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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772638

RESUMO

The dopaminergic system of zebrafish is complex and the numerous pathways and receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) are being extensively studied. A critical factor for the synthesis, activation and release of catecholamines (CAs) is the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme which converts L-tyrosine into levodopa. Levodopa thus is the intermediary in the synthesis of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and promotes its release; therefore, CAs play an important role in the CNS with hormonal functions. Here, we use levodopa/carbidopa to clarify the involvement of the dopaminergic pathway in the stress response in zebrafish submitted to an acute stress challenge. Acute stress was induced by chasing fish with a net for 2 min and assessed by measuring whole-body cortisol levels. Two experiments were carried out, the first with exposure to levodopa/carbidopa and the second with exposure to AMPT and levodopa/carbidopa. Levodopa/carbidopa balances the stress response through its action on the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in cortisol levels suggest that DA was related to the balance of the stress response and that NE decreased this response. These effects were specific to stress since levodopa/carbidopa did not induce changes in cortisol in non-stressed fish.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143794, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272603

RESUMO

Viticulture plays an important role in generating income for small farms globally. Historically, vineyards use large quantities of phytosanitary products, such as Bordeaux mixture [Ca(OH)2 + CuSO4], to control plant diseases. These products result in the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil and increases the risk of transfer to water bodies. Thus, it is important to evaluate whether the presence of Cu-bearing particles in water is toxic to aquatic fauna. This study conducted chemical, mineralogical, and particle size evaluations on water samples and sediments collected from a watershed predominantly cultivated with old vineyards. The proportion of Cu-rich nanoparticles (<10 nm) in the sediment was ~27%. We exposed zebrafish to different dilutions of water and sediment samples that collected directly from the study site (downstream river) under laboratory conditions. Then, we evaluated their exploratory behavior and the stress-related endocrine parameter, whole-body cortisol. We also carried out two experiments in which zebrafish were exposed to Cu. First, we determined the median lethal concentration (LC50-96 h) of Cu and then assessed whether Cu exposure results in effects similar to those associated with exposure to the water and sediment samples collected from the study site. The water and sediment samples directly impacted the exploratory behavior of zebrafish, showing clear anxiety-like behavioral phenotype and stress in terms of cortisol increase (during the second rain event). The Cu exposure did not mimic the same behavioral changes triggered by the water and sediment samples, although it had caused similar stress in the fish. Our results highlight that even at low concentrations, the water and sediment samples from vineyard watershed runoff were able to induce behavioral and endocrine changes that may harm the ecological balance of an aquatic environment.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800866

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant widely misused to increase wakefulness by drivers and students. Also, MPH can be found in dietary supplements in a clandestine manner aiming to burst performance of physical exercise practitioners. The abusive use of high doses of caffeine (CAF) in these contexts is equally already known. Here, we demonstrate the behavioral, oxidative and mitochondrial effects after acute exposure to high doses of MPH (80 mg/L) and CAF (150 mg/L), alone or associated (80 mg/L + 150 mg/L, respectively). We used zebrafish as animal model due to its high translational relevance. We evaluated the behavioral effects using the Novel Tank Test (NTT), Social Preference Test (SPT) and Y-maze Task and analyzed biomarkers of oxidative stress and activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. MPH alone induced antisocial behavior. MPH inhibited lipid peroxidation. The association of MPH + CAF presented memory impairment and anxiogenic behavior. In oxidative status, it inhibited lipid peroxidation, increased protein carbonylation and mitochondrial complex II, III and IV activity. Our results demonstrate that MPH and CAF alone negatively impact the typical behavioral of zebrafish. When associated, changes in cognition, memory, oxidative and mitochondrial status are more relevant.

4.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 80: 103473, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860936

RESUMO

Residual contamination of water with MPH represents a severe environmental issue because it can affect non-target animals. Here we describe the behavioral effects in zebrafish after chronic contamination of water containing residues of MPH (0.1875, 1.875 and 3 ug/L). These doses are environmentally relevant since they reflect those found in wastewaters. We evaluated the behavioral effect through the novel tank test (NTT) and social preference test (SPT), and after euthanasia we analyzed oxidative stress parameters. Zebrafish exposed to MPH presented a social impairment, avoiding the conspecifics segment in the social preference test. In addition, MPH in the lowest concentration provoked an anxiolytic effect in the novel tank test. Oxidative stress is not related to these changes. Since the maintenance of an intact behavioral repertoire is crucial for species survival and fitness, our results demonstrate that residual contamination of water by MPH can be a threat to zebrafish, impacting directly to its well-being and survival in the aquatic environment.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38559-38567, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623676

