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1.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 192, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest tubes are routinely used to evacuate shed mediastinal blood in the critical care setting in the early hours after heart surgery. Inadequate evacuation of shed mediastinal blood due to chest tube clogging may result in retained blood around the heart and lungs after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to compare if active chest tube clearance reduces the incidence of retained blood complications and associated hospital resource utilization after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Propensity matched analysis of 697 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a single center. 302 patients served as a baseline control (Phase 0), 58 patients in a training and compliance verification period (Phase 1) and 337 were treated prospectively using active tube clearance (Phase 2). The need to drain retained blood, pleural effusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, ICU resource utilization and hospital costs were assessed. RESULTS: Propensity matched patients in Phase 2 had a reduced need for drainage procedures for pleural effusions (22% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001) and reduced postoperative atrial fibrillation (37 to 25%, P = 0.011). This corresponded with fewer hours in the ICU (43.5 [24-79] vs 30 [24-49], p = < 0.001), reduced median postoperative length of stay (6 [4-8] vs 5 [4-6.25], p < 0.001) median costs reduced by $1831.45 (- 3580.52;82.38, p = 0.04) and the mean costs reduced by an average of $2696 (- 6027.59;880.93, 0.116). CONCLUSIONS: This evidence supports the concept that efforts to actively maintain chest tube patency in early recovery is useful in improving outcomes and reducing resource utilization and costs after cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT02145858, Registered: May 23, 2014.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Tubos Torácicos , Drenagem/métodos , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Drenagem/economia , Drenagem/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Hampshire , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(6): 1529-1538.e2, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the long-term survival of patients between the ages of 50 and 65 years who underwent tissue versus mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a multicenter cohort. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective analysis of all AVR patients (n = 9388) from 1991 to 2015 among 7 medical centers reporting to a prospectively maintained clinical registry was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent isolated AVR. Baseline comorbidities were balanced using inverse probability weighting for a study cohort of 1449 AVRs: 840 tissue and 609 mechanical. The primary end point of the analysis was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included in-hospital morbidity, 30-day mortality, length of stay, and risk of reoperation. RESULTS: During the study period, there was a significant shift from mechanical to tissue valves (P < .001). There was no significant difference in major in-hospital morbidity, mortality, or length of hospitalization. Also, there was no significant difference in adjusted 15-year survival between mechanical versus tissue valves (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.13; P = .29), although tissue valves were associated with a higher risk of reoperation with a cumulative incidence of 19.1% (95% CI, 14.4%-24.3%) versus 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7%-4.9%) for mechanical valves. The reoperative 30-day mortality rate was 2.4% (n = 2) for the series. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients 50 to 65 years old who underwent AVR, there was no difference in adjusted long-term survival according to prosthesis type, but tissue valves were associated with a higher risk of reoperation.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(2): 477-484, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's hemoglobin (Hb) A1c level, regardless of diabetic status, is a measure of glycemic control. Studies have found it is an independent predictor of short-term death in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this study, we used preoperative HbA1c to assess whether levels are associated with short-term and long-term survival after CABG. METHODS: From a regional registry of consecutive cases, we identified 6,415 patients undergoing on-pump isolated CABG from 2008 to 2015 with documented preoperative HbA1c level. We defined four HbA1c groups: less than 5.7% (n = 1,713), 5.7% to 6.4% (n = 2,505), 6.5% to 8.0% (n = 1,377), and more than 8% (n = 820). Relationship to in-hospital outcomes and long-term survival was assessed. Outcome rates and hazard ratios were adjusted for patient and disease risk factors using multivariable logistic regression and Cox models. RESULTS: The study included 3,740 patients (58%) not diagnosed as having diabetes and 2,674 with diabetes. Prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%) was documented in 52% (n = 1,933) of nondiabetic patients. Higher HbA1c values were associated with younger age, female sex, greater body mass index, more comorbid diseases, lower ejection fraction, more 3-vessel coronary disease, and recent myocardial infarction (p < 0.05 trend for all). After adjustment for patient risk, greater HbA1c values were not associated with higher rates of in-hospital death or morbidity. Long-term survival was significantly worse as HbA1c increased. Risk of death increased by 13% for every unit increase in HbA1c (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.19; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Preadmission glycemic control, as assessed by HbA1c, is predictive of long-term survival, with higher levels associated with poorer prognosis. Whether this risk can be modified by better glycemic control postoperatively remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 156(4): 1410-1421.e2, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are no prospective randomized trial data to guide decisions on optimal revascularization strategies for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we describe the comparative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this patient population. