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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692205

RESUMO

We describe the underlying genetic cause of a novel Rett-like phenotype accompanied by areflexia in three methyl-CpG-binding protein 2-negative individuals from two unrelated families. Discovery analysis was performed using whole-exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing for validation and segregation. Functional studies using short-hairpin RNA for targeted gene knockdown were implemented by the transfection of mouse cultured primary hippocampal neurons and in vivo by in utero electroporation. All patients shared a common homozygous frameshift mutation (chr9:135073515, c.376dupT, p.(Ser126PhefsTer241)) in netrin-G2 (NTNG2, NM_032536.3) with predicted nonsense-mediated decay. The mutation fully segregated with the disease in both families. The knockdown of either NTNG2 or the related netrin-G family member NTNG1 resulted in severe neurodevelopmental defects of neuronal morphology and migration. While NTNG1 has previously been linked to a Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype, this is the first description of a RTT-like phenotype caused by NTNG2 mutation. Netrin-G proteins have been shown to be required for proper axonal guidance during early brain development and involved in N-methyl- d-aspartate-mediated synaptic transmission. Our results demonstrating that knockdown of murine NTNG2 causes severe impairments of neuronal morphology and cortical migration are consistent with those of RTT animal models and the shared neurodevelopmental phenotypes between the individuals described here and typical RTT patients.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2112-2118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444901

RESUMO

Generalized arterial calcifications of infancy (GACI) is caused by mutations in ENPP1. Other ENPP1-related phenotypes include pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hypophosphatemic rickets, and Cole disease. We studied four children from two Bedouin consanguineous families who presented with severe clinical phenotype including thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, hepatic, and neurologic manifestations. Initial working diagnosis included congenital infection; however, patients remained without a definitive diagnosis despite extensive workup. Consequently, we investigated a potential genetic etiology. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed for affected children and their parents. Following the identification of a novel mutation in the ENPP1 gene, we characterized this novel multisystemic presentation and revised relevant imaging studies. Using WES, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.556G > C; p.Gly186Arg) in ENPP1 which affects a highly conserved protein domain (somatomedin B2). ENPP1-associated genetic diseases exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity depending on mutation type and location. Follow-up clinical characterization of these families allowed us to revise and detect new features of systemic calcifications, which established the diagnosis of GACI, expanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with ENPP1 mutations. Our findings demonstrate that this novel ENPP1 founder mutation can cause a fatal multisystemic phenotype, mimicking severe congenital infection. This also represents the first reported mutation affecting the SMB2 domain, associated with GACI.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1672, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379863

RESUMO

The alpha subunit of IL-7 receptor (IL7R7α) is critical for the differentiation of T cells, specifically for the development and maintenance of γδT cells. Mutations in IL7RA are associated with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). Infants with IL7RA deficiency can be identified through newborn screening program. We aimed at defining the immunological and genetic parameters that are directly affected by the IL7RA mutation on the immune system of five unrelated patients which were identified by our newborn screening program for SCID. The patients were found to have a novel identical homozygote mutation in IL7RA (n.c.120 C>G; p.F40L). Both surface expression of IL7Rα and functionality of IL-7 signaling were impaired in patients compared to controls. Structural modeling demonstrated instability of the protein structure due to the mutation. Lastly the TRG immune repertoire of the patients showed reduced diversity, increased clonality and differential CDR3 characteristics. Interestingly, the patients displayed significant different clinical outcome with two displaying severe clinical picture of immunodeficiency and three had spontaneous recovery. Our data supports that the presented IL7RA mutation affects the IL-7 signaling and shaping of the TRG repertoire, reinforcing the role of IL7RA in the immune system, while non-genetic factors may exist that attribute to the ultimate clinical presentation and disease progression.

4.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 52, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) comprise a diverse range of clinical manifestations. To date, more than 30 single gene causes of lupus/lupus like syndromes in humans have been identified. In the clinical setting, identifying the underlying molecular diagnosis is challenging due to phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. METHODS: We employed whole exome sequencing (WES) in patients presenting with childhood-onset lupus with severe and/or atypical presentations to identify cases that are explained by a single-gene (monogenic) cause. RESULTS: From January 2015 to June 2018 15 new cases of childhood-onset SLE were diagnosed in Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital. By WES we identified causative mutations in four subjects in five different genes: C1QC, SLC7A7, MAN2B1, PTEN and STAT1. No molecular diagnoses were established on clinical grounds prior to genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a significant fraction of monogenic SLE etiologies using WES and confirm the genetic locus heterogeneity in childhood-onset lupus. These results highlight the importance of establishing a genetic diagnosis for children with severe or atypical lupus by providing accurate and early etiology-based diagnoses and improving subsequent clinical management.

