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1.
Klin Padiatr ; 231(2): 74-79, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemic encephalopathy in newborns with urea cycle disorders and certain organic acidurias can cause severe brain injury, coma and death. Standard therapy includes protein restriction, nitrogen-scavenging drugs, prevention of catabolism and hemodialysis. Neuroprotective hypothermia as part of the treatment has been reported only 3 times. It has been suggested that mild systemic hypothermia can contribute to better neurological outcomes in hyperammonemic encephalopathy. However, the limited experience precludes accurate conclusions on safety and efficacy. METHODS: Whole body therapeutic hypothermia was included in the standard treatment of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in 4 neonates with urea cycle disorder or organic aciduria. RESULTS: Two patients survived the initial crisis. One patient has a developmental quotient of 0.8, while the other shows severe developmental delay. The cooling protocol had to be discontinued in 3 patients due to the otherwise untreatable complications (hypotension and hemorrhage). CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of therapeutic hypothermia in the treatment of neonatal hyperammonemic encephalopathy depend on various factors, requiring further evaluation.


Assuntos
Hiperamonemia/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/terapia , Ureia/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/patologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Recém-Nascido , Resultado do Tratamento , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/complicações , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/genética , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/patologia
2.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734935

RESUMO

Organic acidurias (OAD) and urea-cycle disorders (UCD) are rare inherited disorders affecting amino acid and protein metabolism. As dietary practice varies widely, we assessed their long-term prescribed dietary treatment against published guideline and studied plasma amino acids levels. We analyzed data from the first visit recorded in the European registry and network for intoxication type metabolic diseases (E-IMD, Chafea no. 2010 12 01). In total, 271 methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) and propionic aciduria (PA) and 361 UCD patients were included. Median natural protein prescription was consistent with the recommended daily allowance (RDA), plasma L-valine (57%), and L-isoleucine (55%) levels in MMA and PA lay below reference ranges. Plasma levels were particularly low in patients who received amino acid mixtures (AAMs-OAD) and L-isoleucine:L-leucine:L-valine (BCAA) ratio was 1.0:3.0:3.2. In UCD patients, plasma L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine levels lay below reference ranges in 18%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In symptomatic UCD patients who received AAM-UCD, the median natural protein prescription lay below RDA, while their L-valine and L-isoleucine levels and plasma BCAA ratios were comparable to those in patients who did not receive AAM-UCD. Notably, in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase syndrome (OTC-D), carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 syndrome (CPS1-D) and hyperammonemia-hyperornithinemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome selective L-citrulline supplementation resulted in higher plasma L-arginine levels than selective L-arginine supplementation. In conclusion, while MMA and PA patients who received AAMs-OAD had very low BCAA levels and disturbed plasma BCAA ratios, AAMs-UCD seemed to help UCD patients obtain normal BCAA levels. In patients with OTC-D, CPS1-D, and HHH syndrome, selective L-citrulline seemed preferable to selective L-arginine supplementation.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

4.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 28(3): 030801, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429681

RESUMO

Gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that occurs due to deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine aminotransferase (OAT). Hyperornithinemia causes degeneration of the retina with symptoms like myopia, reduced night vision and progressive vision loss. Our patient is a 10-year-old girl with impaired vision and strabismus. As part of the metabolic work-up, plasma amino acid analysis revealed significantly increased concentration of ornithine (1039 µmol/L; reference interval 20 - 155 µmol/L). Molecular genetic analysis revealed homozygous mutation in exon 7 of the OAT gene that has not been reported previously (c.868_870delCTT p.(Leu290del)). This in frame deletion was predicted to be deleterious by in silico software analysis. Our patient was treated with pyridoxine (vitamin B6 in a dose of 2 x 100 mg/day), low-protein diet (0.6 g/kg/day) and L-lysine supplementation which resulted in a significant reduction in plasma ornithine concentrations to 53% of the initial concentration and the ophthalmologic findings showed significant improvement. We conclude that low protein diet and lysine supplementation can lead to long-term reduction in plasma ornithine concentrations and, if started at an early age, notably slow the progression of retinal function loss in patients with GA. The effect of therapy can be reliably monitored by periodical measurement of plasma ornithine concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of OAT deficiency in Croatia.