RESUMO

Due to human activities, there is an increasing presence of agrochemicals residues in water bodies, which could be attributed to an increased use of these chemicals, incorrect disposal of packaging materials, and crop leaching. The effects of these residues on prey-predator relationship of aquatic animals are poorly known. Here, we show that fish acutely exposed to glyphosate, 2,4-D, and methylbenzoate-based agrichemicals have their anti-predatory responses impaired. We exposed zebrafish to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals and evaluated their behavioral reaction against a simulated bird predatory strike. We observed that agrichemical-exposed fish spent more time in a risky area, suggesting that the pesticides interfered with their ability of risk perception. Our results highlight the impairment and environmental consequences of agrochemical residues, which can affect aquatic life and crucial elements for life (food web) such as the prey-predator relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Agroquímicos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29341-29351, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440876

RESUMO

The synthetic estrogen, 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), present in contraceptive pills, is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that can be found in the aquatic environment. We examined the impacts of EE2 on zebrafish behavioral and physiological responses through the novel tank test (NTT), which measures anxiety-like behavior; the mirror-induced aggression (MIA) test, which measures aggressiveness; and the social preference test (SPT), which measures social cohesion. The steroid hormone levels were also measured. Here, we show that exposure to EE2 impairs stress responses by regulating the levels of specific hormones and eliciting an anxiolytic response, increasing aggression, and reducing social preference in zebrafish. In nature, these changes in behavior compromise reproduction and anti-predator behaviors, which, in turn, affects species survival. The maintenance of an intact behavioral repertoire in zebrafish is essential for their survival. Thus, our results point to the danger of environmental contamination with EE2 as it may alter the dynamics of the prey-predator relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Etinilestradiol , Reprodução
7.
Physiol Behav ; 222: 112944, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407833

RESUMO

Zebrafish has become an animal model in research and articles have established ideal conditions for their maintenance. However, little is known regarding the influence of gender and other cues on zebrafish behavior. Thus, here we analyzed the exploratory and social behavior of different sexes (male and female, mixed or segregated) under different housing conditions with various types of stimuli (visual or/and chemical cues and structural environmental enrichment). Segregated females and males were more active than mixed individuals and females were more anxious. Fish that visualized and smelled the opposite sex presented higher activity and were less anxious than individuals that only smelled or visualized the opposite sex. Fish segregated by sex while being allowed to visualize and smell the opposite sex with the presence of structural environmental enrichment exhibited lower activity and anxiety-like behavior than fish without structural environmental enrichment. Thus, we emphasized that these variables should be taken into account in housing conditions and should be detailed for better replicability and reproducibility of experiments performed with zebrafish.

8.
Stress ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013653

RESUMO

We report the effects of acute and chronic stress on the expression of selective immune-related genes and markers of neuronal function in the brain of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were distributed into three groups: the non-stressed control group; the acute stress (AS) group, submitted to a single stressing episode; and the unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) group, submitted to two daily stressing episodes of alternating times and types of stress. The stressing protocols were applied for a period of 14 days. The UCS protocol triggered the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1ß and TNF-α, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (negative feedback from the immune system), reduction in cFOS gene expression, and caused neuro-inflammation. The AS protocol had no effect on gene expression. Altered expression of cytokine genes, as observed in our study, correlates with several pathologies associated with neuro-inflammation, and the reduction of cFOS gene expression may indicate the occurrence of reduced neuronal plasticity. Our study further extends our knowledge about the interaction of the immune system and the different forms of stress.

9.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 189: 172841, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893526

RESUMO

Environmental pollution caused by antipsychotic residues is a relevant ecological problem. Studies revealed that residues of these drugs are present in a wide range of different ecosystems and can have adverse effects on non-target organisms even in low environmental concentrations. Among these antipsychotic drugs, aripiprazole (APPZ) is a second-generation atypical antipsychotic that is a partial agonist of dopaminergic and serotoninergic receptors. APPZ is used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety or panic disorders. Thus, in this study we posed the following question: "What will be the behavioral effects of waterborne APPZ on fish?" To answer this question, we exposed adult zebrafish to different APPZ concentrations (0.556, 5.56, and 556 ng/L) for 15 min and evaluated their exploratory, anxiety-like, social, and anti-predatory behaviors. Our results showed that, despite the apparent beneficial reversal of stress-induced social impairment and anxiety-like behavior, APPZ exposure impaired the anti-predatory reaction of adult zebrafish. Taken altogether, our results show that APPZ-exposed zebrafish may have a decreased perception of predators, even at concentrations lower than those already detected in the environment. A failure to exhibit an antipredatory response may favor the predator, decrease the fitness of the prey species, and, consequently, affect the food chain. Our results highlight the risks and consequences associated with APPZ residues in water, which may affect aquatic life and endanger species that depend on appropriate behavioral responses for survival.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 26293-26303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286368

