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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6666, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795295

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological nanoparticles with important roles in intercellular communication, and potential as drug delivery vehicles. Here we demonstrate a role for the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in EV assembly and secretion. We observe high levels of GAPDH binding to the outer surface of EVs via a phosphatidylserine binding motif (G58), which promotes extensive EV clustering. Further studies in a Drosophila EV biogenesis model reveal that GAPDH is required for the normal generation of intraluminal vesicles in endosomal compartments, and promotes vesicle clustering. Fusion of the GAPDH-derived G58 peptide to dsRNA-binding motifs enables highly efficient loading of small interfering RNA (siRNA) onto the EV surface. Such vesicles efficiently deliver siRNA to multiple anatomical regions of the brain in a Huntington's disease mouse model after systemic injection, resulting in silencing of the huntingtin gene in different regions of the brain.

2.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 574, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stem cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease are a promising approach in regenerative medicine and are now moving towards early stage clinical trials. However, a number of challenges remain including the ability to grow stem cells in vitro on a 3-dimensional scaffold, as well as their loss, by leakage or cell death, post-implantation. These issues could, however, be helped through the use of scaffolds that support the growth and differentiation of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. The present study focuses on the use of bacterial cellulose as an in vitro scaffold to promote the growth of different stem cell-derived cell types. Bacterial cellulose was used because of its remarkable properties such as its wettability, ability to retain water and low stiffness, all of which is similar to that found in brain tissue. METHODS: We cultured human embryonic stem cell-derived progenitor cells on bacterial cellulose with growth factors that were covalently functionalised to the surface via silanisation. Epifluorescence microscopy and immunofluorescence were used to detect the differentiation of stem cells into dopaminergic ventral midbrain progenitor cells. We then quantified the proportion of cells that differentiated into progenitor cells and compared the effect of growing cells on biofunctionalised cellulose versus standard cellulose. RESULTS: We show that the covalent functionalisation of bacterial cellulose sheets with bioactive peptides improves the growth and differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into dopaminergic neuronal progenitors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the biocompatible material, bacterial cellulose, has potential applications in cell therapy approaches as a means to repair damage to the central nervous system, such as in Parkinson's disease but also in tissue engineering.

3.
Mov Disord Clin Pract ; 8(8): 1194-1197, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765685
4.
Neurosci Lett ; : 136289, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637857

RESUMO

Dysfunction of the central dopaminergic system is thought to contribute to some of the clinical features of Huntington's disease (HD), and dopamine (DA) receptor antagonists are commonly used to good effect in its treatment. It is well established that there is an early significant reduction in neuronal D2 receptors in HD, considered to be a compensatory response to increased dopaminergic activity. However, no studies have examined the expression of D2 receptors on astrocytes which is important given that these cells have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of HD, as well as express dopamine receptors and modulate DA homeostasis in the normal brain. We therefore sought to investigate the expression of D2 receptors on astrocytes in HD, and found them to be reduced in both the R6/1 HD mouse model, and in human post-mortem brain in comparison to controls, suggesting that astrocytes may be important in DA-dependent aspects of HD. Further studies are needed to determine the functional significance of this finding.

5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 685594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526889

RESUMO

Disordered cholesterol metabolism is linked to neurodegeneration. In this study we investigated the profile of cholesterol metabolites found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. When adjustments were made for confounding variables of age and sex, 7α,(25R)26-dihydroxycholesterol and a second oxysterol 7α,x,y-trihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one (7α,x,y-triHCO), whose exact structure is unknown, were found to be significantly elevated in PD CSF. The likely location of the additional hydroxy groups on the second oxysterol are on the sterol side-chain. We found that CSF 7α-hydroxycholesterol levels correlated positively with depression in PD patients, while two presumptively identified cholestenoic acids correlated negatively with depression.

6.
Nature ; 597(7875): 196-205, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497388

RESUMO

The Human Developmental Cell Atlas (HDCA) initiative, which is part of the Human Cell Atlas, aims to create a comprehensive reference map of cells during development. This will be critical to understanding normal organogenesis, the effect of mutations, environmental factors and infectious agents on human development, congenital and childhood disorders, and the cellular basis of ageing, cancer and regenerative medicine. Here we outline the HDCA initiative and the challenges of mapping and modelling human development using state-of-the-art technologies to create a reference atlas across gestation. Similar to the Human Genome Project, the HDCA will integrate the output from a growing community of scientists who are mapping human development into a unified atlas. We describe the early milestones that have been achieved and the use of human stem-cell-derived cultures, organoids and animal models to inform the HDCA, especially for prenatal tissues that are hard to acquire. Finally, we provide a roadmap towards a complete atlas of human development.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Rastreamento de Células , Células/citologia , Biologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Feto/citologia , Disseminação de Informação , Organogênese , Adulto , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Visualização de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Organogênese/genética , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
7.
Neuronal Signal ; 5(3): NS20200083, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552761

RESUMO

Dopaminergic (DA) cell replacement therapies are a promising experimental treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) and a number of different types of DA cell-based therapies have already been trialled in patients. To date, the most successful have been allotransplants of foetal ventral midbrain but even then, the results have been inconsistent. This coupled to the ethical and logistical problems with using this tissue has meant that an alternative cell source has been sought of which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) sources have proven very attractive. Robust protocols for making mesencephalic DA (mesDA) progenitor cells from hPSCs now exist and the first in-human clinical trials have or are about to start. However, while their safety and efficacy are well understood, relatively little is known about their immunogenicity and in this review, we briefly summarise this with reference mainly to the limited literature on human foetal DA cells.

