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1.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(1): 11-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic disorders is on the rise, affecting about 10% of the population. In this retrospective cohort, we investigated prevalence of allergic disorders, associated risk factors, and the outcome of food allergies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from birth cohorts of two university hospitals' well-child outpatient clinics. Factors related to onset and type of allergic diseases were assessed from demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data. RESULTS: Analyses were performed on 949 (431F/518M) infants at a mean current age of 28±6 months. Any allergic disease was established among 177 cases (22%); atopic dermatitis in 123 (12.8%), respiratory allergies in 55 (5.7%), and food allergy in 41 (4.3%). The risk for allergic disorders was found to be significantly increased for male gender (OR: 2.31, 95% CI; 1.54-3.46), and positive parental atopy (OR: 1.94, 95% CI; 1.31-2.86). The risk of food allergies was significantly higher in the male gender (OR: 2.47, 95% CI; 1.21-5.02), who consumed egg-white between 6 and 12 months (OR: 2.34, 95% CI; 1.22-4.48), and who were formula-fed before 6 months (OR: 2.16, 95% CI; 1.14-4.10). We found no significant association between the rate of food allergy outgrowth or food induced-anaphylaxis with regards to the timing of introducing egg-white into the diet. CONCLUSIONS: Although the introduction of egg-white into infant diet at 6-12 months of life appeared as an independent risk for any food allergy, none of the patients developed anaphylaxis. Age at symptom onset and outgrowing food allergy were similar compared to those introduced egg-white after 12 months. We recommend promoting exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life, and avoidance of prolonged restrictive diets for children with food allergy.

3.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 49(1): 11-16, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic disorders is on the rise, affecting about 10% of the population. In this retrospective cohort, we investigated prevalence of allergic disorders, associated risk factors, and the outcome of food allergies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from birth cohorts of two university hospitals' well-child outpatient clinics. Factors related to onset and type of allergic diseases were assessed from demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data. RESULTS: Analyses were performed on 949 (431F/518M) infants at a mean current age of 28 ± 6 months. Any allergic disease was established among 177 cases (22%); atopic dermatitis in 123 (12.8%), respiratory allergies in 55 (5.7%), and food allergy in 41 (4.3%). The risk for allergic disorders was found to be significantly increased for male gender (OR: 2.31, 95% CI; 1.54-3.46), and positive parental atopy (OR: 1.94, 95% CI; 1.31-2.86). The risk of food allergies was significantly higher in the male gender (OR: 2.47, 95% CI; 1.21-5.02), who consumed egg-white between 6 and 12 months (OR: 2.34, 95% CI; 1.22-4.48), and who were formula-fed before 6 months (OR: 2.16, 95% CI; 1.14-4.10). We found no significant association between the rate of food allergy outgrowth or food induced-anaphylaxis with regards to the timing of introducing egg-white into the diet. CONCLUSIONS: Although the introduction of egg-white into infant diet at 6-12 months of life appeared as an independent risk for any food allergy, none of the patients developed anaphylaxis. Age at symptom onset and outgrowing food allergy were similar compared to those introduced egg-white after 12 months. We recommend promoting exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life, and avoidance of prolonged restrictive diets for children with food allergy


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4.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475942

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in STAT1 frequently exhibit chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), immunodeficiency and autoimmune manifestations. Several treatment options including targeted therapies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are available for STAT1 GOF patients but modalities and outcomes are not well established. Herein, we aimed to unravel the effect of ruxolitinib as a bridge therapy in a patient with sporadic STAT1 T385M mutation to manage infections and other disease manifestations. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from the patient prior to, during ruxolitinib treatment and 6 months after HSCT. IFN-ß-induced STAT1 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation levels and PMA/ionomycin-stimulated intracellular IL-17A/IFN-γ production in CD4+ T cells were evaluated. Differentially expressed genes between healthy controls and the patient prior to, during ruxolitinib treatment and post-transplantation were investigated using Nanostring nCounter Profiling Panel. RESULTS: Ruxolitinib provided favorable responses by controlling candidiasis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the patient. Dysregulation in STAT1 phosphorylation kinetics improved with ruxolitinib treatment and was completely normalized after transplantation. TH17 deficiency persisted after ruxolitinib treatment, but normalized following HSCT. Consistent with the impairment in JAK/STAT signaling, multiple immune related pathways were found to be dysregulated in the patient. At baseline, genes related to type I IFN-related pathways, antigen processing, T-cell and B-cell functions were upregulated, while NK-cell function and cytotoxicity related genes were downregulated. Dysregulated gene expression was partially improved with ruxolitinib treatment and normalized after transplantation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that improved disease management and immune dysregulatory profile can be achieved with ruxolitinib treatment before transplantation and this would be beneficial to reduce the risk of adverse outcome of HSCT.

