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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126757, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352522

RESUMO

Inhalation exposure and beryllium (Be) toxicity are well-known, but research on bioaccessibility from soils via different exposure pathways is limited. This study examined soils from a legacy radioactive waste disposal site using in vitro ingestion (Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium [SBRC], physiologically based extraction test [PBET], in vitro gastrointestinal [IVG]), inhalation (simulated epithelial lung fluid [SELF]) and dynamic two-stage bioaccessibility (TBAc) methods, as well as 0.43 M HNO3 extraction. The results showed, 70 ±â€¯4.8%, 56 ±â€¯16.8% and 58 ±â€¯5.7% of total Be were extracted (gastric phase [GP] + intestinal phase [IP]) in the SBRC, PBET, and IVG methods, respectively. Similar bioaccessibility of Be (~18%) in PBET-IP and SELF was due to chelating agents in the extractant. Moreover, TBAc-IP showed higher extraction (20.8 ±â€¯2.0%) in comparison with the single-phase (SBRC-IP) result (4.8 ±â€¯0.23%), suggesting increased Be bioaccessibility and toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract when the contamination derives from the inhalation route. The results suggested Be bioaccessibility depends on solution pH; time of extraction; soil reactive fractions (organic-inorganic); particle size, and the presence of chelating agents in the fluid. This study has significance for understanding Be bioaccessibility via different exposure routes and the application of risk-based management of Be-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Berílio/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluição Ambiental , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124488, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246815

RESUMO

A novel biochar metal oxide composite was synthesized for effective removal of arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solution. The materials synthesized for As(V) removal was based on a biosolid-derived biochar (BSBC) impregnated with zirconium (Zr) and zirconium-iron (Zr-Fe). The synthesized materials were comprehensively characterized with a range of techniques including Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET-N2) surface area, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirmed that loading of Zr and Zr-Fe onto the biochar surface was successful. The influence of pH, biochar density, ionic strength, As(V) dose rate, major anions and cations on As(V) removal was also investigated. Under all pH and reaction conditions the Zr-Fe composite biochar removed the greatest As(V) from solution of the materials tested. The maximum sorption capacity reached 15.2 mg/g for pristine BSBC (pH 4.0), while modified Zr-BSBC and Zr-FeBSBC composites achieved 33.1 and 62.5 mg/g (pH 6), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy) suggested that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The ZrBSBC and Zr-FeBSBC showed excellent reusability and stability over four cycles. Unmodified biochar resulted in partial reduction of As(V) under oxic conditions, whilst modified biochars did not influence the oxidation state of As. All results demonstrated that the Zr and Zr-Fe BSBC composites could perform as promising adsorbents for efficient arsenate removal from natural waters.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142082, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919317

RESUMO

Extensive evidence of elevated arsenic (As) in the food-chain, mainly rice, wheat and vegetables exists. Nevertheless, the importance of exposure from food towards total As exposure and associated health risks in areas with natural occurring As in drinking water is still often neglected, and accordingly mitigations are largely focused on drinking water only. In this study, the contribution of food over drinking water to overall As exposure was estimated for As exposed populations in Bihar, India. Increased lifetime cancer risk was predicted using probabilistic methods with input parameters based on detailed dietary assessment and estimation of As in drinking water, cooked rice, wheat flour and potato collected from 91 households covering 19 villages. Median total exposure was 0.83 µg/kgBW/day (5th and 95th percentiles were 0.21 and 11.1 µg/kgBW/day) and contribution of food (median = 49%) to overall exposure was almost equal to that from drinking water (median = 51%). More importantly and contrary to previous studies, food was found to contribute more than drinking water to As exposure, even when drinking water As was above the WHO provisional guide value of 10 µg/L. Median and 95th percentile excess lifetime cancer risks from food intake were 1.89 × 10-4 and 7.32 × 10-4 respectively when drinking water As was below 10 µg/L and 4.00 × 10-4 and 1.83 × 10-3 respectively when drinking water As was above 10 µg/L. Our results emphasise the importance of food related exposure in As-endemic areas, and, perhaps surprisingly, particularly in areas with high As concentrations in drinking water - this being partly ascribed to increases in food As due to cooking in high As water. These findings are timely to stress the importance of removing As from the food chain and not just drinking water in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Oryza , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índia/epidemiologia , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123931, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264981

RESUMO

Naturally arsenic (As) enriched agricultural soils represent a significant global human health risk. In this study, As fractionation and mineralogy were investigated in naturally As-enriched agricultural soils and their corresponding sand, silt and clay fractions. Median As increased generally in the order (mg/kg)∶ silt (280) < bulk (314) < sand (323)

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