8.
Nature ; 597(7875): 250-255, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497389

RESUMO

The cellular landscape of the human intestinal tract is dynamic throughout life, developing in utero and changing in response to functional requirements and environmental exposures. Here, to comprehensively map cell lineages, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and antigen receptor analysis of almost half a million cells from up to 5 anatomical regions in the developing and up to 11 distinct anatomical regions in the healthy paediatric and adult human gut. This reveals the existence of transcriptionally distinct BEST4 epithelial cells throughout the human intestinal tract. Furthermore, we implicate IgG sensing as a function of intestinal tuft cells. We describe neural cell populations in the developing enteric nervous system, and predict cell-type-specific expression of genes associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, using a systems approach, we identify key cell players that drive the formation of secondary lymphoid tissue in early human development. We show that these programs are adopted in inflammatory bowel disease to recruit and retain immune cells at the site of inflammation. This catalogue of intestinal cells will provide new insights into cellular programs in development, homeostasis and disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/citologia , Feto/citologia , Saúde , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/embriologia , Humanos , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/inervação , Linfonodos/embriologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organogênese , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Pract Neurol ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413240

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterised by neuropsychiatric symptoms, a movement disorder (most commonly choreiform) and progressive cognitive impairment. The diagnosis is usually confirmed through identification of an increased CAG repeat length in the huntingtin gene in a patient with clinical features of the condition. Though diagnosis is usually straightforward, unusual presentations can occur, and it can be difficult to know when someone has transitioned from being an asymptomatic carrier into the disease state. This has become increasingly important recently, with several putative disease-modifying therapies entering trials. A growing number of conditions can mimic HD, including rare genetic causes, which must be considered in the event of a negative HD genetic test. Patients are best managed in specialist multidisciplinary clinics, including when considering genetic testing. Current treatments are symptomatic, and largely directed at the chorea and neurobehavioural problems, although supporting trial evidence for these is often limited.

10.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(3): 909-917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334425

RESUMO

The use of stem cell-derived dopamine neurons or deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents two alternative approaches to treat Parkinson's Disease. DBS is a widely used FDA-approved treatment and stem cell-derived dopamine neuron replacement has now evolved to the first in-human clinical trials. In this debate, we discuss which of these approaches will evolve to be the treatment of choice for Parkinsonian patients in the future.

11.
Brain Sci ; 11(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202701

RESUMO

Huntington's disease starts slowly and progresses over a 15-20 year period. Motor changes begin subtly, often going unnoticed by patients although they are typically visible to those close to them. At this point, it is the early non-motor problems of HD that arguably cause the most functional impairment. Approximately 65% of gene carriers will experience a reduction in their occupational level, and just under half will feel unable to manage their finances independently before a clinical diagnosis is made. Understanding what drives this impairment in activities of daily living is the key to helping people with HD to live more independently for longer, especially in early disease. Early cognitive decline is likely to play a contributory factor although few studies have looked directly at this relationship. Recently, it has been shown that along with the well documented dysexecutive syndrome seen in HD, changes in social cognition and decision-making are more common than previously thought. Furthermore, some of the early neuropathological and neurochemical changes seen in HD disrupt networks known to be involved in social functioning. In this review, we explore how HD changes the way individuals interact in a social world. Specifically, we summarise the literature on both classical and social decision-making (value-based decision-making in a social context) along with studies of theory of mind, empathy, alexithymia, and emotion recognition in HD. The literature specific to HD is discussed and supported by evidence from similar neurodegenerative disorders and healthy individuals to propose future directions and potential therapeutic avenues to be explored.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3896, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162837

RESUMO

Tumor cells may share some patterns of gene expression with their cell of origin, providing clues into the differentiation state and origin of cancer. Here, we study the differentiation state and cellular origin of 1300 childhood and adult kidney tumors. Using single cell mRNA reference maps of normal tissues, we quantify reference "cellular signals" in each tumor. Quantifying global differentiation, we find that childhood tumors exhibit fetal cellular signals, replacing the presumption of "fetalness" with a quantitative measure of immaturity. By contrast, in adult cancers our assessment refutes the suggestion of dedifferentiation towards a fetal state in most cases. We find an intimate connection between developmental mesenchymal populations and childhood renal tumors. We demonstrate the diagnostic potential of our approach with a case study of a cryptic renal tumor. Our findings provide a cellular definition of human renal tumors through an approach that is broadly applicable to human cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/genética , Rim/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Feto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Rim/embriologia , Neoplasias Renais/embriologia , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
Mov Disord ; 36(8): 1772-1780, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963552