5.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 31(10): 1155-1159, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243016

RESUMO

Background Infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) is a severe multisystemic disorder characterized by the accumulation of free sialic acid in lysosomes. Case presentation The patient presented prenatally with fetal ascites and large scrotal hernias, without pleural or pericardial effusion. During the infantile period, he was diagnosed with permanent isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) hypogammaglobulinemia, which thus far has rarely been associated with ISSD. The analysis of the SLC17A5 gene revealed a novel homozygous 94 bp gene deletion. We further provide a detailed description of pre- and postnatal clinical and radiographic findings. Conclusions Fetal ascites could be the first sign of several lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), including ISSD. The analysis of LSD gene panels is an effective approach to diagnosis in the case of non-specific symptoms and when specific biochemical tests are not easily available.

6.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(4): 585-591, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636919

RESUMO

This boy presented with ADHD at 3 years and at 8 years was hyperactive with no documented hypoglycemia and had myopathy, cardiomyopathy, and very low serum carnitine. L-carnitine improved his exercise intolerance, cardiomyopathy, and behavior. Analysis of SLC22A5 revealed a premature stop codon (p.R282*) and a novel in-frame deletion (p.T440-Y449).

7.
Hum Genome Var ; 5: 18005, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531774

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the post-GPI attachment to proteins 3 (PGAP3) gene cause hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome 4 (HPMRS4), which is characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, severe psychomotor developmental delay, seizures, and facial dysmorphism. To date, 15 PGAP3 mutations have been reported in humans. Here we report a novel homozygous PGAP3 mutation (c.314C>A, p.Pro105Gln) in a Croatian patient and fully describe the clinical features.

8.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(1): 28-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases, a group of multi-systemic disorders often characterized by tissue-specific phenotypes, are usually progressive and fatal disorders resulting from defects in oxidative phosphorylation. MTO1 (Mitochondrial tRNA Translation Optimization 1), an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in high-energy demand tissues has been linked to human early-onset combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, often referred to as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-10 (COXPD10). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty five cases of MTO1 deficiency were identified and reviewed through international collaboration. The cases of two female siblings, who presented at 1 and 2years of life with seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, elevated lactate and complex I and IV deficiency on muscle biopsy but without cardiomyopathy, are presented in detail. RESULTS: For the description of phenotypic features, the denominator varies as the literature was insufficient to allow for complete ascertainment of all data for the 35 cases. An extensive review of all known MTO1 deficiency cases revealed the most common features at presentation to be lactic acidosis (LA) (21/34; 62% cases) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (15/34; 44% cases). Eventually lactic acidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are described in 35/35 (100%) and 27/34 (79%) of patients with MTO1 deficiency, respectively; with global developmental delay/intellectual disability present in 28/29 (97%), feeding difficulties in 17/35 (49%), failure to thrive in 12/35 (34%), seizures in 12/35 (34%), optic atrophy in 11/21 (52%) and ataxia in 7/34 (21%). There are 19 different pathogenic MTO1 variants identified in these 35 cases: one splice-site, 3 frameshift and 15 missense variants. None have bi-allelic variants that completely inactivate MTO1; however, patients where one variant is truncating (i.e. frameshift) while the second one is a missense appear to have a more severe, even fatal, phenotype. These data suggest that complete loss of MTO1 is not viable. A ketogenic diet may have exerted a favourable effect on seizures in 2/5 patients. CONCLUSION: MTO1 deficiency is lethal in some but not all cases, and a genotype-phenotype relation is suggested. Aside from lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy, developmental delay and other phenotypic features affecting multiple organ systems are often present in these patients, suggesting a broader spectrum than hitherto reported. The diagnosis should be suspected on clinical features and the presence of markers of mitochondrial dysfunction in body fluids, especially low residual complex I, III and IV activity in muscle. Molecular confirmation is required and targeted genomic testing may be the most efficient approach. Although subjective clinical improvement was observed in a small number of patients on therapies such as ketogenic diet and dichloroacetate, no evidence-based effective therapy exists.