5.
Turk J Haematol ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442967

RESUMO

Primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD) are a group of diseases belong to inborn errors of immunity (IEI). They usually exhibit lymphoproliferation, autoimmunities, and malignancies, with less susceptibility to recurrent infections. Unlike to classical primary immune deficiencies, the autoimmune manifestations, such as cytopenias, enteropathy can be the first symptom of diseases, and they are typically resistant to treatment. Increasing awareness for PIRD among specialists and multidisciplinary team approach would provide early diagnosis and treatment that can prevent end-organ damages related with the diseases. In recent years, many PIRD diseases have been described and understanding the immunological pathways linked to the disorders provides us an opportunity to use directed therapies for specific molecules, which usually offer better disease control than known classical immunosuppressants. In this review, in the light of last literature researches, we will discuss the common PIRD diseases and explain their clinical symptoms and recent treatment modalities.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 22(2): 128-139, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398182

RESUMO

Complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis and protein-losing enteropathy (CHAPLE disease) is a lethal disease caused by genetic loss of the complement regulatory protein CD55, leading to overactivation of complement and innate immunity together with immunodeficiency due to immunoglobulin wasting in the intestine. We report in vivo human data accumulated using the complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab for the medical treatment of patients with CHAPLE disease. We observed cessation of gastrointestinal pathology together with restoration of normal immunity and metabolism. We found that patients rapidly renormalized immunoglobulin concentrations and other serum proteins as revealed by aptamer profiling, re-established a healthy gut microbiome, discontinued immunoglobulin replacement and other treatments and exhibited catch-up growth. Thus, we show that blockade of C5 by eculizumab effectively re-establishes regulation of the innate immune complement system to substantially reduce the pathophysiological manifestations of CD55 deficiency in humans.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245077, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411786

RESUMO

In subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) the persistence of measles virus (MeV) may be related to the altered immune response. In this study, cytokine responses of lymphocytes and monocytes were evaluated in SSPE compared to controls with non-inflammatory (NICON) and inflammatory (ICON) diseases. Patients with SSPE (n = 120), 78 patients with ICON and 63 patients with NICON were included in this study. Phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been analyzed by flow cytometry. CD3 and CD28, and S. aureus Cowan strain I (SAC) stimulated and unstimulated cells were cultured and IL-2, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-23 were detected in supernatants by ELISA. MeV peptides were used for MeV-specific stimulation and IFN-γ secretion of PBMC was measured by ELISPOT. Spontaneous and stimulated secretions of IL-10 were lower in SSPE compared to both control groups. T cell stimulation induced lower IFN-γ production than ICON group, but higher IL-2 than NICON group in SSPE. Stimulated PBMC produced lower IL-12p70 in SSPE and had decreased CD46 on the cell surface, suggesting the interaction with the virus. IFN-γ responses against MeV peptides were not prominent and similar to NICON patients. The immune response did not reveal an inflammatory activity to eliminate the virus in SSPE patients. Even IL-10 production was diminished implicating that the response is self-limited in controlling the disease.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TRAF3 interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2) (Act1) is an adapter protein that interacts with IL-17R via its similar expression to fibroblast growth factor genes and IL-17R domain and coordinates 2 separate proinflammatory pathways following IL-17 cytokine stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the immunologic consequences of TRAF3IP2 homozygous mutations to improve treatments for immunodeficiency patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. METHODS: We describe 2 patients presenting with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis who harbor biallelic nonsense mutations in TRAF3IP2. The cellular and molecular features of this genetic defect were assessed using in vitro cytokine assays and protein analysis. RESULTS: We show that the homozygous mutation causes complete loss of protein expression. We also show that the absence of TRAF3IP2 was associated with a defective response to combined IL-2/IL-25 (IL-17E) stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to initiate normal signaling downstream of IL-17R engagement likely contributes to the patients' recurrent fungal infections. These findings add to our molecular understanding of genetic defects affecting this critical pathway of antifungal immunity.

