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1.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368098

RESUMO

Despite much of the past 2 years being engulfed by the devastating consequences of the SAR-CoV-2 pandemic, significant progress, even breathtaking, occurred in the field of chronic myeloid malignancies. Some of this was show-cased at the 15th Post-American Society of Hematology (ASH) and the 25th John Goldman workshops on myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) held on 9th-10th December 2020 and 7th-10th October 2021, respectively. The inaugural Post-ASH MPN workshop was set out in 2006 by John Goldman (deceased) and Tariq Mughal to answer emerging translational hematology and therapeutics of patients with these malignancies. Rather than present a resume of the discussions, this perspective focuses on some of the pivotal translational hematology and therapeutic insights in these diseases.

3.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(1): e12657, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155976

RESUMO

A state-of-the-art lecture titled "Myeloproliferative Neoplasm-associated Thrombosis" was presented at the ISTH congress in 2021. We summarize here the main points of the lecture with two purposes: to report the incidence rates of major thrombosis in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia and to discuss to what extent cytoreductive therapy and antithrombotic drugs have reduced the incidence of these events. Unfortunately, the incidence rate of thrombosis remains high, ranging between 2 and 5/100 person-years. It is likely that new drugs such as interferon and ruxolitinib can be more efficacious given their cytoreductive and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants after venous thrombosis in either common sites or splanchnic or cerebral sites, the incidence rate is still elevated, as high as 4 to 5/100 person-years. Future studies with new drugs or new strategies should consider thrombosis as the primary endpoint or surrogate biomarkers only if previously validated.

4.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An aspect of COVID-19 baffling physicians is the presentation of patients with acute respiratory failure, but normal mental faculties and no perception of dyspnea (i.e. "silent hypoxemia"). The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, characteristics, and outcome of COVID-19 patients with silent hypoxemic status and comparing them with a symptomatic severity-matched group. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric observational study involving all patients with PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, admitted at Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo (Italy) from Emergency Department due to acute respiratory failure, during the first Italian pandemic peak (February-April 2020). RESULTS: Overall 28-day mortality in 1,316 patients was 26.9%. Patients who did not report dyspnea at admission (N 469, 35.6%) had a lower 28-day mortality (22.6 vs. 29.3%, p=0.009). The severity matching analysis (i.e. PaO2/FiO2 and imaging) led to the identification of two groups of 254 patients that did not differ for sex prevalence, age, BMI, smoking history, comorbidities, and PaCO2 at admission. The use of CPAP during the first 24 hours, such as the need of endotracheal intubation (ETI) during the overall admission were significantly lower in matched patients with silent hypoxemia, whereas 28-day mortality resulted similar (p=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of dyspnea is common in patients suffering from severe COVID-19 pneumonia leading to respiratory failure, since up to a third of them could be asymptomatic on admission. Dyspnea per se correlates with pneumonia severity, and prognosis. However, dyspnea loses its predictive relevance once other findings to evaluate pneumonia severity are available such as PaO2/FiO2 and imaging. Silent hypoxemic patients are less likely to receive CPAP during the first 24 hours and ETI during the hospitalization, in spite of a comparable mortality to the dyspneic ones.

5.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(2): 28, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145055

RESUMO

We investigated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a predictor of thrombosis in polycythemia vera (PV). After a median follow-up of 2.51 years, of 1508 PV patients enrolled in the ECLAP study, 82 and 84 developed arterial and venous thrombosis, respectively. Absolute counts of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, and the NLR were tested by generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate their trend in continuous scale of thrombotic risk. Only for venous thrombosis, we showed that baseline absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were on average respectively higher (median: 6.8 × 109/L, p = 0.002) and lower (median: 1.4 × 109/L, p = 0.001), leading to increased NLR values (median: 5.1, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, the risk of venous thrombosis was independently associated with previous venous events (HR = 5.48, p ≤ 0.001) and NLR values ≥5 (HR = 2.13, p = 0.001). Moreover, the relative risk in both low- and high-standard risk groups was almost doubled in the presence of NLR ≥ 5. These findings were validated in two Italian independent external cohorts (Florence, n = 282 and Rome, n = 175) of contemporary PV patients. Our data support recent experimental work that venous thrombosis is controlled by innate immune cells and highlight that NLR is an inexpensive and easily accessible prognostic biomarker of venous thrombosis.


