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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5876-5884, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604981

RESUMO

The risk stratification of young adults between subjects who will develop a mild form COVID-19 and subjects who will undergo a severe disease remains inaccurate. In this review, we propose that the Barker hypothesis might explain the increased susceptibility to severe forms of COVID-19 in subjects who underwent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this paper evidence indicating an association between a low birth weight and an adult phenotype which might favor a severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection are presented: lower lung functional capacity; increased respiratory morbidity; changes in fibrinogen and Factor VII serum levels and dysregulation of the hemostasis and thrombosis system; acquisition of a pro-thrombotic phenotype; low nephron number, with decreased ability to sustain renal function and increased renal morbidity; heart remodeling, with a less efficient cardiac function; endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for the insurgence of the multiple organ failure; remodeling of arteries, with changes in the elastic properties of the arterial wall, predisposing to the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis; dysfunction of the innate immune system, a risk factor for immune diseases in adulthood. These data suggest that young and adult subjects born too small (IUGR) or too early (pre-terms) might represent a subgroup of "at risk subjects", more susceptible toward severe forms of COVID-19. Given that LBW may be considered a surrogate of IUGR, this phenotypic marker should be included among the indispensable clinical data collected in every patient presenting with SARS-COV-2 infection, irrespectively of his/her age.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5518-5524, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In liver cirrhosis, a complex coagulopathy does exist. The aim was to investigate whether a possible chronic consumption coagulopathy is the underlying phenomenon of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured endogenous thrombin generation with and without thrombomodulin (ETP ratio) along with D-Dimer in a group of consecutive 282 cirrhotic patients. Fibrinogen, Platelet count and the Hemorrhagic score were previously computed in the same patients. The ETP ratio represents the resistance to the anticoagulant activity of TM and should be considered as an index of a procoagulant imbalance. RESULTS: ETP ratio and D-Dimer showed higher values in the cirrhotic patients when compared to controls thus showing a hypercoagulable state. When the patients were divided based on the Hemorrhagic score >7, we found that Fibrinogen, ETP ratio, D-Dimer and the platelet count were significantly different between the two groups. Again, when we considered ETP ratio >0.88, the median value of the cirrhotic patients, all parameters, were statistically different between the two groups. D-Dimer were higher while fibrinogen and platelet count were statistically lower in cirrhotic patients with higher ETP ratio values. Even when the same patients were divided based on their platelet count ( 100 x 109/L) the results showed a similar behavior. ROC curves showed significant AUCs when the hemorrhagic score was challenged against Fibrinogen, D-Dimer, Platelet count and ETP ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In liver cirrhosis hypercoagulable state is associated with an increase in D-Dimer levels along with a decrease in fibrinogen and platelet count thus indicating a low-grade intravascular coagulation which predicts a high hemorrhagic risk.

3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission. RESULTS: At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present: thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Aorta/patologia , COVID-19/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Trombose/sangue
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(12): 4336-4344, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Wilson's Disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive copper overload. Several mutations of the copper pump named ATP7B have been involved. WD is difficult to diagnose mainly because of its heterogeneity of presentation. The histologic spectrum is wide and not specific, ranging from very mild changes to severe disease. The histological picture of WD may overlap different conditions, including ALD, NAFLD, viral hepatitis or autoimmune liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe our experience on WD based on a single-center series of liver biopsies. One-hundred twenty-seven liver samples from 43 Sardinian WD patients were reviewed. The most reported pattern was steatohepatitis, accounting 82/127 biopsies (64.6%), followed by hepatitis in 25 biopsies (19.7%), and steatosis in 20 biopsies (15.7%). RESULTS: As for the elementary lesions, inflammation, steatosis, glycogenated nuclei and ballooning were the most frequent, being found in 107, 102, 90 and 86 biopsies out of the 127. Notably, all these lesions showed a predominant periportal location. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic pattern or in each elementary lesion between the biopsies performed at presentation and those performed during the follow-up. Lipogranuloma (significantly more numerous in the follow-up biopsies) and fibrosis (likewise significantly progressed in follow-up biopsies) were the only exceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the variability of the histological pattern in WD. However, the preferential localization of steatosis and balloon cells in periportal zone can be a useful clue for the diagnosis of WD.