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective analysis of all CABG (n = 18,292) and PCIs (n = 55,438) performed from 2004 to 2014 among 7 medical centers reporting to the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure trial, there were 955 CABG and 718 PCI patients with an ejection fraction ≤ 35% and 2- or 3-vessel disease. Inverse probability weighting was used for risk adjustment. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included rates of 30-day mortality, stroke, acute kidney injury, and incidence of repeat revascularization. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 4.3 years (range, 1.59-6.71 years). CABG was associated with improved long-term survival compared with PCI after risk adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.71; P < .01). Although CABG and PCI had similar 30-day mortality rates (P = .14), CABG was associated with a higher frequency of stroke (P < .001) and acute kidney injury (P < .001), whereas PCI was associated with a higher incidence of repeat revascularization (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with reduced ejection fraction and multivessel disease, CABG was associated with improved long-term survival compared with PCI. CABG should be strongly considered in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and multivessel coronary disease.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 106(2): 466-472, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial conduits are preferred to venous conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting because of longer patency. A single internal mammary artery (SIMA) is used routinely. Bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMA) are used less frequently. We sought to determine whether BIMA were superior to SIMA. METHODS: From our regional registry of consecutive open heart operations, we identified 47,984 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting from 1992 to 2014. Of the 1,482 BIMA patients, 1,297 were propensity matched to a cohort of SIMA patients. Short-term outcomes were compared using standard statistical techniques. Long-term survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier estimators and compared using a log-rank test. RESULTS: BIMA patients were younger and had fewer comorbid conditions than SIMA patients. After propensity weighting, BIMA and SIMA patients were well matched. There was no difference in in-hospital outcomes for BIMA versus SIMA patients for mortality (1.2% [n = 15] vs 0.8% [n = 10], p = 0.315), stroke (0.7% [n = 9] vs 0.7% [n = 9), p = 1.000), bleeding (2.2% [n = 28] vs 2.8% [n = 36], p = 0.311), or mediastinitis (0.8% [n = 10] vs 0.9% [n = 12], p = 0.667). The median follow-up was 12 years. Survival was better for BIMA than SIMA (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.91; p < 0.001). Survival curves began to separate after 5 years. At 15 years, the absolute difference in survival was 8.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In a large regional experience, BIMA is associated with no upfront risk of adverse events and improved long-term survival compared with SIMA. Our results indicate that BIMA conduits should be considered more frequently during coronary artery bypass grafting due to their demonstrated survival advantage.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Anastomose de Artéria Torácica Interna-Coronária/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Anastomose de Artéria Torácica Interna-Coronária/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Heart Surg Forum ; 18(1): E20-2, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25881218

RESUMO

There are only a few cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) reported in the literature. Though not very frequent, this is a serious concern because patients are high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) by definition, and explanting the endocarditic prosthetic valve followed by SAVR increases risk even higher.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Comorbidade , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 112(10): 1635-40, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23998349

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is prevalent in patients with aortic stenosis (AS); however, previous studies have demonstrated inconsistent results regarding the association of PH with adverse outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative PH on outcomes after AVR. We performed a regional prospective cohort study using the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group database to identify 1,116 consecutive patients from 2005 to 2010 who underwent AVR ± coronary artery bypass grafting for severe AS with a preoperative assessment of pulmonary pressures by right-sided cardiac catheterization. PH was defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mm Hg, with severity based on the pulmonary artery systolic pressure-mild, 35 to 44 mm Hg; moderate, 45 to 59 mm Hg; and severe, ≥60 mm Hg. We found that PH was present in 536 patients (48%). Postoperative acute kidney injury, low-output heart failure, and in-hospital mortality increased with worsening severity of PH. In multivariate logistic regression, severe PH was independently associated with postoperative acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 10, p = 0.002) and in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 6.9, 95% CI 2.5 to 19.1, p <0.001). There was a significant association between PH and decreased 5-year survival (adjusted log-rank p value = 0.006), with severe PH being associated with the poorest survival (adjusted hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.2, p = 0.003). In conclusion, severe PH in patients with severe AS is associated with increased rates of in-hospital adverse events and decreased 5-year survival after AVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 6(1): 35-41, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23300268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The survival of patients who undergo aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis with reduced preoperative ejection fractions (EFs) is not well described in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing AVR for severe aortic stenosis were analyzed using the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group surgical registry. Patients were stratified by preoperative EF (≥50%, 40%-49%, and <40%) and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting. Crude and adjusted survival across strata of EF was estimated for patients up to 8 years beyond their index admission. A total of 5277 patients underwent AVR for severe aortic stenosis between 1992 and 2008. There were 727 (14%) patients with preoperative EF <40%. Preoperative EF had minimal effect on postoperative morbidity. There was no difference in 30-day mortality across EF strata among the isolated AVR cohort. Preserved EF conferred 30-day survival benefit among the AVR+coronary artery bypass grafting population (EF≥50%, 96%; EF<40%, 91%; P=0.003). Patients with preserved EF had significantly improved 6-month and 8-year survival compared with their reduced EF counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Survival after AVR or AVR+coronary artery bypass grafting was most favorable among patients with preoperative preserved EF. However, patients with mild to moderately depressed EF experienced a substantial survival benefit compared with the natural history of medically treated patients. Furthermore, minor reductions of EF carried equivalent increased risk to those with more compromised function suggesting patients are best served when an AVR is performed before even minor reductions in myocardial function.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Período Pré-Operatório , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 94(6): 2038-45, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22959580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that transfusion of 1 to 2 units of red blood cells (RBCs) confers a 16% increased hazard of late death after cardiac surgical treatment. We explored whether a similar effect existed among octogenarians. METHODS: We enrolled 17,026 consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac operations from 2001 to 2008 in northern New England. Patients receiving more than 2 units of RBCs or undergoing emergency operations were excluded. Early (to 6 months) and late (to 3 years, among those surviving longer than 6 months) survival was confirmed using the Social Security Death Index. We estimated the relationship between RBCs and survival, and any interaction by age (<80 years versus ≥80 years) or procedure. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (HR), and plotted adjusted survival curves. RESULTS: Patients receiving RBCs had more comorbidities irrespective of age. Patients 80 years of age or older underwent transfusion more often than patients younger than 80 years (51% versus 30%; p<0.001). There was no evidence of an interaction by age or procedure (p>0.05). Among patients younger than 80 years, RBCs significantly increased a patient's risk of early death [HR, 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47, 2.80] but not late death 1.21 (95%CI, 0.88, 1.67). RBCs did not increase the risk of early [HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.84, 2.56] or late (HR, 0.92 95% CI, 0.50, 1.69) death in patients 80 years or older. CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarians receive RBCs more often than do younger patients. Although transfusion of 1 to 2 units of RBCs increases the risk of early death in patients younger than 80 years, this effect was not present among octogenarians. There was no significant effect of RBCs in late death in either age group.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , New England/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 5(5): 638-44, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22828825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative low-output failure (LOF) is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We sought to understand which pre- and intra-operative factors contribute to postoperative LOF and to what degree the surgeon may influence rates of LOF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 11 838 patients undergoing nonemergent, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by 32 surgeons at 8 centers in northern New England from 2001 to 2009. Our cohort included patients with preoperative ejection fractions >40%. Patients with preoperative intraaortic balloon pumps were excluded. LOF was defined as the need for ≥2 inotropes at 48 hours, an intra- or post-operative intraaortic balloon pumps, or return to cardiopulmonary bypass (for hemodynamic reasons). Case volume varied across the 32 surgeons (limits, 80-766; median, 344). The overall rate of LOF was 4.3% (return to cardiopulmonary bypass, 2.6%; intraaortic balloon pumps, 1.0%; inotrope usage, 0.8%; combination, 1.0%). The predicted risk of LOF did not differ across surgeons, P=0.79, and the observed rates varied from 1.1% to 10.2%, P<0.001. Patients operated by low-rate surgeons had shorter clamp and bypass times, antegrade cardioplegia, longer maximum intervals between cardioplegia doses, lower cardioplegia volume per anastomosis or minute of ischemic time, and less hot-shot use. Patients operated on by higher LOF surgeons had higher rates of postoperative acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of LOF significantly varied across surgeons and could not be explained solely by patient case mix, suggesting that variability in perioperative practices influences risk of LOF.