Assuntos
Policitemia Vera , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Policitemia Vera/complicações , Policitemia Vera/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
6.
Blood ; 139(19): 2931-2941, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007321

RESUMO

The goal of therapy for patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV) is to reduce thrombotic events by normalizing blood counts. Hydroxyurea (HU) and interferon-α (IFN-α) are the most frequently used cytoreductive options for patients with ET and PV at high risk for vascular complications. Myeloproliferative Disorders Research Consortium 112 was an investigator-initiated, phase 3 trial comparing HU to pegylated IFN-α (PEG) in treatment-naïve, high-risk patients with ET/PV. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) rate at 12 months. A total of 168 patients were treated for a median of 81.0 weeks. CR for HU was 37% and 35% for PEG (P = .80) at 12 months. At 24 to 36 months, CR was 20% to 17% for HU and 29% to 33% for PEG. PEG led to a greater reduction in JAK2V617F at 24 months, but histopathologic responses were more frequent with HU. Thrombotic events and disease progression were infrequent in both arms, whereas grade 3/4 adverse events were more frequent with PEG (46% vs 28%). At 12 months of treatment, there was no significant difference in CR rates between HU and PEG. This study indicates that PEG and HU are both effective treatments for PV and ET. With longer treatment, PEG was more effective in normalizing blood counts and reducing driver mutation burden, whereas HU produced more histopathologic responses. Despite these differences, both agents did not differ in limiting thrombotic events and disease progression in high-risk patients with ET/PV. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01259856.

10.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(4): e301-e311, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358444

RESUMO

Polycythaemia vera is associated with a reduced quality of life, a high rate of vascular events, and an intrinsic risk of disease evolution. The results of several randomised trials for the treatment of this disorder are now available, and both a new ropegylated formulation of interferon alfa-2b (ropeginterferon alfa-2b; 2018) and ruxolitinib (2015) have been approved in Europe. European LeukemiaNet (ELN) investigators have therefore deemed it appropriate to provide recommendations for the use of these drugs in clinical practice. An expert panel of 14 senior haematologists from ELN centres that had actively participated in previous ELN projects or relevant randomised trials, chaired by a member of the ELN Steering Committee, developed a list of clinical questions, and a methodologist established three patient, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) questions and systematically reviewed the evidence. Recommendations were approved by six Delphi consensus rounds and two virtual meetings (on Jan 26, 2021, and June 24, 2021). The expert panel recommended that patients with polycythaemia vera who are younger than 60 years and have not had previous thrombotic events should start cytoreductive drug therapy if at least one of the following criteria are fulfilled: strictly defined intolerance to phlebotomy, symptomatic progressive splenomegaly, persistent leukocytosis (>15 × 109 white blood cells per L), progressive leukocytosis (at least 100% increase if baseline count is <10 × 109 cells per L or at least 50% increase if baseline count is >10 × 109 cells per L), extreme thrombocytosis (>1500 × 109 platelets per L), inadequate haematocrit control requiring phlebotomies, persistently high cardiovascular risk, and persistently high symptom burden. Recombinant interferon alfa, either in the form of ropeginterferon alfa-2b or pegylated interferon alfa-2a, is the recommended cytoreductive treatment for these patients. The expert panel suggested that either interferon alfa or ruxolitinib should be considered for patients who are being treated with hydroxyurea but require a therapy change.


Assuntos
Policitemia Vera , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Policitemia Vera/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(12): 199, 2021 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897288

RESUMO

Arterial (AT) and venous (VT) thrombotic events are the most common complications in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In this regard, the impact of JAK2V617F variant allele frequency (VAF) is still debated. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the impact of JAK2V617F VAF in the context of other established risk factors for thrombosis in a total of 865 2016 WHO-defined PV patients utilizing two independent cohorts: University of Florence (n = 576) as a training cohort and Policlinico Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (n = 289) as a validation cohort. In the training cohort VT free-survival was significantly shorter in the presence of a JAK2V617F VAF > 50% (HR 4; p < 0.0001), whereas no difference was found for AT (HR 0.9; p = 0.8). Multivariable analysis identified JAK2V617F VAF > 50% (HR 3.8, p = 0.001) and previous VT (HR 2.2; p = 0.04) as independent risk factors for future VT whereas diabetes (HR 2.4; p = 0.02), hyperlipidemia (HR 2.3; p = 0.01) and previous AT (HR 2; p = 0.04) were independent risk factors for future AT. Similarly, JAK2V617F VAF > 50% (HR 2.4; p = 0.01) and previous VT (HR 2.8; p = 0.005) were confirmed as independent predictors of future VT in the validation cohort. Impact of JAK2V617F VAF > 50% on VT was particularly significant in conventional low-risk patients, both in Florence (HR 10.6, p = 0.005) and Rome cohort (HR 4; p = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified JAK2V617F VAF > 50% as an independent strong predictor of VT, supporting that AT and VT are different entities which might require distinct management.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 2/genética , Policitemia Vera/genética , Trombose Venosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação Puntual , Policitemia Vera/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 16(5): 455-463, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586561