5.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(5): 732-734, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215057

RESUMO

We describe a 4-week-old baby boy who presented with white firm cutaneous nodules and failure to thrive. He did not have dysmorphic features, and laboratory tests including serum calcium, phosphorous, thyroid function, and parathyroid hormone level were within normal ranges. Whole exome sequencing revealed an inactivating mutation in GNAS that was previously described as causing pseudohypoparathyroidism.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 401-413, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037583

RESUMO

MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1) is an intracellular signaling protein that activates NFκB and is crucial for both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Only 6 patients with immune deficiencies secondary to inherited mutations in the MALT1 gene have been described. PURPOSE: To provide clinical and immunological insights from 2 patients diagnosed with MALT1 immunodeficiency syndrome due to a novel MALT1 mutation. METHODS: Two cousins with suspected combined immunodeficiency underwent immunological and genetic work-up, including lymphocyte phenotyping, lymphocyte activation by mitogen stimulation, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of T cell receptor gamma chain (TRG) repertoire. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic defect. RESULTS: Clinical findings included recurrent infections, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, dermatitis, and autoimmunity. Immune work-up revealed lymphocytosis, low to normal levels of immunoglobulins, absence of regulatory T cells, and low Th17 cells. A normal proliferative response was induced by phytohemagglutinin and IL-2 but was diminished with anti-CD3. TRG repertoire was diverse with a clonal expansion pattern. Genetic analysis identified a novel autosomal recessive homozygous c.1799T>A; p. I600N missense mutation in MALT1. MALT1 protein expression was markedly reduced, and in vitro IL-2 production and NFκB signaling pathway were significantly impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Two patients harboring a novel MALT1 mutation presented with signs of immune deficiency and dysregulation and were found to have an abnormal T cell receptor repertoire. These findings reinforce the link between MALT1 deficiency and combined immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis is crucial, and curative treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be warranted.

7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(6): e665, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 500 epigenetic regulators have been identified throughout the human genome. Of these, approximately 30 chromatin modifiers have been implicated thus far in human disease. Recently, variants in BRPF1, encoding a chromatin reader, have been associated with a previously unrecognized autosomal dominant syndrome manifesting with intellectual disability (ID), hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, ptosis, and/or blepharophimosis in 22 individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report a multiply affected nonconsanguineous family of mixed Jewish descent who presented due to ID in three male siblings. Molecular analysis of the family was pursued using whole exome sequencing (WES) and subsequent Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing analysis brought to the identification of a novel heterozygous truncating mutation (c.556C>T, p.Q186*) in the BRPF1 gene in the affected siblings and their mother. The four affected individuals showed varying degrees of intellectual disability, distinct facial features including downslanted palpebral fissures, ptosis, and/or blepharophimosis. Their clinical characteristics are discussed in the context of previously reported patients with the BRPF1-related phenotype. CONCLUSION: The reported family contributes to the current knowledge regarding this unique and newly recognized genetic disorder, and further implicates the role of BRPF1 in human brain development.