5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3886-3897, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Platelets, blood coagulation along with fibrinolysis are greatly involved in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases induced by bacteria, parasites and virus. This phenomenon is not surprising since both the innate immunity and the hemostatic systems are two ancestral mechanisms which closely cooperate favoring host's defense against foreign invaders. However, the excessive response of these systems may be dangerous for the host itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched and retrieved the articles, using the following electronic database: MedLine and Embase. We limited our search to articles published in English, but no restrictions in terms of article type, publication year, and geography were adopted. RESULTS: The hemostatic phenotype of the infectious diseases is variable depending on the points of attack of the different involved pathogens. Infectious diseases which show a prothrombotic phenotype are bacterial sepsis, SARS-CoV-2 and malaria. However, among the bacterial sepsis, Yersinia Pestis is characterized by a profibrinolytic behavior. On the contrary, the hemorrhagic fevers, due to Dengue and Ebola virus, mainly exploit the activation of fibrinolysis secondary to a huge endothelial damage which can release a large amount of t-PA in the early phase of the diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis are greatly activated based on the strategy of the different infectious agents which exploit the excess of response of both systems to achieve the greatest possible virulence.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19/patologia , Fibrinólise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Vírus/patogenicidade
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(9): 3594-3606, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with 2019-nCoV infection have a high risk to develop venous thrombotic events. Several guidelines recommend the use of either unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparins in preventing thrombotic events in these patients. However, results from clinical studies, so far published, reached controversial conclusions on heparin efficacy in this kind of patients since the incidence of venous thromboembolism remains high despite prophylaxis. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of heparins and their efficacy and safety in SARS-CoV-2 medical ward-patients. Moreover, anatomical findings and ongoing trials are also reported. Finally, this narrative review tries to explain why heparins fail to prevent venous thrombosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for the most relevant published studies on heparins and 2019-nCoV infected patients using the MEDLINE electronic database in the period between January and December 2020. Articles were preliminarily defined as eligible if they: a) were in English language, b) enrolled 250 or more medical ward-patients and 100 or more ICU-patients, c) reported results on patients treated with heparins in a percentage of at least 70% and d) performed an objectively confirmed diagnosis of VTE. RESULTS: Data from medium to large scientific studies show that the incidence of venous thrombotic events in medical ward-patients with SARS-CoV-2 vary between 0% and 8.3%, while this rate is higher, from 6.2% to 49%, in Intensive Care Unit-patients. However, heparins reduce the mortality rate in these patients of about 50%. Histological findings show that thrombosis could affect capillaries, main and small-mid-sized vessels, and it is associated with diffuse alveolar damage. CONCLUSIONS: Heparins have anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, which may be of help in reducing mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Failure of heparins at prophylactic dosages in preventing VTE, especially in ICU-patients, could be due to the severity of the disease. Data on the use of heparins in an early phase of the 2019-nCoV infection are still lacking.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/imunologia
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12609-12622, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In human pathology, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes multiple molecular pathways to determine structural and biochemical changes within the different organs and cell types. The clinical picture of patients with COVID-19 is characterized by a very large spectrum. The reason for this variability has not been clarified yet, causing the inability to make a prognosis on the evolution of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed search was performed focusing on the role of ACE 2 receptors in allowing the viral entry into cells, the role of ACE 2 downregulation in triggering the tissue pathology or in accelerating previous disease states, the role of increased levels of Angiotensin II in determining endothelial dysfunction and the enhanced vascular permeability, the role of the dysregulation of the renin angiotensin system in COVID-19 and the role of cytokine storm. RESULTS: The pathological changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the different organs, the correlations between the single cell types targeted by the virus in the different human organs and the clinical consequences, COVID-19 chronic pathologies in liver fibrosis, cardiac fibrosis and atrial arrhythmias, glomerulosclerosis and pulmonary fibrosis, due to the systemic fibroblast activation induced by angiotensin II are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathways involved showed different pathological changes in multiple tissues and the different clinical presentations. Even if ACE2 is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and the main entry point into cells for the virus, ACE2 expression does not always explain the observed marked inter-individual variability in clinical presentation and outcome, evidencing the complexity of this disorder. The proper interpretation of the growing data available might allow to better classifying COVID-19 in human pathology.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade Capilar , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/metabolismo , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Internalização do Vírus
8.
Case Rep Med ; 2020: 6985020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328108