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high rate of respiratory failure, thromboembolism, bleeding, and death. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are prone to both thrombosis and bleeding, calling for special care during COVID-19. We reviewed the clinical features of MPN patients with COVID-19, suggesting guidance for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: One study by the European LeukemiaNet collected 175 MPN patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic, from February to May 2020. Patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were at higher risk of mortality (48%) in comparison with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (25%) and polycythemia vera (19%); the risk of death was higher in those patients who abruptly discontinued ruxolitinib. In patients followed at home, in regular wards, or in ICU, the thrombosis rate was 1.0%, 2.8%, and 18.4%, respectively. Independent risk factors for thrombosis were ET phenotype, transfer to ICU, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; major bleeding occurred in 4.3% of patients, particularly those with PMF. MPN patients with non-severe COVID-19 treated at home should continue their primary or secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis with aspirin or oral anticoagulants. In the case of hospitalization, patients assuming aspirin should add low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at standard doses. In contrast, LMWH at intermediate/therapeutic doses should replace oral anticoagulants prescribed for atrial fibrillation or previous venous thromboembolism. Intermediate/high doses of LMWH can also be considered in ICU patients with ET, particularly in the case of a rapid decline in the number of platelets and progressive respiratory failure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/terapia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia
14.
Leukemia ; 35(12): 3339-3351, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480106

RESUMO

Polycythemia vera (PV) is a relatively indolent myeloid neoplasm with median survival that exceeds 35 years in young patients, but its natural history might be interrupted by thrombotic, fibrotic, or leukemic events, with respective 20-year rates of 26%, 16%, and 4%. Current treatment strategies in PV have not been shown to prolong survival or lessen the risk of leukemic or fibrotic progression and instead are directed at preventing thrombotic complications. In the latter regard, two risk categories are considered: high (age >60 years or thrombosis history) and low (absence of both risk factors). All patients require phlebotomy to keep hematocrit below 45% and once-daily low-dose aspirin, in the absence of contraindications. Cytoreductive therapy is recommended for high-risk or symptomatic low-risk disease; our first-line drug of choice in this regard is hydroxyurea but we consider pegylated interferon as an alternative in certain situations, including in young women of reproductive age, in patients manifesting intolerance or resistance to hydroxyurea therapy, and in situations where treatment is indicated for curbing phlebotomy requirement rather than preventing thrombosis. Additional treatment options include busulfan and ruxolitinib; the former is preferred in older patients and the latter in the presence of symptoms reminiscent of post-PV myelofibrosis or protracted pruritus. Our drug choices reflect our appreciation for long-term track record of safety, evidence for reduction of thrombosis risk, and broader suppression of myeloproliferation. Controlled studies are needed to clarify the added value of twice- vs once-daily aspirin dosing and direct oral anticoagulants. In this invited review, we discuss our current approach to diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment of PV in general, as well as during specific situations, including pregnancy and splanchnic vein thrombosis.


Assuntos
Policitemia Vera/diagnóstico , Policitemia Vera/terapia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Policitemia Vera/história
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(9): e658-e665, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450103

RESUMO

Recommendations regarding management of essential thrombocythaemia rely on studies done before the discovery of the CALR mutation. On May 20, 2020, the European LeukemiaNet annual meeting was held with the goal to identify unmet clinical needs in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Because patients with a CALR mutation have specific clinical characteristics, treatment of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia was considered an unmet clinical need by the European LeukemiaNet. The elaboration of a consensus document with recommendations according to current evidence was proposed as a solution for resolving uncertainties in the treatment of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia. A steering committee comprising four European LeukemiaNet members was then formed and a panel of ten experts in the field was recruited. The experts proposed 51 potential unmet clinical needs in the management of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia and were asked to score the relevance of each topic. Those topics that obtained the highest scores as relevant unmet clinical needs were identified, including antiplatelet therapy in patients at low risk, definition of extreme thrombocytosis and its management in patients at low risk, indications of cytoreduction and targets of therapy, first-line treatment of choice in young patients (<60 years), and management of pregnancy. After the steering committee revised the available evidence for each topic, a consensus on management and proposal for improving knowledge was achieved by use of an email-based, two round, Delphi approach. Consensus was achieved when 90% of the panellists agreed with a statement and included 14 recommendations and six solution proposals. Key recommendations included careful observation for asymptomatic patients with classical, low-risk, CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia without cardiovascular risk factors; caution in the use of antiplatelet therapy for symptomatic patients at low risk with platelet counts of 1000-1500 × 109 platelets per L, in such cases cytoreduction is an adequate option, especially if adquired Von Willebrand disease is present; cytoreduction is recommended for extreme thrombocytosis (platelet count >1500 × 109 platelets per L) with pegylated interferon alfa being the preferred option for younger patients; both hydroxycarbamide and anagrelide might be given to patients ineligible for pegylated interferon alfa; and treatment algorithms for patients with high-risk pregnancies should not be changed according to genotype. The European LeukemiaNet proposes to use these recommendations in the routine management of patients with CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia, and designing new clinical studies in this field might be useful.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Trombocitemia Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Calreticulina/genética , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Gravidez , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/patologia
16.
Am J Hematol ; 96(12): 1580-1586, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453762