10.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 31(1): 71-75, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29252199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism caused by severely decreased activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) due to pathogenic mutations in the GALT gene. To date more than 330 mutations have been described, with p.Q188R and p.K285N being the most common in Caucasian populations. Although acute manifestations can be fully avoided by a galactose-restricted diet, chronic complications, such as neurological ones, cannot be prevented in a significant number of patients despite compliance with the dietary treatment. METHODS: A cohort of 16 galactosemic Croatian patients, including one pair of siblings, was studied. Molecular characterization was performed by direct sequence analysis of the GALT gene. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were analyzed and only four different mutations were detected. As expected, p.Q188R and p.K285N were common, accounting for 40% and 37% of unrelated alleles, respectively. The third mutation accounting for 20% of mutant alleles was p.R123X causing a premature stop codon, is thus considered to be severe, which is in accordance with the phenotype presented by the homozygous patient described here. The fourth mutation p.E271D was found in a single allele. More than half of our patients manifested some chronic neurological complications. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on mutational and phenotypic spectra of classic galactosemia in Croatia that expands the knowledge on the mutational map of the GALT gene across Europe and reveals the genetic homogeneity of the Croatian population.


Assuntos
Galactosemias/epidemiologia , Galactosemias/genética , Mutação , UTP-Hexose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Galactosemias/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Neurol ; 82(6): 1004-1015, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria, dystonia-deafness, hepatopathy, encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome (MEGDHEL) syndrome is caused by biallelic variants in SERAC1. METHODS: This multicenter study addressed the course of disease for each organ system. Metabolic, neuroradiological, and genetic findings are reported. RESULTS: Sixty-seven individuals (39 previously unreported) from 59 families were included (age range = 5 days-33.4 years, median age = 9 years). A total of 41 different SERAC1 variants were identified, including 20 that have not been reported before. With the exception of 2 families with a milder phenotype, all affected individuals showed a strikingly homogeneous phenotype and time course. Severe, reversible neonatal liver dysfunction and hypoglycemia were seen in >40% of all cases. Starting at a median age of 6 months, muscular hypotonia (91%) was seen, followed by progressive spasticity (82%, median onset = 15 months) and dystonia (82%, 18 months). The majority of affected individuals never learned to walk (68%). Seventy-nine percent suffered hearing loss, 58% never learned to speak, and nearly all had significant intellectual disability (88%). Magnetic resonance imaging features were accordingly homogenous, with bilateral basal ganglia involvement (98%); the characteristic "putaminal eye" was seen in 53%. The urinary marker 3-methylglutaconic aciduria was present in virtually all patients (98%). Supportive treatment focused on spasticity and drooling, and was effective in the individuals treated; hearing aids or cochlear implants did not improve communication skills. INTERPRETATION: MEGDHEL syndrome is a progressive deafness-dystonia syndrome with frequent and reversible neonatal liver involvement and a strikingly homogenous course of disease. Ann Neurol 2017;82:1004-1015.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Transtornos da Surdocegueira/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Surdocegueira/genética , Progressão da Doença , Distonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Distonia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Atrofia Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos da Surdocegueira/terapia , Distonia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Masculino , Atrofia Óptica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 176(3): 395-405, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093642

RESUMO

The need for performing clinical trials to develop well-studied and appropriate medicines for inherited neurometabolic disease patients faces ethical concerns mainly raising from four aspects: the diseases are rare; include young and very young patients; the neurological impairment may compromise the capability to provide 'consent'; and the genetic nature of the disease leads to further ethical implications. This work is intended to identify the ethical provisions applicable to clinical research involving these patients and to evaluate if these cover the ethical issues. Three searches have been performed on the European regulatory/legal framework, the literature and European Union-funded projects. The European legal framework offers a number of ethical provisions ruling the clinical research on paediatric, rare, inherited diseases with neurological symptoms. In the literature, relevant publications deal with informed consent, newborn genetic screenings, gene therapy and rights/interests of research participants. Additional information raised from European projects on sharing patients' data from different countries, the need to fill the gap of the regulatory framework and to improve information to stakeholders and patients/families. CONCLUSION: Several recommendations and guidelines on ethical aspects are applicable to the inherited neurometabolic disease research in Europe, even though they suffer from the lack of a common ethical approach. What is Known: • When planning and conducting clinical trials, sponsors and researchers know that clinical trials are to be performed according to well-established ethical rules, and patients should be aware about their rights. • In the cases of paediatric patients, vulnerable patients unable to provide consent, genetic diseases' further rules apply. What is New: • This work discusses which ethical rules apply to ensure protection of patient's rights if all the above-mentioned features coexist. • This work shows available data and information on how these rules have been applied.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Metabólicas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças Raras , Criança , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
13.
Hum Mutat ; 38(5): 524-531, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101991