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/terapia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , New England/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Vasc Surg ; 56(3): 668-76, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22560308

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although carotid artery stenosis and coronary artery disease often coexist, many debate which patients are best served by combined concurrent revascularization (carotid endarterectomy [CEA]/coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]). We studied the use of CEA/CABG in New England and compared indications and outcomes, including stratification by risk, symptoms, and performing center. METHODS: Using data from the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2009, we studied all patients who underwent combined CEA/CABG across six centers in New England. Our main outcome measure was in-hospital stroke or death. We compared outcomes between all patients undergoing combined CEA/CABG to a baseline CEA risk group comprised of patients undergoing isolated CEA at non-CEA/CABG centers. Further, we compared in-hospital stroke and death rates between high and low neurologic risk patients, defining high neurologic risk patients as those who had at least one of the following clinical or anatomic features: (1) symptomatic carotid disease, (2) bilateral carotid stenosis >70%, (3) ipsilateral stenosis >70% and contralateral occlusion, or (4) ipsilateral or bilateral occlusion. RESULTS: Overall, compared to patients undergoing isolated CEA at non-CEA/CABG centers (n = 1563), patients undergoing CEA/CABG (n = 109) were more likely to have diabetes (44% vs 29%; P = .001), creatinine >1.8 mg/dL (11% vs 5%; P = .007), and congestive heart failure (23% vs 10%; P < .001). Patients undergoing CEA/CABG were also more likely to take preoperative beta-blockers (94% vs 75%; P < .001) and less likely to take preoperative clopidogrel (7% vs 25%; P < .001). Patients undergoing CEA/CABG had higher rates of contralateral carotid occlusion (13% vs 5%; P = .001) and were more likely to undergo an urgent/emergent procedure (30% vs 15%; P < .001). The risk of complications was higher in CEA/CABG compared to isolated CEA, including increased risk of stroke (5.5% vs 1.2%; P < .001), death (5.5% vs 0.3%; P < .001), and return to the operating room for any reason (7.6% vs 1.2%; P < .001). Of 109 patients undergoing CEA/CABG, 61 (56%) were low neurologic risk and 48 (44%) were high neurologic risk but showed no demonstrable difference in stroke (4.9% vs 6.3%; P = .76), death, (4.9 vs 6.3%; P = .76), or return to the operating room (10.2% vs 4.3%; P = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Although practice patterns in the use of CEA/CABG vary across our region, the risk of complications with CEA/CABG remains significantly higher than in isolated CEA. Future work to improve patient selection in CEA/CABG is needed to improve perioperative results with combined coronary and carotid revascularization.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 92(4): 1260-7, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21958769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined a recent regional experience to determine the effect of a prior cardiac operation on short-term and midterm outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We identified 20,703 patients who underwent nonemergent CABG at 8 centers in northern New England from 2000 to 2008, of whom 818 (3.8%) had undergone prior cardiac operations. Prior CABG using a minimal or full sternotomy was considered a prior sternotomy. Survival data out to 4 years were obtained from a link with the Social Security Administration Death Index. Hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, and adjusted survival curves were estimated using inverse probability weighting. In a separate analysis, 1,182 patients were matched 1:1 by a patient's propensity for having undergone prior CABG. RESULTS: Patients with prior sternotomies had a greater burden of comorbid diseases and increased acuity and had a greater likelihood of returning to the operating room for bleeding and low cardiac output failure. Prior sternotomy was associated with an increased risk of death out to 4 years for patients undergoing CABG, with an unmatched hazard ratio of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.64) and a matched hazard ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.81). CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of our recent regional experience with nonemergent CABG showed that a prior cardiac operation was associated with a nearly twofold increased hazard of death at up to 4 years of follow-up.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Circulation ; 120(11 Suppl): S127-33, 2009 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19752357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of the very elderly are undergoing aortic valve procedures. We describe the short- and long-term survivorship for this cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cohort study of 7584 consecutive patients undergoing open aortic valve surgery without (51.1%; AVR) or with (48.9%; AVR + CABG) concomitant coronary artery bypass graft surgery between November 10, 1987 through June 30, 2006. Patient records were linked to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File. Survivorship was stratified by age and concomitant CABG surgery. During 39 835 person-years of follow-up, there were 2877 deaths. Among AVR, there were 3304 patients <80 years of age, 419 patients 80 to 84 years, and 156 patients > or =85 years (24 patients >90 years). Among AVR+CABG patients, there were 2890 patients <80 years of age, 577 patients 80 to 84 years, and 238 patients > or =85 years (22 patients >90 years). Median survivorship for patients undergoing isolated AVR was 11.5 years (<80 years), 6.8 years (80 to 84 years), 6.2 years (> or =85 years); for patients undergoing AVR+CABG, median survivorship was 9.4 years (<80 years), 6.8 years (80 to 84 years), and 7.1 years (> or =85 years). Among both procedures, adjusted survivorship was significantly different across strata of age (P<0.001). These findings are similar to life expectancy of the general population from actuarial tables: 80 to 84 years (7 years) and > or =85 years (5 years). CONCLUSIONS: Survivorship among octogenarians is favorable, with more than half the patients surviving more than 6 years after their surgery. Concomitant CABG surgery does not diminish median survivorship among patients >80 years of age.