9.
Clin Immunol ; : 108645, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301882

RESUMO

Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) patients may share many features observed in severe atopic dermatitis (SAD), making a diagnostic dilemma for physicians. Determining clinical and laboratory markers that distinguish both disorders could provide early diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed patients (DOCK8 deficiency:14, STAT3-HIES:10, SAD:10) with early-onset SAD. Recurrent upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia were significantly frequent in HIES than SAD patients. Characteristic facial appearance, retained primary teeth, skin abscess, newborn rash, and pneumatocele were more predictable for STAT3-HIES, while mucocutaneous candidiasis and Herpes infection were common in DOCK8 deficiency, which were unusual in SAD group. DOCK8-deficient patients had lower CD3+ and CD4+T cells with a senescent phenotype that unique for this form of HIES. Both DOCK8 deficiency and STAT3-HIES patients exhibited reduced switched memory B cells compared to the SAD patients. These clinical and laboratory markers are helpful to differentiate HIES from SAD patients.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recently, a new form of congenital neutropenia that is caused by germline biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the SMARCD2 gene was described in four patients. Given the rarity of the condition, the clinical spectrum of the disease has remained elusive. We here report a new patient with a novel frameshift mutation and compare our patient with the previously reported SMARCD2-mutant patients, aiming to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the natural course of the disease. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory findings of all reported patients were reviewed. Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify the causative genetic defect. Data on the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation including stem cell sources, conditioning regimen, engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, and infections were also collected. RESULTS: An 11-year-old female patient had a variety of infections including sepsis, deep tissue abscesses, otitis, pneumonia, gingivitis, and diarrhea since infancy. A novel homozygous mutation in SMARCD2 (c.93delG, p.Ala32Argfs*80) was detected. Bone marrow examination showed hypocellularity and decreased neutrophils with diminished granules and myeloid dysplasia, but no blast excess as in previously reported patients. The neutropenia was non-responsive even to higher doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); therefore, the patient was transplanted at 10 years of age from a HLA-A allele-mismatched unrelated donor using a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen and recovered successfully. Compared with the previous four cases, our patient showed longer survival before transplantation without blastic transformation. CONCLUSION: Distinctive myeloid features and long-term follow-up including therapy options are presented for the newly described case of SMARCD2 deficiency. This disorder is apparent at infancy and requires early transplantation due to the unrelenting disease course despite conventional therapy.