RESUMO

We describe 14 patients with 12 novel missense mutations in ASPA, the gene causing Canavan disease (CD). We developed a method to study the effect of these 12 variants on the function of aspartoacylase-the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid (NAA) to aspartate and acetate. The wild-type ASPA open reading frame (ORF) and the ORFs containing each of the variants were transfected into HEK293 cells. Enzyme activity was determined by incubating cell lysates with NAA and measuring the released aspartic acid by LC-MS/MS. Clinical data were obtained for 11 patients by means of questionnaires. Four patients presented with a non-typical clinical picture or with the milder form of CD, whereas seven presented with severe CD. The mutations found in the mild patients corresponded to the variants with the highest residual enzyme activities, suggesting that this assay can help evaluate unknown variants found in patients with atypical presentation. We have detected a correlation between clinical presentation, enzyme activity, and genotype for CD.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Doença de Canavan/diagnóstico , Doença de Canavan/enzimologia , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Alelos , Amidoidrolases/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Ativação Enzimática , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica
14.
JIMD Rep ; 31: 101-106, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27207470

RESUMO

Glycine N-methyltransferase deficiency is an inherited disorder of methionine metabolism, reported so far in only four patients and characterised by permanent hypermethioninemia. This disorder has been considered as probably benign because moderate hepatomegaly in two patients was the only obvious symptom and mild to moderate elevation of aminotransferases the only laboratory abnormality. Our experience with the current novel patient points out that this disease, due to very high hypermethioninemia, is not harmless and that there may be diagnostic pitfalls in interpretation of biochemical hallmarks of the disease. Since the first description of glycine N-methyltransferase deficiency, other disorders of this metabolic pathway affecting the liver have been reported pointing to dysmethylation as the common pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, we suggest the whole group to be named dysmethylating liver diseases.

15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(1): 5-20, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671891

RESUMO

Inherited methylation disorders are a group of rarely reported, probably largely underdiagnosed disorders affecting transmethylation processes in the metabolic pathway between methionine and homocysteine. These are methionine adenosyltransferase I/III, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. This paper provides the first consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of methylation disorders. Following search of the literature and evaluation according to the SIGN-methodology of all reported patients with methylation defects, graded recommendations are provided in a structured way comprising diagnosis (clinical presentation, biochemical abnormalities, differential diagnosis, newborn screening, prenatal diagnosis), therapy and follow-up. Methylation disorders predominantly affect the liver, central nervous system and muscles, but clinical presentation can vary considerably between and within disorders. Although isolated hypermethioninemia is the biochemical hallmark of this group of disorders, it is not always present, especially in early infancy. Plasma S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine are key metabolites for the biochemical clarification of isolated hypermethioninemia. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia can be present in all methylation disorders. Methylation disorders do not qualify as primary targets of newborn screening. A low-methionine diet can be beneficial in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency if plasma methionine concentrations exceed 800 µmol/L. There is some evidence that this diet may also be beneficial in patients with S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. S-adenosylmethionine supplementation may be useful in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency. Recommendations given in this article are based on general principles and in practice should be adjusted individually according to patient's age, severity of the disease, clinical and laboratory findings.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Metionina/metabolismo , Consenso , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/deficiência , Metilação , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167984, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936167

RESUMO

The vast majority of patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are of Slavic origin and carry a deleterious deletion (c.657del5; rs587776650) in the NBN gene on chromosome 8q21. This mutation is essentially confined to Slavic populations and may thus be considered a Slavic founder mutation. Notably, not a single parenthood of a homozygous c.657del5 carrier has been reported to date, while heterozygous carriers do reproduce but have an increased cancer risk. These observations seem to conflict with the considerable carrier frequency of c.657del5 of 0.5% to 1% as observed in different Slavic populations because deleterious mutations would be eliminated quite rapidly by purifying selection. Therefore, we propose that heterozygous c.657del5 carriers have increased reproductive success, i.e., that the mutation confers heterozygote advantage. In fact, in our cohort study of the reproductive history of 24 NBS pedigrees from the Czech Republic, we observed that female carriers gave birth to more children on average than female non-carriers, while no such reproductive differences were observed for males. We also estimate that c.657del5 likely occurred less than 300 generations ago, thus supporting the view that the original mutation predated the historic split and subsequent spread of the 'Slavic people'. We surmise that the higher fertility of female c.657del5 carriers reflects a lower miscarriage rate in these women, thereby reflecting the role of the NBN gene product, nibrin, in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and their processing in immune gene rearrangements, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination, akin to the previously described role of the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Efeito Fundador , Mutação , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Reprodução/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , República Tcheca , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/etnologia , Eslováquia
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 894-902, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616477

