghreb patients number is very low compared to global estimates, whereas consanguinity is very high. Special attention should be given to PIDs by governments and research teams in this region.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto/normas , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Intervirology ; 61(5): 247-254, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human cosaviruses (HCoSVs) are newly discovered enteric viruses in the Picornaviridae family. They have been described in non-polio acute flaccid paralysis, diarrheal patients, and healthy individuals. They remain rarely documented in immunodeficient patients. OBJECTIVES: This study reports iterative excretion of HCoSVs in a patient with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II combined immunodeficiency, a relatively common primary immunodeficiency in consanguineous settings. METHODS: A total of 35 samples were collected from a patient followed for oral polio vaccine strains detection in stool samples during a 57-month period. Detection of HCoSVs in stools was performed by nested RT-PCR in the 5' noncoding region. The genotype identification and screening for recombinant strains was performed by sequencing in the VP1 and 3D genomic regions followed by phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: The patient was infected with HCoSVs twice at a 3-year interval. The excreted viruses belonged to 2 different genotypes with 2 probable recombinant viruses. During HCoSV infections, the patient was also excreting Sabin-related polioviruses. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes excretion kinetics and genetic characteristics of HCoSVs in a patient with combined immunodeficiency due to MHC class II expression defect. The patient did not have concomitant symptoms related to the HCoSV infection.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Picornaviridae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 685, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28952612

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2%) excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8%) were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2). Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%). Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.

18.
Life Sci ; 188: 10-16, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843496

RESUMO

AIMS: Acetamiprid (ACE) is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid family, the most widely used in the world. Herein, we assessed the effect of ACE on either the humoral or cellular immune responses of rodents. We also evaluated the role of curcumin in the restoration of altered immune responses after ACE treatment. METHODS: Five groups of five Swiss Albino mice were immunized intraperitoneally with the recombinant form of CFP32, a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One group received ACE (5mg/kg) during 61days, a second one received ACE associated with curcumin (100mg/kg). Three control groups were included; one untreated, the second received corn oil and the third received curcumin alone. The humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA testing the anti-rCFP32 antibody concentrations in the serum. The cellular immune response was assessed by analyzing the cellular proliferation of the splenocytes stimulated in vitro by a mitogen or rCFP32. RESULTS: The ACE-treated mice showed a significant immunosuppression of the specific humoral response with a restorative effect of curcumin when administered with ACE. Similarly, ACE significantly decreased the level of splenocyte proliferation after either a non specific or a specific activation. Curcumin partially restores the antigen specific cellular immune response. Moreover, when administered alone, curcumin significantly inhibits the proliferative responses to the mitogen confirming its anti-mitogenic effect. Histological analysis showed alteration of spleens of mice exposed to ACE. SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, our data indicated that ACE could potentially be harmful to the immune system.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/toxicidade , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neonicotinoides , Piridinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Mol Immunol ; 90: 57-63, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704707

RESUMO

Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) protein catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P) to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P), which is required for the synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) an important precursor for protein glycosylation. Mutations in PGM3 gene have been recently shown to underlie a new congenital disorder of glycosylation often associated to elevated IgE. Herein, we report twelve PGM3 deficient patients. They belong to three highly consanguineous families, originating from a rural district in the west central Tunisia. The patient's clinical phenotype is characterized by severe respiratory and cutaneous infections as well as developmental delay and severe mental retardation. Fourteen patients died in early infancy before diagnosis supporting the severity of the clinical phenotype. Laboratory findings revealed elevated IgE, CD4 lymphopenia and impaired T cell proliferation in most patients. Genetic analysis showed the presence, of a unique homozygous mutation (p.Glu340del) in PGM3 gene leading to reduced PGM3 abundance. Segregating analysis using fifteen polymorphic markers overlapping PGM3 gene showed that all patients inherited a common homozygous haplotype encompassing 10-Mb on chromosome 6. The founder mutational event was estimated to have occurred approximately 100 years ago. To date, (p.Glu340del) mutation represents the first founder mutation identified in PGM3 gene. These findings will facilitate the development of preventive approaches through genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in the affected families.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fosfoglucomutase/deficiência , Fosfoglucomutase/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Glicosilação , Haplótipos/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Tunísia
20.
Front Immunol ; 8: 737, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702026

RESUMO

During the last decades, the study of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) has contributed tremendously to unravel novel pathways involved in a variety of immune responses. Many of these PIDs have an autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. Thus, the investigation of the molecular basis of PIDs is particularly relevant in consanguineous populations from Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Although significant efforts have been made in recent years to develop genetic testing across the MENA region, few comprehensive studies reporting molecular basis of PIDs in these settings are available. Herein, we review genetic characteristics of PIDs identified in 168 patients from an inbred Tunisian population. A spectrum of 25 genes involved was analyzed. We show that AR forms compared to X-linked or autosomal dominant forms are clearly the most frequent. Furthermore, the study of informative consanguineous families did allow the identification of a novel hyper-IgE syndrome linked to phosphoglucomutase 3 mutations. We did also report a novel form of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by homozygous FAS mutations with normal or residual protein expression as well as a novel AR transcription factor 3 deficiency. Finally, we identified several founder effects for specific AR mutations. This did facilitate the implementation of preventive approaches through genetic counseling in affected consanguineous families. All together, these findings highlight the specific nature of highly consanguineous populations and confirm the importance of unraveling the molecular basis of genetic diseases in this context. Besides providing a better fundamental knowledge of novel pathways, their study is improving diagnosis strategies and appropriate care.

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