13.
Turk Pediatri Ars ; 55(3): 244-250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061751

RESUMO

Aim: In the presence of food allergies, especially egg allergies, primary physicians in Turkey avoid vaccine administration and refer children to a hospital setting. We aimed to evaluate children who had allergies or suspected allergies and were referred to our Well Child Clinic in a university hospital for vaccination. Material and Methods: Charts of all children referred to our clinic due to concerns for allergies in the last two years, were reviewed. Demographic data, laboratory evaluation and reactions after immunization were recorded. Results: A total of 122 children with or without a confirmed diagnosis of allergies were referred by primary physicians. In the history, 50 children (43.5%) had reactions with egg, 42 (36.5%) had reactions with multiple foods, nine (7.8%) had reactions with milk and seven (6.1%) had reactions with a previous vaccination. The most common reaction was rash (n=89, 86.4%). Nine children reported anaphylaxis. Skin testing or serum allergen specific IgE measurement revealed that 66 (54.1%) children had sensitization to egg white and 25 (20.5%) had sensitization to egg yolk. Most children (n=87, 71.9%) were referred for all the 12th-month vaccines, and 21 children were referred only for the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n=21, 17.4%). The median delay time in the administration of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine was 20.0 (interquartile range: 8.7-41.2) days. No reaction was observed except for one child reporting a slight rash several hours after vaccination. Conclusion: Egg allergy was the most common barrier of vaccine administration in children referred from family physicians. Given the absence of any reactions, we support the administration of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in primary care settings to prevent delays in national vaccine schedule.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous relatives of ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patients are at an increased risk for certain AT-related manifestations. We also show that there is an increase of infection frequency in parents of AT patients. Thus, we hypothesized that the parents might exhibit immune alterations similar to their affected children. METHODS: Lymphocyte phenotyping to enumerate T- and B-cell subsets was performed. Functional analyses included in vitro quantified γ-H2AX, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-9 proteins. Chromosomal instability was determined by comet assay. RESULTS: We analyzed 20 AT patients (14F/6M), 31 parents (16F/15M), and 35 age-matched healthy controls. The AT patients' parents exhibited low frequency of naive CD4+ T- (n = 14, 45%) and recent thymic emigrants (n = 11, 35%) in comparison with the age-matched healthy donors. Interestingly, parents with low naive T cells also demonstrated high rate of recurrent infections (9/14, 64%). In comparison with age-matched controls, parents who had recurrent infections and low naive T cells showed significantly higher baseline γ-H2AX levels and H2 O2 -induced DNA damage as well as increased cleaved caspase-9 and PARP proteins. CONCLUSION: Parents of AT patients could present with recurrent infections and display cellular defects that mimic AT patients. The observed immunological changes could be associated with increased DNA double-strand breaks.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with rare inborn errors of immunity (IEI), a population at risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. This is relevant not only for these patients but also for the general population, because studies of IEIs can unveil key requirements for host defense. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the presentation, manifestations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IEI to inform physicians and enhance understanding of host defense against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: An invitation to participate in a retrospective study was distributed globally to scientific, medical, and patient societies involved in the care and advocacy for patients with IEI. RESULTS: We gathered information on 94 patients with IEI with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their median age was 25 to 34 years. Fifty-three patients (56%) suffered from primary antibody deficiency, 9 (9.6%) had immune dysregulation syndrome, 6 (6.4%) a phagocyte defect, 7 (7.4%) an autoinflammatory disorder, 14 (15%) a combined immunodeficiency, 3 (3%) an innate immune defect, and 2 (2%) bone marrow failure. Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required noninvasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 required invasive ventilation, and 3 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine patients (7 adults and 2 children) died. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that (1) more than 30% of patients with IEI had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and (2) risk factors predisposing to severe disease/mortality in the general population also seemed to affect patients with IEI, including more younger patients. Further studies will identify pathways that are associated with increased risk of severe disease and are nonredundant or redundant for protection against SARS-CoV-2.

16.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1359-1370, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929274

RESUMO

Elucidating the mechanisms that sustain asthmatic inflammation is critical for precision therapies. We found that interleukin-6- and STAT3 transcription factor-dependent upregulation of Notch4 receptor on lung tissue regulatory T (Treg) cells is necessary for allergens and particulate matter pollutants to promote airway inflammation. Notch4 subverted Treg cells into the type 2 and type 17 helper (TH2 and TH17) effector T cells by Wnt and Hippo pathway-dependent mechanisms. Wnt activation induced growth and differentiation factor 15 expression in Treg cells, which activated group 2 innate lymphoid cells to provide a feed-forward mechanism for aggravated inflammation. Notch4, Wnt and Hippo were upregulated in circulating Treg cells of individuals with asthma as a function of disease severity, in association with reduced Treg cell-mediated suppression. Our studies thus identify Notch4-mediated immune tolerance subversion as a fundamental mechanism that licenses tissue inflammation in asthma.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3525-3534.e1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by defective microbial killing due to mutations affecting subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. Definitive genetic identification of disease subtypes may be delayed or not readily available. OBJECTIVE: Sought to investigate the role of intracellular staining of NADPH oxidase enzyme subunits in predicting the respective genetic defects in patients with CGD and carriers. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with genetically inherited CGD, including 12 patients with X-linked CGD (gp91phagocyte oxidase (phox) deficiency due to cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide [CYBB] mutations) and 22 patients with autosomal-recessive CGD (p22phox, p47phox, and p67phox deficiency due to cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide [CYBA], neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 [NCF1] and NCF2 mutations, respectively) were recruited from different immunology centers and followed up prospectively. Dihydrorhodamine testing and NADPH oxidase subunit expression in white blood cells were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: gp91phox and p22phox defects, which result in simultaneous loss of both proteins due to their complex formation, were differentiated only by comparative analysis of patients' and mothers' intracellular staining. p47phox and p67phox protein expression was almost undetectable in patients compared with carrier mothers and healthy controls. The expression values of the respective subunits were found to be significantly higher in all controls as compared with carrier mothers, which in turn were higher than those of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of NADPH oxidase enzyme subunits by flow cytometry in patients and carriers is useful in the rapid prediction of the genetic defect of patients with CGD, thus guiding targeted sequencing and aiding in their early diagnosis.