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Circulation ; 120(11 Suppl): S155-62, 2009 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19752361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant aortic (AV) and mitral (MV) valve surgery accounts for 4% of all valve procedures in northern New England. We examined in-hospital and long-term mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a report of a prospective study of 1057 patients undergoing concomitant AV and MV surgery from 1989 to 2007. The Social Security Administration Death Master File was used to assess long-term survival. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were performed. In-hospital mortality was 15.5% (11.0% for patients <70 years, 18.0% for 70- to 79-year-olds, and 24% for those > or =80 years). Overall median survival was 7.3 years. Median survival without coronary artery bypass grafting was 9.5 years and with coronary artery bypass grafting was 5.7 years (P<0.001). Survival in women was worse than in men (7.3 versus 9.3, years, P=0.033). Median survival by age was 11.0 years for patients <70 years, 5.4 years for 70- to 79-year-olds, and 4.8 years for those > or =80 years. Median survival was not significantly different for patients > or =80 years compared with those who were 70 to 79 years old (P=0.245). CONCLUSIONS: Double-valve surgery has a high in-hospital mortality rate and a median survival of 7.3 years. After patients have survived surgery, long-term survival is similar between men and women, smaller and larger patients, and those receiving MV repair or replacement. Survival continues to decline after surviving surgery for patients > or =70 years old and those who undergo concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting. In patients <70 years, either mechanical valves in both positions or a tissue AV and mitral repair have the lowest in-hospital mortality and the best long-term survival. In patients > or =70 years, tissue valves in both positions have the best in-hospital and long-term survival.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 85(4): 1233-7, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18355501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of the very elderly are undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Short-term results have been studied, but few data are available concerning long-term outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 54,397 consecutive patients undergoing primary, isolated CABG surgery between July 1, 1987, and June 30, 2006. Patient records were linked to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File. RESULTS: During 390,871 person-years of follow-up, there were 17,352 deaths. There were 51,149 patients younger than 80 years, 2,661 patients aged 80 to 84 years, and 587 patients aged 85 or more years who underwent isolated CABG surgery. Crude in-hospital survival was 97.2% for those less than 80 years, 98.3% for those aged 80 to 84 years, and 87.6% for those aged 85 or more years. Patients aged 80 or more years were more likely to be female (46.9%), more likely to be emergency priority (10.2%), and more likely to have associated comorbidities than younger patients. Patients aged 85 or more years were more likely to have intraoperative and postoperative morbid events. Among patients younger than 80, median survival was 14.4 years with an annual incidence of death of 4.2%. Among patients 80 to 84 years old, median survival time was 7.4 years, with an annual incidence rate of death of 10.3%. Among patients aged 85 or more years, median survival was 5.8 years, and the annual incidence of death was 13.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Although very elderly CABG patients have more comorbidities and more acute presentation than younger patients and their in-hospital mortality rate is high, their long-term survival is surprisingly good.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , New England , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Circulation ; 112(9 Suppl): I371-6, 2005 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16159849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials comparing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) for patients with multivessel coronary disease (MVD) report similar long-term survival for CABG and PCI. These studies used a highly selected population of patients and providers, and their results may not be generalizable to actual care. Our goal in this study was to compare long-term survival of MVD patients treated with CABG vs PCI in contemporary practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: From our northern New England registries of consecutive coronary revascularizations, we identified 10,198 CABG and 4,295 PCI patients with MVD who may have been eligible for either procedure between 1994 and 2001. Vital status was obtained by linkage to the National Death Index. Proportional-hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for survival in CABG vs PCI patients after adjustment for comorbidities and disease characteristics. CABG patients were older; had more comorbidities, more 3-vessel disease, and lower ejection fractions; and were more completely revascularized. Adjusted long-term survival for patients with 3-vessel disease was better after CABG than PCI (HR, 0.60; P<0.01) but not for patients with 2-vessel disease (HR, 0.98; P=0.77). The survival advantage of CABG for 3-vessel disease patients was present in all patient populations, including women, diabetics, and the elderly and in the era of high stent utilization. CONCLUSIONS: In contemporary practice, survival for patients with 3-vessel coronary disease is better after CABG than PCI, an observation that patients and physicians should carefully consider when deciding on a revascularization strategy.