RESUMO

To safeguard the cell from the accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic intermediates, specific repair mechanisms have evolved. APOA1BP, now renamed NAXE, encodes an epimerase essential in the cellular metabolite repair for NADHX and NADPHX. The enzyme catalyzes the epimerization of NAD(P)HX, thereby avoiding the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The clinical importance of the NAD(P)HX repair system has been unknown. Exome sequencing revealed pathogenic biallelic mutations in NAXE in children from four families with (sub-) acute-onset ataxia, cerebellar edema, spinal myelopathy, and skin lesions. Lactate was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of all affected individuals. Disease onset was during the second year of life and clinical signs as well as episodes of deterioration were triggered by febrile infections. Disease course was rapidly progressive, leading to coma, global brain atrophy, and finally to death in all affected individuals. NAXE levels were undetectable in fibroblasts from affected individuals of two families. In these fibroblasts we measured highly elevated concentrations of the toxic metabolite cyclic-NADHX, confirming a deficiency of the mitochondrial NAD(P)HX repair system. Finally, NAD or nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) supplementation might have therapeutic implications for this fatal disorder.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Mutação , NAD/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , NAD/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Neuroimagem , Anormalidades da Pele/genética , Anormalidades da Pele/patologia
19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 119(1-2): 44-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477828

RESUMO

Primary 5-oxoprolinuria (pyroglutamic aciduria) is caused by a genetic defect in the γ-glutamyl cycle, affecting either glutathione synthetase or 5-oxoprolinase. While several dozens of patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency have been reported, with hemolytic anemia representing the clinical key feature, 5-oxoprolinase deficiency due to OPLAH mutations is less frequent and so far has not attracted much attention. This has prompted us to investigate the clinical phenotype as well as the underlying genotype in patients from 14 families of various ethnic backgrounds who underwent diagnostic mutation analysis following the detection of 5-oxoprolinuria. In all patients with 5-oxoprolinuria studied, bi-allelic mutations in OPLAH were indicated. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for 5-oxoprolinase deficiency is further supported by the identification of a single mutation in all 9/14 parent sample sets investigated (except for the father of one patient whose result suggests homozygosity), and the absence of 5-oxoprolinuria in all tested heterozygotes. It is remarkable, that all 20 mutations identified were novel and private to the respective families. Clinical features were highly variable and in several sib pairs, did not segregate with 5-oxoprolinuria. Although a pathogenic role of 5-oxoprolinase deficiency remains possible, this is not supported by our findings. Additional patient ascertainment and long-term follow-up is needed to establish the benign nature of this inborn error of metabolism. It is important that all symptomatic patients with persistently elevated levels of 5-oxoproline and no obvious explanation are investigated for the genetic etiology.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Glutationa Sintase/deficiência , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Alelos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/enzimologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação
20.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 29(9): 1083-8, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383869

RESUMO

Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent hypoglycemia and persistent mild elevation of plasma ammonia. HI/HA syndrome is one of the more common forms of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), caused by activating mutations within the GLUD1 gene that encodes the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We report here on monozygotic twin girls presented with fasting- and protein-induced hypoglycemia and mild persistent hyperammonemia. Genetic analysis revealed that both girls were heterozygous for a novel missense mutation within exon 11 [c.1499A>T, p.(R443W)] of the GLUD1 gene. Despite early treatment with diazoxide and a low protein diet, they both developed non-hypoglycemic seizures in early childhood followed by cognitive impairment. In addition to their clinical course, a review of the literature on HI/HA syndrome is provided.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Hipoglicemia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Prognóstico
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