RESUMO

Since behavior is the connection between the internal physiological processes of an animal and its interaction with the environment, a complete behavioral repertoire is crucial for fish survival and fitness, at both the individual and population levels. Thus, unintended exposure of non-target organisms to antipsychotic residues in the environment can impact their normal behavior, and some of these behavioral changes can be seen during the entire life of the animal and passed to subsequent generations. Although there are some reports related to transgenerational toxicology, little is known of the long-term consequences of exposure to pharmaceutical compounds such as risperidone. Here, we show that zebrafish exposed to risperidone (RISP) during embryonic and larval stages presented impaired anti-predatory behavior during adulthood, characterizing a persistent effect. We also show that some of these behavioral changes are present in the following generation, characterizing a transgenerational effect. This suggests that even short exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations, at essential stages of development, can persist throughout the whole life of the zebrafish, including its offspring. From an environmental perspective, our results suggested possible risks and long-term consequences associated with drug residues in water, which can affect aquatic life and endanger species that depend on appropriate behavioral responses for survival.


Assuntos
Risperidona/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 443-451, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190101

RESUMO

Environmental contamination caused by the human occupancy and economic activities that generate a wide range of contaminated effluents that reach natural water resources, is a current reality. Residues of agrichemicals used in plant production were detected in different environments and in different countries. Among these agrochemicals, we studied a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH), a fipronil-based insecticide (FBI), and their mixtures (GBH + FBI). Zebrafish exposed to 3 and 5 mg/L of GBH spend more time in the top zone and less time in the bottom zone. Fish exposed to 0.009 and 0.018 mg/L of FBI spent less time in the bottom zone, whereas zebrafish exposed to the three GBH + FBI mixtures spend more time in the top zone compared with unexposed control fish. This clear anxiolytic pattern, in an environmental context, can directly impair the ability of fish to avoid or evade predators. We concluded that both glyphosate-based herbicide and fipronil-based insecticide and their mixtures alter zebrafish behavior, which may result in significant repercussions on the maintenance of the species as well as on the food chain and the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13908, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224742

RESUMO

Here we show that the novel object recognition test can discriminate between high (HRN, neophobic) and low (LRN, neophilic) novelty responders in zebrafish populations. Especially when we observe the latency to the first entry in the novel object zone, zebrafish did not maintain these behavioral phenotypes in sequential tests and only the HRN group returned to their initial responsive behavior when exposed to fluoxetine. Our results have important implications for behavioral data analysis since such behavioral differences can potentially increase individual response variability and interfere with the outcomes obtained from various behavioral tasks. Our data reinforce the validity of personality determination in zebrafish since we show clear differences in behavior in response to fluoxetine.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 596-602, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981831

RESUMO

In a previous study we showed a clear relationship between immune system and behavior in zebrafish and we hypothesized that the immune system is capable of inducing behavioral changes. To further investigate this subject and to address our main question, here we induced an inflammatory response in one group of fish by the inoculation of formalin-inactivated Aeromonoas hydrophila bacterin and compared their social and exploratory behavior with control groups. After the behavioral tests, we also analyzed the expression of cytokines genes and markers of neuronal activity in fish brain. In the bacterin-inoculated fish, the locomotor activity, social preference and exploratory behavior towards a new object were reduced compared to the control fish while the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain was upregulated. With this study we demonstrated for the first time that the immune system is capable of causing behavioral changes that are consistent with the sickness behavior observed in mammals.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Relações Interpessoais , Locomoção/imunologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 846, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339805

RESUMO

Considering the intriguing relationship between immune system and behavior recently described in mammals, and the lack of information of this relationship in fish, here we describe for the first time the interaction between the immune system and social and exploratory behavior in zebrafish. Fish high responders to novelty (HRN) presented a proinflammatory profile, with increased IL-1ß and reduced IL-10 expression compared to fish low responders to novelty (LRN). Likewise, fish less responsive to social stimuli have a reduced expression of INF-γ. We show that fish with different behavior patterns have differences in the immune response. Our findings indicate that the interplay between immune system and behavior in zebrafish is similar to that found in mammalian models and that zebrafish should be considered as a potential model organism to study the relationship between immune system and behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Masculino , Transcriptoma
15.
Behav Brain Res ; 336: 85-92, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822694

RESUMO

Studies with zebrafish use acclimatizing periods of at least one week immediately before the experiments. During this time, animals can be housed in sexually segregated conditions (only females or males in the tank) or in mixed-sex conditions (both sexes in the tank). The influence of sex and housing conditions regarding the presence of one or two sexes is largely unknown in zebrafish. Our aim was to evaluate the influence that sex and housing regarding the sex of animals had in the open tank task, in the inhibitory avoidance memory test, in cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish. Four groups of animals were used: 1) segregated housed females (only females were kept in the tank); 2) segregated housed males (only males were kept in the tank); 3) mixed-sex housed females (only females were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex); 4) mixed-sex housed males (only males were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex). Males showed higher total distance travelled and mean speed when compared to females. In the inhibitory avoidance memory, sexually segregated animals had higher latencies than their mixed-sex counterparts in the 1day test and sexually segregated females presented a memory that persisted longer and was able to be reinstated. Whole-body cortisol levels were higher in mixed-sex animals while weight was lower in these fish. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that effects of sex and housing regarding sex were investigated in behavior and physiology of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14121, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074994

