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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562665

RESUMO

The heterogeneous manifestations of MYH9-related disorder (MYH9-RD), characterized by macrothrombocytopenia, Döhle-like inclusion bodies in leukocytes, bleeding of variable severity with, in some cases, ear, eye, kidney, and liver involvement, make the diagnosis for these patients still challenging in clinical practice. We collected phenotypic data and analyzed the genetic variants in more than 3,000 patients with a bleeding or platelet disorder. Patients were enrolled in the BRIDGE-BPD and ThromboGenomics Projects and their samples processed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). We identified 50 patients with a rare variant in MYH9. All patients had macrothrombocytes and all except two had thrombocytopenia. Some degree of bleeding diathesis was reported in 41 of the 50 patients. Eleven patients presented hearing impairment, three renal failure and two elevated liver enzymes. Among the 28 rare variants identified in MYH9, 12 were novel. HTS was instrumental in diagnosing 23 patients (46%). Our results confirm the clinical heterogeneity of MYH9-RD and show that, in the presence of an unclassified platelet disorder with macrothrombocytes, MYH9-RD should always be considered. A HTS-based strategy is a reliable method to reach a conclusive diagnosis of MYH9-RD in clinical practice.

2.
Haematologica ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467204

RESUMO

Sphingolipids are fundamental to membrane trafficking, apoptosis and cell differentiation and proliferation. KDSR or 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine reductase is an essential enzyme for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and pathogenic mutations in KDSR result in the severe skin disorder erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva-4. Four of the eight reported cases also had thrombocytopenia but the underlying mechanism has remained unexplored. Here we expand upon the phenotypic spectrum of KDSR deficiency with studies in two siblings with novel compound heterozygous variants associated with thrombocytopenia, anemia and minimal skin involvement. We report a novel phenotype of progressive juvenile myelofibrosis in the propositus, with spontaneous recovery of anemia and thrombocytopenia in the first decade of life. Examination of bone marrow biopsies showed megakaryocyte hyperproliferation and dysplasia. Megakaryocytes obtained by culture of CD34+ stem cells confirmed hyperproliferation and showed reduced proplatelet formation. The effect of KDSR insufficiency on the sphingolipid profile was unknown, and was explored in vivo and in vitro by a broad metabolomics screen that indicated activation of an in vivo compensatory pathway that leads to normalisation of downstream metabolites such as ceramide. Differentiation of propositus-derived induced pluripotent stem cells to megakaryocytes followed by expression of functional KDSR showed correction of the aberrant cellular and biochemical phenotypes, corroborating the critical role of KDSR in proplatelet formation. Finally, Kdsr depletion in zebrafish recapitulated the thrombocytopenia and showed biochemical changes similar to those observed in the affected siblings. These studies support an important role for sphingolipids as regulators of cytoskeletal organisation during megakaryopoiesis and proplatelet formation.

3.
Blood ; 131(9): 1000-1011, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187380

RESUMO

Mutations in NBEAL2, the gene encoding the scaffolding protein Nbeal2, are causal of gray platelet syndrome (GPS), a rare recessive bleeding disorder characterized by platelets lacking α-granules and progressive marrow fibrosis. We present here the interactome of Nbeal2 with additional validation by reverse immunoprecipitation of Dock7, Sec16a, and Vac14 as interactors of Nbeal2. We show that GPS-causing mutations in its BEACH domain have profound and possible effects on the interaction with Dock7 and Vac14, respectively. Proximity ligation assays show that these 2 proteins are physically proximal to Nbeal2 in human megakaryocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that Nbeal2 is primarily localized in the cytoplasm and Dock7 on the membrane of or in α-granules. Interestingly, platelets from GPS cases and Nbeal2-/- mice are almost devoid of Dock7, resulting in a profound dysregulation of its signaling pathway, leading to defective actin polymerization, platelet activation, and shape change. This study shows for the first time proteins interacting with Nbeal2 and points to the dysregulation of the canonical signaling pathway of Dock7 as a possible cause of the aberrant formation of platelets in GPS cases and Nbeal2-deficient mice.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 176(5): 705-720, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984638

RESUMO

Inherited disorders of platelet granules are clinically heterogeneous and their prevalence is underestimated because most patients do not undergo a complete diagnostic work-up. The lack of a genetic diagnosis limits the ability to tailor management, screen family members, aid with family planning, predict clinical progression and detect serious consequences, such as myelofibrosis, lung fibrosis and malignancy, in a timely manner. This is set to change with the introduction of high throughput sequencing (HTS) as a routine clinical diagnostic test. HTS diagnostic tests are now available, affordable and allow parallel screening of DNA samples for variants in all of the 80 known bleeding, thrombotic and platelet genes. Increased genetic diagnosis and curation of variants is, in turn, improving our understanding of the pathobiology and clinical course of inherited platelet disorders. Our understanding of the genetic causes of platelet granule disorders and the regulation of granule biogenesis is a work in progress and has been significantly enhanced by recent genomic discoveries from high-powered genome-wide association studies and genome sequencing projects. In the era of whole genome and epigenome sequencing, new strategies are required to integrate multiple sources of big data in the search for elusive, novel genes underlying granule disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Plaquetários/diagnóstico , Transtornos Plaquetários/genética , Genômica , Transtornos Plaquetários/terapia , Plaquetas/patologia , Plaquetas/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/patologia , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/ultraestrutura , Humanos
5.
Blood ; 127(23): 2791-803, 2016 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084890