8.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 53, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPRD) is a rare autosomal-recessive, non-inflammatory arthropathy, shown to be caused by mutations in the WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3) gene. Although several hundred cases were reported worldwide, the diagnosis remains challenging. Subsequently, the syndrome is often unrecognized and misdiagnosed (for instance, as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis), leading to unnecessary procedures and treatments. The objective of the current study was to identify the molecular basis in a family with PPRD and describe their phenotype and course of illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present here a multiply affected consanguineous family of Iraqi-Jewish descent with PPRD. The proband, a 6.5 years old girl, presented with bilateral symmetric bony enlargements of the 1st interphalangeal joints of the hands, without signs of synovitis. Molecular analysis of the family was pursued using Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and homozygosity mapping. RESULTS: WES analysis brought to the identification of a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.257G > T, p.C86F) in the WISP3 gene. Following this diagnosis, an additional 53 years old affected family member was found to harbor the mutation. Two other individuals in the family were reported to have had similar involvement however both had died of unrelated causes. CONCLUSION: The reported family underscores the importance of recognition of this unique skeletal dysplasia by clinicians, and especially by pediatric rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular CCN/genética , Artropatias/congênito , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Criança , Consanguinidade , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Iraque/etnologia , Judeus/genética , Artropatias/diagnóstico , Artropatias/etnologia , Artropatias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
10.
Acta Haematol ; 141(2): 119-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO defined myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms (MLN) with eosinophilia associated with PDGFRB, PDGFRA, FGFR1 rearrangements as a new entity in 2016. PDGFRB-rearranged MLN sensitive to imatinib were described in adult patients. We report the first pediatric patient with PDGFRB-rearranged myeloproliferative disorder associated with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma bearing the t(5; 14)(q33;q32) translocation who was successfully treated with imatinib only. Methods/Aims: Analysis of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization identified the PDGFRB partner as CCDC88C. Whole genome sequencing of the patient's DNA identified the exact junction site, confirmed by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. A real-time quantitative PCR assay was designed to quantify the fused CCDC88C-PDGFRB product. RESULTS: A 2.5-year-old boy was diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder and eosinophilia associated with lymphoblastic lymphoma both bearing the CCDC88C-PDGFRB fusion. Imatinib therapy resulted in rapid clinical, hematological, and cytogenetic response. Molecular response to treatment was monitored by a real-time PCR assay specific for the CCDC88C- PDGFRB fusion. CONCLUSION: This is the first description of MLN with eosinophilia in the pediatric age group. Response to treatment with imatinib only was monitored by specific quantitative PCR assay with sustained remission lasting 5.5 years from diagnosis.


Assuntos
Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 139-156, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595372

RESUMO

Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are highly expressed in the brain and regulate neuronal signaling by catalyzing phospho-Ser/Thr dephosphorylations in diverse substrates. PP2A holoenzymes comprise catalytic C-, scaffolding A-, and regulatory B-type subunits, which determine substrate specificity and physiological function. Interestingly, de novo mutations in genes encoding A- and B-type subunits have recently been implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD). We now report 16 individuals with mild to profound ID and DD and a de novo mutation in PPP2CA, encoding the catalytic Cα subunit. Other frequently observed features were severe language delay (71%), hypotonia (69%), epilepsy (63%), and brain abnormalities such as ventriculomegaly and a small corpus callosum (67%). Behavioral problems, including autism spectrum disorders, were reported in 47% of individuals, and three individuals had a congenital heart defect. PPP2CA de novo mutations included a partial gene deletion, a frameshift, three nonsense mutations, a single amino acid duplication, a recurrent mutation, and eight non-recurrent missense mutations. Functional studies showed complete PP2A dysfunction in four individuals with seemingly milder ID, hinting at haploinsufficiency. Ten other individuals showed mutation-specific biochemical distortions, including poor expression, altered binding to the A subunit and specific B-type subunits, and impaired phosphatase activity and C-terminal methylation. Four were suspected to have a dominant-negative mechanism, which correlated with severe ID. Two missense variants affecting the same residue largely behaved as wild-type in our functional assays. Overall, we found that pathogenic PPP2CA variants impair PP2A-B56(δ) functionality, suggesting that PP2A-related neurodevelopmental disorders constitute functionally converging ID syndromes.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Ligação Proteica/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Síndrome
13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006055

RESUMO

Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal disorder, characterized mainly by ossification defects in vertebrae, thorax malformations, renal cystic dysplasia and usually death in the perinatal period. DSD is caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator (BMPER) gene. We describe the prenatal findings of a non-consanguineous Jewish couple (shared Balkan origin), with three affected fetuses that presented with malformations in the spine and chest, reduced ossification of the skull and spine, horseshoe kidney and increased nuchal translucency. The unique combination of these ultrasound (US) features raised the possibility of DSD, which was confirmed by whole exome sequencing (WES) performed on a single fetal DNA and familial segregation. In the three fetuses, a novel homozygous mutation in BMPER (c.410T > A; p.Val137Asp) was found. This mutation, which segregated in the family, was not found in 65 controls of Jewish Balkan origin, and in several large databases. Taken together, the combination of a detailed prenatal US examination and WES may be highly effective in confirming the diagnosis of a rare genetic disease, in this case DSD.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1018-1030, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754768