RESUMO

The ability to avoid and escape from predators are clearly relevant behaviors from the ecological perspective and directly interfere with the survival of organisms. Detected in the aquatic environment, risperidone can alter the behavior of exposed species. Considering the risk of exposure in the early stages of life, we exposed zebrafish embryos to risperidone during the first 5 days of life. Risperidone caused hyperactivity in exposed larvae, which in an environmental context, the animals may be more vulnerable to predation due to greater visibility or less perception of risk areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Drogas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Risperidona/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
17.
PeerJ ; 5: e3739, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890851

RESUMO

Chemical communication relating to predation risk is a trait common among fish species. Prey fish under threat of predation can signal risk to conspecific fish, which then exhibit defensive responses. Fish also assess predation risk by visual cues and change their behavior accordingly. Here, we explored whether these behavioral changes act as visual alarm signals to conspecific fish that are not initially under risk. We show that shoals of zebrafish (Danio rerio) visually exposed to a predator display antipredator behaviors. In addition, these defensive maneuvers trigger antipredator reactions in conspecifics and, concomitantly, stimulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, leading to cortisol increase. Thus, we conclude that zebrafish defensive behaviors act as visual alarm cues that induce antipredator and stress response in conspecific fish.

18.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 252: 236-238, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716505

RESUMO

In this article, we show that the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-Methyl-l-tyrosine (AMPT) decreased the responsiveness of the zebrafish stress axis to an acute stressful challenge. These effects were specific for responses to stimulation, since unstimulated (basal) cortisol levels were not altered by AMPT. Moreover, AMPT decreased the stress response 15min after stimulation, but not after that time period. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of AMPT on the neuroendocrine axis of adult zebrafish in acute stress responses. Overall, these results suggest a mechanism of catecholamine-glucocorticoid interplay in neuroendocrine responses of fish, pointing an interesting avenue for physiological research, as well as an important endpoint that can be disrupted by environmental contamination. Further experiments will unravel the mechanisms by which AMPT blocked the cortisol response.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , alfa-Metiltirosina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/sangue
19.
Physiol Behav ; 179: 319-323, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673506

RESUMO

The chemical detection of predation risk is direct when based on predator odors, or indirect when an injured conspecific or heterospecific signal it. Physiological adjustments may be necessary in parallel to defensive reactions to cope with an imminent risk. Here, we tested the effects of predator odors and conspecific chemical alarm cues in ventilation response (VR) of frillfin goby, Bathygobius soporator, because this response increases oxygen uptake for supporting behavioral tasks. No VR change was detected in response to odors of predators (catfish) that fed on conspecific, heterospecific fish (tilapia), or were deprived of food and to non-predator (tilapia) that fed chow (non-specific odor control) and odor eluent. The goby's VR, however, increased in response to conspecific alarm cues, but not to heterospecific cues or eluent. Clearly, the VR response in fish depends on the nature of the chemical cue. It is in line with 'threat-sensitive hypothesis' as a chemical cue from an injured prey might mean a foraging predator, whilst the mere presence of a predator odor might not. In addition, because VR can increase, decrease or remains unchanged in response to predation risk in other fish species (including other gobies), we reinforces the species-specific chracteristic of VR responses in fish, regarding the results obtained here for frillfin gobies.


Assuntos
Percepção Olfatória , Perciformes/fisiologia , Respiração , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Análise de Variância , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Sinais (Psicologia) , Odorantes , Comportamento Predatório , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Zebrafish ; 14(1): 51-59, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27672711

RESUMO

In this study, we show that an adaptation of the spinning test can be used as a model to study the exercise-exhaustion-recovery paradigm in fish. This forced swimming test promotes a wide range of changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning, intermediary metabolism, as well in fish behavior at both exercise and recovery periods. Our results pointed that this adapted spinning test can be considered a valuable tool for evaluating drugs and contaminant effects on exercised fish. This can be a suitable protocol both to environmental-to evaluate contaminants that act in fish energy mobilization and recovery after stressors-and translational perspectives-effects of drugs on exercised or stressed humans.


Assuntos
Glucose/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Natação , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Creatina Quinase/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Modelos Animais , Estresse Fisiológico , Peixe-Zebra/sangue
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