RESUMO

Background: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a transient, antibody-mediated thrombocytopenia syndrome that usually follows exposure to unfractioned heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). In contrast to other pathological conditions which lead to thrombocytopenia and bleeding complications, HIT results in a paradoxical prothrombotic state. It is caused by antibodies directed to complexes containing UFH or LMWH and a self-platelet protein: the platelet factor 4 (PF4). The heparin-PF4 immune complex leads to activation of platelets, monocytes, and endothelial cells which release procoagulant proteins and tissue factor with subsequent blood coagulation activation. Case Report. We describe the case of a woman undergone to knee replacement and affected by urosepsis who developed a HIT after exposure to enoxaparin. The thrombotic burden was very impressive involving the arterial and venous cerebral vessel and the venous pulmonary, hepatic, and inferior legs vascular beds. The patient was successfully treated with fondaparinux without recurrent thrombosis or bleeding. The clinical scenario could be named "catastrophic HIT" like the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome since they have a similar pathogenetic mechanism involving both platelets and monocytes procoagulant activities and a similar clinical manifestation with a life-threatening multiple arterial and/or venous thromboses. Conclusion: Patients presenting with HIT could show a very impressive thrombotic burden resembling to that of the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. A careful differential diagnosis should be made towards other pathological conditions which lead to thrombocytopenia to avoid an unnecessary and potentially harmful platelet transfusion. Although fondaparinux is off-label, its use in patients with HIT is simple and seems to be effective.