RESUMO

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolic cofactor used by around 4% of cellular enzymes. Its role is to carry and transfer acetyl and acyl groups to other molecules. Cells can synthesize CoA de novo from vitamin B5 (pantothenate) through five consecutive enzymatic steps. Phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPCS) catalyzes the second step of the pathway during which phosphopantothenate reacts with ATP and cysteine to form phosphopantothenoylcysteine. Inborn errors of CoA biosynthesis have been implicated in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a group of rare neurological disorders characterized by accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia and progressive neurodegeneration. Exome sequencing in five individuals from two unrelated families presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy revealed biallelic mutations in PPCS, linking CoA synthesis with a cardiac phenotype. Studies in yeast and fruit flies confirmed the pathogenicity of identified mutations. Biochemical analysis revealed a decrease in CoA levels in fibroblasts of all affected individuals. CoA biosynthesis can occur with pantethine as a source independent from PPCS, suggesting pantethine as targeted treatment for the affected individuals still alive.

15.
Angiogenesis ; 21(2): 287-298, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397482

RESUMO

Generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA or lymphangiomatosis) is a rare disease characterized by a diffuse proliferation of lymphatic vessels in skin and internal organs. It often leads to progressive respiratory failure and death, but its etiology is unknown. Here, we isolated lymphangiomatosis endothelial cells from GLA tissue. These cells were characterized by high proliferation and survival rates, but displayed impaired capacities for migration and tube formation. We employed whole exome sequencing to search for disease-causing genes and identified a somatic mutation in NRAS. We used mouse and zebrafish model systems to initially evaluate the role of this mutation in the development of the lymphatic system, and we studied the effect of drugs blocking the downstream effectors, mTOR and ERK, on this disease.

16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 63(5): 1192-1199, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in genomics have facilitated the discovery of monogenic disorders in patients with unique gastro-intestinal phenotypes. Syndromic diarrhea, also called tricho-hepato-enteric (THE) syndrome, results from deleterious mutations in SKIV2L or TTC37 genes. The main features of this disorder are intractable diarrhea, abnormal hair, facial dysmorphism, immunodeficiency and liver disease. AIM: To report on a patient with THE syndrome and present the genetic analysis that facilitated diagnosis. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in a 4-month-old female with history of congenital diarrhea and severe failure to thrive but without hair anomalies or dysmorphism. Since the parents were first-degree cousins, the analysis focused on an autosomal recessive model. Sanger sequencing was used to validate suspected variants. Mutated protein structure was modeled to assess the effect of the mutation on protein function. RESULTS: We identified an autosomal recessive C.1891G > A missense mutation (NM_006929) in SKIV2L gene that was previously described only in a compound heterozygous state as causing THE syndrome. The mutation was determined to be deleterious in multiple prediction models. Protein modeling suggested that the mutation has the potential to cause structural destabilization of SKIV2L, either through conformational changes, interference with the protein's packing, or changes at the protein's interface. CONCLUSIONS: THE syndrome can present with a broad range of clinical features in the neonatal period. WES is an important diagnostic tool in patients with congenital diarrhea and can facilitate diagnosis of various diseases presenting with atypical features.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , Diarreia Infantil/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Diarreia Infantil/diagnóstico , Facies , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Marcadores Genéticos , Doenças do Cabelo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(7): 1827-1833, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331079

RESUMO

To describe the prenatal presentation, including ultrasonographic, histologic, and molecular findings, in 2 fetuses affected with LMOD3-related nemaline myopathy. Prenatal ultrasonographic examinations and histopathologic studies were performed on 2 fetuses with evidence of nemaline myopathy. To establish a molecular diagnosis, whole-exome sequencing was pursued for the affected fetuses. Nemaline myopathy is a common form of congenital myopathy manifesting with nonprogressive generalized muscle weakness, hypotonia, and electron-dense protein inclusions in skeletal myofibers. Although clinically, nemaline myopathy can be viewed as a common pathway phenotype, its molecular basis is heterogeneous, with mutations in 11 identified genes implicated in its pathogenesis so far. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the affected fetuses were compound heterozygous for 2 newly reported pathogenic variants in the LMOD3 gene, which encodes leiomodin 3. To our knowledge, this article is the first report of LMOD3-related nemaline myopathy since the original reported cohort. We provide a detailed description of the prenatal imaging of these affected fetuses, which we hope, in combination with next-generation sequencing, may contribute to further diagnosis in additional families.