18.
Blood ; 136(23): 2638-2655, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603431

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding CD27 or its ligand CD70 underlie inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) characterized predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, such as chronic viremia, severe infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. A comprehensive understanding of the natural history, immune characteristics, and transplant outcomes has remained elusive. Here, in a multi-institutional global collaboration, we collected the clinical information of 49 patients from 29 families (CD27, n = 33; CD70, n = 16), including 24 previously unreported individuals and identified a total of 16 distinct mutations in CD27, and 8 in CD70, respectively. The majority of patients (90%) were EBV+ at diagnosis, but only ∼30% presented with infectious mononucleosis. Lymphoproliferation and lymphoma were the main clinical manifestations (70% and 43%, respectively), and 9 of the CD27-deficient patients developed HLH. Twenty-one patients (43%) developed autoinflammatory features including uveitis, arthritis, and periodic fever. Detailed immunological characterization revealed aberrant generation of memory B and T cells, including a paucity of EBV-specific T cells, and impaired effector function of CD8+ T cells, thereby providing mechanistic insight into cellular defects underpinning the clinical features of disrupted CD27/CD70 signaling. Nineteen patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to adulthood predominantly because of lymphoma, with 95% survival without disease recurrence. Our data highlight the marked predisposition to lymphoma of both CD27- and CD70-deficient patients. The excellent outcome after HSCT supports the timely implementation of this treatment modality particularly in patients presenting with malignant transformation to lymphoma.

19.
Pediatr Transplant ; 24(6): e13768, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573870

RESUMO

Deficiency of the CD40L, expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes, is caused by mutations in the glycoprotein CD40L (CD154) gene. Resulting defective humoral and cellular responses cause a clinical presentation that includes recurrent sinopulmonary bacterial infections, opportunistic infections, sclerosing cholangitis, neutropenia, and autoimmune manifestations. HSCT represents the only curative treatment modality. However, the therapeutic decision to use HSCT proves challenging in many cases, mainly due to the lack of a phenotype-genotype correlation. We retrospectively reviewed patients with CD40L deficiency who were transplanted in Antalya and Göztepe MedicalPark Pediatric HSCT units from 2014 to 2019 and followed by Akdeniz University School of Medicine Department of Pediatric Immunology. The records of eight male cases, including one set of twins, were evaluated retrospectively. As two transplants each were performed on the twins, a total of ten transplants were evaluated. Conditioning regimens were predominantly based on myeloablative protocols, except for the twins, who received a non-myeloablative regimen for their first transplantation. Median neutrophil and platelet engraftment days were 13 (range 10-19) and 14 (range 10-42) days, respectively. In seven of ten transplants, a CMV reactivation was developed without morbidity. None of the patients developed GVHD, except for one mild case of acute GVHD. All patients survived, and the median follow-up was 852 days. Our data show that HSCT for patients with CD40 ligand deficiency is a potentially effective treatment for long-term disease control.

20.
Turk J Pediatr ; 62(3): 379-386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse reactions related to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions vary from 1 to 81%, with an average of 20%. They may be classified as immediate; occurring during the infusion itself or delayed; occurring after the infusion has been ceased. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of immediate adverse reactions due to IVIG infusions in primary immune deficiency (PID) patients. METHODS: The study population was composed of 109 patients. A total of 763 infusions were recorded for demographic data and adverse reactions. RESULTS: The participants included 32 girls (29%) and 77 boys (71%). The mean age was 11.8 ± 5.7 years (0.6- 33.5 years). Early adverse events (AE) were recorded in 34 (4.5%) among 763 IVIG infusions including 30 mild (88.2%), 3 moderate (8.8%) and 1 severe (2.9%). The most common immediate adverse reactions were fever (29.4%) and headache (29.4%). The risk of AE was higher among primary antibody deficiency (PAD), compared to combined immunodeficiency (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.061-6.475; p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Use of various intravenous immunoglobulin treatments should be considered with regard to side effect profiles observed. In our cohort, PID patient experienced mostly mild AE; PAD was associated with an increased risk of AE.

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