10.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 39(4): 369-374, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are abnormal but unreliable in cirrhotic patients to express their risk of bleeding. However, these patients may also suffer from thrombotic episodes. In order to investigate the dynamics of the formation of fibrin, the clot waveform analysis (CWA) of aPTT was studied together with a score for the evaluation of the thromboembolic risk. METHODS: CWA in terms of velocity (1st derivative), acceleration (2nd derivatives) and density (Delta) of aPTT and the Padua Prediction Score (PPS) for venous thromboembolism were studied in 191 cirrhotic patients. RESULTS: CWA values were lower in the cirrhotic patients when compared to the control groups. However, Delta, 1st and 2nd derivatives were higher in cirrhotic patients with elevated PPS in comparison to those with a low PPS. The 1st derivative was significantly associated with a high PPS score (>4): OR: 2.66, CI: 95% 1.23-5.78. CONCLUSIONS: Two opposing tendencies seem to be present in cirrhotic disease: the first shows a weakness of clot formation while the second a predisposition towards thrombosis, identified by the PPS.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Tempo de Protrombina , Medição de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
13.
Thromb Res ; 126(2): 150-3, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20542544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anti-prothrombin (aPT) antibodies have been found in Lupus Anticoagulant (LA) positive patients. Their prevalence and relative contribution to thromboembolic risk in LA-positive patients is not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine their presence and association with thromboembolic events in a large series of patients with confirmed LA. METHODS: Plasma from LA-positive patients was collected at Thrombosis Centers and sent to a reference central laboratory for confirmation. Positive plasma was tested using home-made ELISA for the presence of aPT and anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies. RESULTS: LA was confirmed in 231 patients. Sixty-one of 231 (26%, 95%CI 22-33) LA positive subjects were positive for IgG aPT and 62 (27%, 95% CI 21-33) were positive for IgM aPT antibodies. Clinical features of Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) were not associated with the presence of IgG aPT [43 APS in 61 (70%) positive and 109 APS in 170 (64%) negative IgG aPT subjects, p=ns] or IgM aPT. Rate of positivity of IgG and IgM a beta(2)GPI was significantly higher than that of IgG and IgM aPT. Clinical events accounting for APS occurred in 97 of 130 (75%) IgG a beta(2)GPI positive and in 55 of 101 (54%) IgG a beta(2)GPI negative patients (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3, p=0.002). No significant association with clinical events in patients positive for both IgG aPT and IgG a beta(2)GPI as compared to those positive for one or another test was found. When patients negative for both IgG aPT and IgG a beta(2)GPI (LA positive only) were compared with remaining patients, a significantly lower association with clinical events was found (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.7, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to IgG a beta(2)GPI, the prevalence of IgG aPT in patients with LA is significantly lower and not associated with the clinical features of APS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Protrombina/imunologia , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 8(2): 237-42, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19874470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The characteristics and the clinical course of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in high-risk patients that are positive for all three recommended tests that detect the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies have not been described. METHODS: This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data examined patients referred to Italian Thrombosis Centers that were diagnosed with definite APS and tested positive for aPL [lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti-cardiolipin (aCL), and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) antibodies]. Laboratory data were confirmed in a central reference laboratory. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled in this cohort study. The qualifying events at diagnosis were venous thromboembolism (76 cases; 47.5%), arterial thromboembolism (69 cases; 43.1%) and pregnancy morbidity (11 cases; 9.7%). The remaining four patients (2.5%) suffered from catastrophic APS. The cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events in the follow-up period was 12.2% (95% CI, 9.6-14.8) after 1 year, 26.1% (95% CI, 22.3-29.9) after 5 years and 44.2% (95% CI, 38.6-49.8) after 10 years. This was significantly higher in those patients not taking oral anticoagulants as compared with those on treatment (HR=2.4 95% CI 1.3-4.1; P<0.003). Major bleeding associated with oral anticoagulant therapy was low (0.8% patient/years). Ten patients died (seven were cardiovascular deaths). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with APS and triple positivity for aPL are at high risk of developing future thromboembolic events. Recurrence remains frequent despite the use of oral anticoagulants, which significantly reduces the risk of thromboembolism.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/sangue , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Catastrófica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/imunologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia
15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 27(5): 846-55, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19917173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review prevalence, risk factors and mechanisms of thrombosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Available medical literature on PubMed was reviewed and relevant information summarized. RESULTS: Patients affected by RA present an increased risk of thromboembolism, an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Research is focused on the role of disease-associated risk factors and predisposing conditions such as endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, pro-thrombotic conditions, inflammatory markers, immobility and complications following major knee or hip replacement. CONCLUSION: Thrombosis is a possible manifestation in RA patients. A number of factors are suspected to play a role in the increased thromboembolic risk. The mechanisms responsible for thrombosis in these patients remain unclear, however, the identification of the thrombophilic risk factors is clinically useful to determine in which patients occurrence is more likely.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Trombofilia/fisiopatologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): 925-30, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17461926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) in a large cohort of positive patients was confirmed at a reference laboratory. METHODS: Over a 1-year period, each participating center collected samples from LAC-positive patients. Plasma was filtered and kept deep-frozen until it was sent on dry ice to the reference laboratory by express courier. Centers returned detailed laboratory information and clinical data from each patient. The reference laboratory screened plasma samples by diluted Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) and kaolin clotting time (KCT). When these were prolonged, 1:1 mixing studies were carried out, and confirmatory tests were performed as appropriate. Positive samples were further tested by thrombin time (TT). The presence of heparin was checked by measuring antifactor Xa activity when TT was prolonged. Negative samples were tested by activated partial thromboplastin time using hexagonal phospholipids. RESULTS: Plasma samples from 302 patients from 29 anticoagulation clinics were analyzed. LAC was excluded in 71 samples (24%), because dRVVT and KCT screening test results were normal (34) or reversed to normal by mixing studies (35). The remaining two samples were considered negative because they contained heparin. LAC-negative patients showed different characteristics from those in whom diagnosis was confirmed. They were significantly older (49.7 vs. 45.0 years, P < 0.03), were more often first diagnosed (66% vs. 41%, P < 0.001), and were more frequently judged as mild in LAC potency (60% vs. 25%, P < 0.0001). Moreover, anticardiolipin and anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibody values were more often normal in LAC-negative (82%) than in LAC-positive (42%) samples (P < 0.0001). LAC-positive samples identified by both dRVVT and KCT (146/231, 63%) showed a LAC potency that was significantly stronger than that in samples in which LAC diagnosis was made by a single test. CONCLUSIONS: A false-positive LAC diagnosis is not uncommon across specialized centers. Patients' characteristics and a complete antiphospholipid antibody profile may help to identify these individuals.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Thromb Haemost ; 83(1): 49-53, 2000 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10669154