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/estatística & dados numéricos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Stroke ; 34(12): 2830-4, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14605327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current research focused on stroke in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has missed important opportunities for additional understanding by failing to consider the range of different stroke mechanisms. We developed and implemented a classification system to identify the distribution and timing of stroke subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a regional study of 388 patients with the diagnosis of stroke after isolated CABG surgery in northern New England from 1992 to 2000. Data were collected on patient and disease characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative care, and outcomes. Stroke etiology was classified into 1 of the following: hemorrhage, thromboembolic (embolic, thrombotic, lacunar), hypoperfusion, other (subtype not listed above), multiple (>or=2 competing mechanisms), or unclassified (unknown mechanism). The reliability of the classification system was determined by percent agreement and kappa statistics. RESULTS: Embolic strokes accounted for 62.1% of strokes, followed by multiple etiologies (10.1%), hypoperfusion (8.8%), lacunar (3.1%), thrombotic (1.0%), and hemorrhage (1.0%). There were 54 strokes with unknown etiology (13.9%). There were no strokes classified as "other." Nearly 45% (105/235) of the embolic and 56% (18/32) of hypoperfusion strokes occurred within the first postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: We used a locally developed classification system to determine the etiologic mechanism of 388 strokes secondary to CABG surgery. The principal etiologic mechanism was embolic, followed by stroke having multiple mechanisms and hypoperfusion. Regardless of mechanism, strokes predominantly occurred within the first postoperative day.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/classificação , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/classificação , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , New England/epidemiologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/classificação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/dietoterapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 76(2): 428-34; discussion 435, 2003 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12902078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a devastating complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. An individual's risk of stroke is based in part on preoperative characteristics but also on intra- and postoperative factors. We developed a risk prediction model for stroke based on factors in intra- and postoperative care, after adjusting for a patient's preoperative risk. METHODS: We conducted a regional prospective study of 11,825 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery surgery from 1996 to 2001. Data were collected on patient and disease characteristics, intra- and postoperative care and course, and outcomes. Stroke was defined as "a new focal neurologic deficit which appears and is still at least partially evident more than 24 hours after its onset." Logistic regression identified significant predictors of stroke. RESULTS: The incidence of stroke was 1.5%. The regression model significantly predicted the occurrence of stroke. As compared with cardiopulmonary bypass for less than 90 minutes, cardiopulmonary bypass for 90 to 113 minutes, odds ratio = 1.59, p = 0.022), cardiopulmonary bypass for 114 minutes or more (odds ratio = 2.36, p < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (odds ratio = 1.82, p < 0.001), and prolonged inotrope use (odds ratio = 2.59, p = 0.001) significantly improved our ability to predict stroke. Nearly 75% of all strokes occurred among the 90% of patients at low or medium preoperative risk. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of factors associated with intra- and postoperative care and course significantly improved the prediction model. Most strokes occurred among patients at low or medium preoperative risk, suggesting that many of these strokes may be preventable. Reduction in stroke risk may require modifications in intra- and postoperative care and course.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , New England/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Circulation ; 106(12 Suppl 1): I11-3, 2002 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12354701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Review of the clinical and therapeutic implications of difference in arm blood pressure detected preoperatively in patients having heart surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective study of 53 patients (Group 1) with gradient and comparison with a group of 175 patients without gradient (Group 2). All patients had preoperative carotid duplex interrogation and operative epiaortic scanning. There was no statistical difference regarding age, sex, status, redo, diabetes, ejection fraction, prior myocardial infarct, hyperlipidemia, or creatinine level. Risks factors for Group 1 included peripheral vascular disease (P<0.0001) and cerebrovascular symptoms (P=0.0196). Severe carotid disease (>80% stenosis) was seen in 41.5% of Group 1 and 13.7% of Group 2 (P<0.0001) patients. Severe atherosclerotic proximal aortic disease was found in 39.6% of Group 1 and 10.8% of Group 2 (P<0.0001) patients. There were 7 patients with strokes in Group 1 (13.20%) and 9 in Group 2 (5.14%; P=0.06). Four patients died in Group 1 (7.54%) and 10 died in Group 2 (5.71%; P=0.74). CONCLUSION: Brachial gradient is a marker for increased carotid and proximal atherosclerotic aortic disease. Preoperative arch study at the time of catheterization is strongly recommended, as well as preoperative carotid Doppler and operative epiaortic ultrasound.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Idoso , Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Arteriosclerose/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
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