18.
J Immunol ; 199(12): 4036-4045, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127144

RESUMO

Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for normal development and function of the immune system, as evidenced by the severe immune abnormalities exhibited by patients bearing inactivating mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), a key regulator of actin dynamics. WASP exerts its effects on actin dynamics through a multisubunit complex termed Arp2/3. Despite the critical role played by Arp2/3 as an effector of WASP-mediated control over actin polymerization, mutations in protein components of the Arp2/3 complex had not previously been identified as a cause of immunodeficiency. Here, we describe two brothers with hematopoietic and immunologic symptoms reminiscent of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). However, these patients lacked mutations in any of the genes previously associated with WAS. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous 2 bp deletion, n.c.G623DEL-TC (p.V208VfsX20), in Arp2/3 complex component ARPC1B that causes a frame shift resulting in premature termination. Modeling of the disease in zebrafish revealed that ARPC1B plays a critical role in supporting T cell and thrombocyte development. Moreover, the defects in development caused by ARPC1B loss could be rescued by the intact human ARPC1B ortholog, but not by the p.V208VfsX20 variant identified in the patients. Moreover, we found that the expression of ARPC1B is restricted to hematopoietic cells, potentially explaining why a mutation in ARPC1B has now been observed as a cause of WAS, whereas mutations in other, more widely expressed, components of the Arp2/3 complex have not been observed.


Assuntos
Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Plaquetas/patologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Linfopoese/genética , Linfócitos T/patologia , Trombopoese/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/deficiência , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido , Consanguinidade , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Complexos Multiproteicos , Linhagem , Polimerização , Recombinação V(D)J , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Brain ; 140(3): 568-581, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364549

RESUMO

Cellular distribution and dynamics of mitochondria are regulated by several motor proteins and a microtubule network. In neurons, mitochondrial trafficking is crucial because of high energy needs and calcium ion buffering along axons to synapses during neurotransmission. The trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs) are well characterized for their role in lysosomal and mitochondrial trafficking in cells, especially neurons. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous truncating variants in TRAK1 (NM_001042646:c.287-2A > C), in six lethal encephalopathic patients from three unrelated families. The pathogenic variant results in aberrant splicing and significantly reduced gene expression at the RNA and protein levels. In comparison with normal cells, TRAK1-deficient fibroblasts showed irregular mitochondrial distribution, altered mitochondrial motility, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and diminished mitochondrial respiration. This study confirms the role of TRAK1 in mitochondrial dynamics and constitutes the first report of this gene in association with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/mortalidade , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , Transfecção
20.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 64(5): 770-776, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Congenital diarrheal disorders is a group of inherited enteropathies presenting in early life and requiring parenteral nutrition. In most cases, genetics may be the key for precise diagnosis. We present an infant girl with chronic congenital diarrhea that resolved after introduction of fructose-based formula but had no identified mutation in the SLC5A1 gene. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified other mutations that better dictated dietary adjustments. METHODS: WES of the patient and her parents was performed. The analysis focused on recessive model including compound heterozygous mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to validate identified mutations and to screen the patient's newborn sister and grandparents. Expression and localization analysis were performed in the patient's duodenal biopsies using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Using WES we identified a new compound heterozygote mutation in sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene; a maternal inherited known V577G mutation, and a novel paternal inherited C1531W mutation. Importantly, the newborn offspring carried similar compound heterozygous mutations. Computational predictions suggest that both mutations highly destabilize the protein. SI expression and localization studies determined that the mutated SI protein was not expressed on the brush border membrane in the patient's duodenal biopsies, verifying the diagnosis of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID). CONCLUSIONS: The novel compound heterozygote V577G/C1531W SI mutations lead to lack of SI expression in the duodenal brush border, confirming the diagnosis of CSID. These cases of CSID extend the molecular spectrum of this condition, further directing a more adequate dietary intervention for the patient and newborn sibling.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Complexo Sacarase-Isomaltase/deficiência , Complexo Sacarase-Isomaltase/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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