RESUMO

The recent association of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with COVID-19 vaccinations prompted the current retrospective review of 74 cases of CVT (median age = 44 years, range 15-85; 61% females) associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), seen at the Mayo Clinic, Catholic University of Rome, and University of Florence, between 1991 and 2021. Disease-specific frequencies were 1.3% (39/2893), 1.2% (21/1811) and 0.2% (3/1888) for essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis, respectively. Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred either prior to (n = 20, 27%), at (n = 32, 44%) or after (n = 22) MPN diagnosis. A total of 72% of patients presented with headaches. Transverse (51%), sagittal (43%) and sigmoid sinuses (35%) were involved with central nervous system hemorrhage noted in 10 (14%) patients. In all, 91% of tested patients harbored JAK2V617F. An underlying thrombophilic condition was identified in 19 (31%) cases and history of thrombosis in 10 (14%). Treatment for CVT included systemic anticoagulation alone (n = 27) or in conjunction with aspirin (n = 24), cytoreductive therapy (n = 14), or both (n = 9). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 0.1-28.6), recurrent CVT was documented in three (4%) patients while recurrent arterial and venous thromboses and major hemorrhage were recorded in 11%, 9% and 14%, respectively. Follow-up neurological assessment revealed headaches (n = 9), vision loss (n = 1) and cognitive impairment (n = 1). The current study lends clarity to MPN-associated CVT and highlights its close association with JAK2V617F, younger age and female gender. Clinical features that distinguish COVID vaccine-related CVT from MPN-associated CVT include, in the latter, lower likelihood of concurrent venous thromboses and intracerebral hemorrhage; as a result, MPN-associated CVT was not fatal.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Trombose Intracraniana/etiologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Mutação Puntual , Policitemia Vera/complicações , Policitemia Vera/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/complicações , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombocitemia Essencial/complicações , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Trombose Venosa/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12532, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296056

RESUMO

This year's Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was hosted virtually from Philadelphia July 17-21, 2021. The conference, now held annually, highlighted cutting-edge advances in basic, population and clinical sciences of relevance to the Society. Despite being held virtually, the 2021 congress was of the same scope and quality as an annual meeting held in person. An added feature of the program is that talks streamed at the designated times will then be available on-line for asynchronous viewing. The program included 77 State of the Art (SOA) talks, thematically grouped in 28 sessions, given by internationally recognized leaders in the field. The SOA speakers were invited to prepare brief illustrated reviews of their talks that were peer reviewed and are included in this article. The topics, across the main scientific themes of the congress, include Arterial Thromboembolism, Coagulation and Natural Anticoagulants, COVID-19 and Coagulation, Diagnostics and Omics, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis, Hemophilia and Rare Bleeding Disorders, Hemostasis in Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity, Pediatrics, Platelet Disorders, von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Angiopathies, Platelets and Megakaryocytes, Vascular Biology, Venous Thromboembolism and Women's Health. These illustrated capsules highlight the major scientific advances with potential to impact clinical practice. Readers are invited to take advantage of the excellent educational resource provided by these illustrated capsules. They are also encouraged to use the image in social media to draw attention to the high quality and impact of the science presented at the congress.

18.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(6): 115, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135309
20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 96, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might affect vulnerability to Covid-19. The aim of this study was to describe the role of gender on clinical features and 28-day mortality in Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study of Covid-19 patients hospitalized in Bergamo, Italy, during the first three weeks of the outbreak. Medical records, clinical, radiological and laboratory findings upon admission and treatment have been collected. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality since hospitalization. RESULTS: 431 consecutive adult patients were admitted. Female patients were 119 (27.6%) with a mean age of 67.0 ± 14.5 years (vs 67.8 ± 12.5 for males, p = 0.54). Previous history of myocardial infarction, vasculopathy and former smoking habits were more common for males. At the time of admission PaO2/FiO2 was similar between men and women (228 [IQR, 134-273] vs 238 mmHg [150-281], p = 0.28). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) assistance was needed in the first 24 h more frequently in male patients (25.7% vs 13.0%; p = 0.006). Overall 28-day mortality was 26.1% in women and 38.1% in men (p = 0.018). Gender did not result an independent predictor of death once the parameters related to disease severity at presentation were included in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.898). Accordingly, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in female and male patients requiring CPAP or non-invasive ventilation in the first 24 h did not find a significant difference (p = 0.687). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized women are less likely to die from Covid-19; however, once severe disease occurs, the risk of dying is similar to men. Further studies are needed to better investigate the role of gender in clinical course and outcome of Covid-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Itália/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
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