RESUMO

The last decade has seen exciting advances in the development of potential stem cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD), which have used different types of stem cells as starting material. These cells have been developed primarily to replace dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra that are progressively lost in the disease process. The aim is to largely restore lost motor functions, whilst not ever being curative. We discuss cell-based strategies that will have to fulfill important criteria to become effective and competitive therapies for PD. These criteria include reproducibly producing sufficient numbers of cells with an authentic substantia nigra dopamine neuron A9 phenotype, which can integrate into the host brain after transplantation and form synapses (considered crucial for long-term functional benefits). Furthermore, it is essential that transplanted cells exhibit no, or only very low levels of, proliferation without tumor formation at the site of grafting. Cumulative research has shown that stem cell-based approaches continue to have great potential in PD, but key questions remain to be answered. Here, we review the most recent progress in research on stem cell-based dopamine neuron replacement therapy for PD and briefly discuss what the immediate future might hold. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Dopamina , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Substância Negra
17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(6): 1398-1408, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048692

RESUMO

The International Society for Stem Cell Research has updated its Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation in order to address advances in stem cell science and other relevant fields, together with the associated ethical, social, and policy issues that have arisen since the last update in 2016. While growing to encompass the evolving science, clinical applications of stem cells, and the increasingly complex implications of stem cell research for society, the basic principles underlying the Guidelines remain unchanged, and they will continue to serve as the standard for the field and as a resource for scientists, regulators, funders, physicians, and members of the public, including patients. A summary of the key updates and issues is presented here.

18.
Science ; 372(6542)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958447

RESUMO

Deciphering how the human striatum develops is necessary for understanding the diseases that affect this region. To decode the transcriptional modules that regulate this structure during development, we compiled a catalog of 1116 long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) identified de novo and then profiled 96,789 single cells from the early human fetal striatum. We found that D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (D1- and D2-MSNs) arise from a common progenitor and that lineage commitment is established during the postmitotic transition, across a pre-MSN phase that exhibits a continuous spectrum of fate determinants. We then uncovered cell type-specific gene regulatory networks that we validated through in silico perturbation. Finally, we identified human-specific lincRNAs that contribute to the phylogenetic divergence of this structure in humans. This work delineates the cellular hierarchies governing MSN lineage commitment.


Assuntos
Atlas como Assunto , Corpo Estriado/citologia , Corpo Estriado/embriologia , Neurogênese/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Feto , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , RNA-Seq , Transcrição Genética
19.
Development ; 148(10)2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032267

RESUMO

The choroid plexus (ChP) produces cerebrospinal fluid and forms an essential brain barrier. ChP tissues form in each brain ventricle, each one adopting a distinct shape, but remarkably little is known about the mechanisms underlying ChP development. Here, we show that epithelial WNT5A is crucial for determining fourth ventricle (4V) ChP morphogenesis and size in mouse. Systemic Wnt5a knockout, or forced Wnt5a overexpression beginning at embryonic day 10.5, profoundly reduced ChP size and development. However, Wnt5a expression was enriched in Foxj1-positive epithelial cells of 4V ChP plexus, and its conditional deletion in these cells affected the branched, villous morphology of the 4V ChP. We found that WNT5A was enriched in epithelial cells localized to the distal tips of 4V ChP villi, where WNT5A acted locally to activate non-canonical WNT signaling via ROR1 and ROR2 receptors. During 4V ChP development, MEIS1 bound to the proximal Wnt5a promoter, and gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that MEIS1 regulated Wnt5a expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a dual function of WNT5A in ChP development and identify MEIS transcription factors as upstream regulators of Wnt5a in the 4V ChP epithelium.


Assuntos
Plexo Corióideo/embriologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Quarto Ventrículo/embriologia , Proteína Meis1/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética
20.
Nat Genet ; 53(6): 787-793, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958783

RESUMO

A key driver of patients' well-being and clinical trials for Parkinson's disease (PD) is the course that the disease takes over time (progression and prognosis). To assess how genetic variation influences the progression of PD over time to dementia, a major determinant for quality of life, we performed a longitudinal genome-wide survival study of 11.2 million variants in 3,821 patients with PD over 31,053 visits. We discover RIMS2 as a progression locus and confirm this in a replicate population (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.77, P = 2.78 × 10-11), identify suggestive evidence for TMEM108 (HR = 2.86, P = 2.09 × 10-8) and WWOX (HR = 2.12, P = 2.37 × 10-8) as progression loci, and confirm associations for GBA (HR = 1.93, P = 0.0002) and APOE (HR = 1.48, P = 0.001). Polygenic progression scores exhibit a substantial aggregate association with dementia risk, while polygenic susceptibility scores are not predictive. This study identifies a novel synaptic locus and polygenic score for cognitive disease progression in PD and proposes diverging genetic architectures of progression and susceptibility.


Assuntos
Cognição , Progressão da Doença , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Sinapses/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação/genética , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
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