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate on the general adhesion of the patients to oral anticoagulant therapy, and particularly on the quality of life of our patients, the doctor-patient relationship and the Centre-patient relationship. For this purpose we administered a questionnaire containing 17 main questions each with a maximum of 4 secondary questions. The questionnaire was administered to two groups of 127 and 137 oral anticoagulated patients (127 males and 137 females, mean age 55 +/- 19 years), followed at two Anticoagulation Clinics, in two Italian cities, Cagliari (Sardinia) and Padua (North East Italy). The cities differed in the number of patients monitored and the management modalities of anticoagulation. The results show that oral anticoagulant therapy does not limit the life-style of the patients. Only 11% of the patients complain of limitations to their daily life. Fifty-two percent believe their health has improved, and 87% are not afraid of negative consequences. The doctor-patient relationship is considered very important by 96% of patients. Seventy-eight percent refer to the Anticoagulation Clinic also for other health problems, 93% consider it important to be assessed by the doctor at the Anticoagulation Clinic, while 83% believe the doctor should always hand out the results personally. We conclude that in general oral anticoagulant therapy is accepted by the majority of patients, in spite of the need for periodic monitoring. The doctor-patient relationship should be taken into account, even in the case of a monitored, computer-assisted method of dose-adjustment.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Relações Médico-Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/psicologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 80(6): 899-902, 1998 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9869157

RESUMO

Warfarin is employed more frequently than acenocoumarol because of its longer half-life (36 h), theoretically providing more stable anticoagulation, and avoiding factor VII fluctuations that potentially occur during acenocoumarol treatment (half-life 10 h). The aim of our study was to compare acenocoumarol with warfarin in the same group of 103 patients who started oral anticoagulation with acenocoumarol and then changed to warfarin. In these patients we compared the previous period of six months on acenocoumarol treatment (July-December 1996) with a new six-month period on warfarin (July-December 1997). We wished to know whether warfarin could improve the quality and the stability of oral anticoagulation of our patients and whether there was a difference between the two drugs in the weekly mean dose per patient. Moreover in order to detect the possible daily fluctuation of factor VII, we evaluated a further group of 54 patients. A subgroup of these patients was treated with warfarin while another received acenocoumarol. In the first group of patients, 1,158 and 1,064 PTs were carried out with acenocoumarol and warfarin, respectively. The percentage of PTs in the therapeutic range was 59% with acenocoumarol and 62% with warfarin (p=0.4). The mean number of visits per patient was 12 and 11, and the mean number of visits in the therapeutic range was 7 and 7, respectively. The last check in file method did not show any difference between the two drugs. Overdose states were 51 (4.4%) with acenocoumarol and 30 (2.8%) with warfarin (p=0.4). A good correlation (r=0.92) was found between the acenocoumarol and the warfarin weekly mean dose. The mean warfarin/acenocoumarol weekly dose ratio was 2.08 (range: 1.25-3.30; CI 95%: 1.99-2.16). In the second group of patients, factor VII levels with both drugs were higher 24 h after administration than 16 h after, showing that their daily fluctuation was independent of the drug's half-life, since factor VII levels in patients with a low vitamin K intake were not increased. Our results showed that warfarin did not appear to be better than acenocoumarol in the performance of an Anticoagulation Clinic in terms of PTs within the therapeutic range per patient. It seems that the behaviour of factor VII was affected by the intake of vitamin K rather than by the short half-life of acenocoumarol.


Assuntos
Acenocumarol/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Acenocumarol/administração & dosagem , Acenocumarol/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fator VII/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Protrombina , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/farmacologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
19.
Circulation ; 96(3): 1053-4; author reply 1055-6, 1997 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9264527
20.
Int J Clin Lab Res ; 27(1): 76-8, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9144033

RESUMO

We investigated the behavior of prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 and thrombin-antithrombin complexes in 70 patients treated with chronic anticoagulant therapy. Moreover, in a longitudinal study 37 patients were evaluated twice and 16 patients three times. Twenty-eight age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were also studied as a control group. Prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 or thrombin-antithrombin values among patients with different International Normalized Ratios, nor in the same patients studied two or three times. Our results confirm that oral anticoagulant treatment can effectively reduce thrombin activity. However, strong anticoagulation does not induce a further significant decrease in fragment F1 + 2 values. Therefore, we feel measurement of fragment F1 + 2 might be less useful than thought in optimizing oral anticoagulant therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombina III/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Protrombina/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
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