RESUMO

Inherited bleeding, thrombotic, and platelet disorders (BPDs) are diseases that affect ∼300 individuals per million births. With the exception of hemophilia and von Willebrand disease patients, a molecular analysis for patients with a BPD is often unavailable. Many specialized tests are usually required to reach a putative diagnosis and they are typically performed in a step-wise manner to control costs. This approach causes delays and a conclusive molecular diagnosis is often never reached, which can compromise treatment and impede rapid identification of affected relatives. To address this unmet diagnostic need, we designed a high-throughput sequencing platform targeting 63 genes relevant for BPDs. The platform can call single nucleotide variants, short insertions/deletions, and large copy number variants (though not inversions) which are subjected to automated filtering for diagnostic prioritization, resulting in an average of 5.34 candidate variants per individual. We sequenced 159 and 137 samples, respectively, from cases with and without previously known causal variants. Among the latter group, 61 cases had clinical and laboratory phenotypes indicative of a particular molecular etiology, whereas the remainder had an a priori highly uncertain etiology. All previously detected variants were recapitulated and, when the etiology was suspected but unknown or uncertain, a molecular diagnosis was reached in 56 of 61 and only 8 of 76 cases, respectively. The latter category highlights the need for further research into novel causes of BPDs. The ThromboGenomics platform thus provides an affordable DNA-based test to diagnose patients suspected of having a known inherited BPD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Plaquetários/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemorragia/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Trombose/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(328): 328ra30, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936507

RESUMO

The Src family kinase (SFK) member SRC is a major target in drug development because it is activated in many human cancers, yet deleterious SRC germline mutations have not been reported. We used genome sequencing and Human Phenotype Ontology patient coding to identify a gain-of-function mutation in SRC causing thrombocytopenia, myelofibrosis, bleeding, and bone pathologies in nine cases. Modeling of the E527K substitution predicts loss of SRC's self-inhibitory capacity, which we confirmed with in vitro studies showing increased SRC kinase activity and enhanced Tyr(419) phosphorylation in COS-7 cells overexpressing E527K SRC. The active form of SRC predominates in patients' platelets, resulting in enhanced overall tyrosine phosphorylation. Patients with myelofibrosis have hypercellular bone marrow with trilineage dysplasia, and their stem cells grown in vitro form more myeloid and megakaryocyte (MK) colonies than control cells. These MKs generate platelets that are dysmorphic, low in number, highly variable in size, and have a paucity of α-granules. Overactive SRC in patient-derived MKs causes a reduction in proplatelet formation, which can be rescued by SRC kinase inhibition. Stem cells transduced with lentiviral E527K SRC form MKs with a similar defect and enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels. Patient-derived and E527K-transduced MKs show Y419 SRC-positive stained podosomes that induce altered actin organization. Expression of mutated src in zebrafish recapitulates patients' blood and bone phenotypes. Similar studies of platelets and MKs may reveal the mechanism underlying the severe bleeding frequently observed in cancer patients treated with next-generation SFK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Hemorragia/genética , Mutação/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Trombocitopenia/genética , Quinases da Família src/genética , Animais , Plaquetas/patologia , Células COS , Cercopithecus aethiops , Feminino , Hematopoese , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Mielofibrose Primária/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Transfecção , Peixe-Zebra
7.
Blood ; 127(23): 2903-14, 2016 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912466

RESUMO

Macrothrombocytopenia (MTP) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by enlarged and reduced numbers of circulating platelets, sometimes resulting in abnormal bleeding. In most MTP, this phenotype arises because of altered regulation of platelet formation from megakaryocytes (MKs). We report the identification of DIAPH1, which encodes the Rho-effector diaphanous-related formin 1 (DIAPH1), as a candidate gene for MTP using exome sequencing, ontological phenotyping, and similarity regression. We describe 2 unrelated pedigrees with MTP and sensorineural hearing loss that segregate with a DIAPH1 R1213* variant predicting partial truncation of the DIAPH1 diaphanous autoregulatory domain. The R1213* variant was linked to reduced proplatelet formation from cultured MKs, cell clustering, and abnormal cortical filamentous actin. Similarly, in platelets, there was increased filamentous actin and stable microtubules, indicating constitutive activation of DIAPH1. Overexpression of DIAPH1 R1213* in cells reproduced the cytoskeletal alterations found in platelets. Our description of a novel disorder of platelet formation and hearing loss extends the repertoire of DIAPH1-related disease and provides new insight into the autoregulation of DIAPH1 activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Mutação , Trombocitopenia/genética , Células A549 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
Genome Med ; 7(1): 36, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25949529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heritable bleeding and platelet disorders (BPD) are heterogeneous and frequently have an unknown genetic basis. The BRIDGE-BPD study aims to discover new causal genes for BPD by high throughput sequencing using cluster analyses based on improved and standardised deep, multi-system phenotyping of cases. METHODS: We report a new approach in which the clinical and laboratory characteristics of BPD cases are annotated with adapted Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Cluster analyses are then used to characterise groups of cases with similar HPO terms and variants in the same genes. RESULTS: We show that 60% of index cases with heritable BPD enrolled at 10 European or US centres were annotated with HPO terms indicating abnormalities in organ systems other than blood or blood-forming tissues, particularly the nervous system. Cases within pedigrees clustered closely together on the bases of their HPO-coded phenotypes, as did cases sharing several clinically suspected syndromic disorders. Cases subsequently found to harbour variants in ACTN1 also clustered closely, even though diagnosis of this recently described disorder was not possible using only the clinical and laboratory data available to the enrolling clinician. CONCLUSIONS: These findings validate our novel HPO-based phenotype clustering methodology for known BPD, thus providing a new discovery tool for BPD of unknown genetic basis. This approach will also be relevant for other rare diseases with significant genetic heterogeneity.

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