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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We classified non-demented European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) participants through the amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (ATN) scheme and assessed their neuropsychological and imaging profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1500 EPAD participants, 312 were excluded. Cerebrospinal fluid cut-offs of 1000 pg/mL for amyloid beta (Aß)1-42 and 27 pg/mL for p-tau181 were validated using Gaussian mixture models. Given strong correlation of p-tau and t-tau (R2  = 0.98, P < 0.001), neurodegeneration was defined by age-adjusted hippocampal volume. Multinomial regressions were used to test whether neuropsychological tests and regional brain volumes could distinguish ATN stages. RESULTS: Age was 65 ± 7 years, with 58% females and 38% apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers; 57.1% were A-T-N-, 32.5% were in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum, and 10.4% suspected non-Alzheimer's pathology. Age and cerebrovascular burden progressed with biomarker positivity (P < 0.001). Cognitive dysfunction appeared with T+. Paradoxically higher regional gray matter volumes were observed in A+T-N- compared to A-T-N- (P < 0.001). DISCUSSION: In non-demented individuals along the AD continuum, p-tau drives cognitive dysfunction. Memory and language domains are affected in the earliest stages.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2078, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824310

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be divided into four phenotypes based on clinical evolution. The pathophysiological boundaries of these phenotypes are unclear, limiting treatment stratification. Machine learning can identify groups with similar features using multidimensional data. Here, to classify MS subtypes based on pathological features, we apply unsupervised machine learning to brain MRI scans acquired in previously published studies. We use a training dataset from 6322 MS patients to define MRI-based subtypes and an independent cohort of 3068 patients for validation. Based on the earliest abnormalities, we define MS subtypes as cortex-led, normal-appearing white matter-led, and lesion-led. People with the lesion-led subtype have the highest risk of confirmed disability progression (CDP) and the highest relapse rate. People with the lesion-led MS subtype show positive treatment response in selected clinical trials. Our findings suggest that MRI-based subtypes predict MS disability progression and response to treatment and may be used to define groups of patients in interventional trials.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study sought to discover and replicate plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to Alzheimer's disease (AD) including both the "ATN" (amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration) diagnostic framework and clinical diagnosis. METHODS: Plasma proteins from 972 subjects (372 controls, 409 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 191 AD) were measured using both SOMAscan and targeted assays, including 4001 and 25 proteins, respectively. RESULTS: Protein co-expression network analysis of SOMAscan data revealed the relation between proteins and "N" varied across different neurodegeneration markers, indicating that the ATN variants are not interchangeable. Using hub proteins, age, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype discriminated AD from controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 and MCI convertors from non-convertors with an AUC of 0.74. Targeted assays replicated the relation of four proteins with the ATN framework and clinical diagnosis. DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that blood proteins can predict the presence of AD pathology as measured in the ATN framework as well as clinical diagnosis.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of APOE-ε4 alleles is a major nonmodifiable risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). There is increasing evidence on the benefits of dietary DHA (22:6n-3) before the onset of AD symptoms, particularly in APOE-ε4 carriers. Brain alterations in the preclinical stage can be detected by structural MRI. OBJECTIVES: We aimed, in middle-aged cognitively unimpaired individuals at increased risk of AD, to cross-sectionally investigate whether dietary DHA intake relates to cognitive performance and to MRI-based markers of cerebral small vessel disease and AD-related neurodegeneration, exploring the effect modification by APOE-ε4 status. METHODS: In 340 participants of the ALFA (ALzheimer and FAmilies) study, which is enriched for APOE-ε4 carriership (n = 122, noncarriers; n = 157, 1 allele; n = 61, 2 alleles), we assessed self-reported DHA intake through an FFQ. We measured cognitive performance by administering episodic memory and executive function tests. We performed high-resolution structural MRI to assess cerebral small vessel disease [white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)] and AD-related brain atrophy (cortical thickness in an AD signature). We constructed regression models adjusted for potential confounders, exploring the interaction DHA × APOE-ε4. RESULTS: We observed no significant associations between DHA and cognitive performance or WMH burden. We observed a nonsignificant inverse association between DHA and prevalence of lobar CMBs (OR: 0.446; 95% CI: 0.195, 1.018; P = 0.055). DHA was found to be significantly related to greater cortical thickness in the AD signature in homozygotes but not in nonhomozygotes (P-interaction = 0.045). The association strengthened when analyzing homozygotes and nonhomozygotes matched for risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In cognitively unimpaired APOE-ε4 homozygotes, dietary DHA intake related to structural patterns that may result in greater resilience to AD pathology. This is consistent with the current hypothesis that those subjects at highest risk would obtain the largest benefits from DHA supplementation in the preclinical stage.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01835717.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine 30-year brain atrophy rates following clinically isolated syndromes and the relationship of atrophy in the first 5 years and clinical outcomes 25 years later. METHODS: A cohort of 132 people who presented with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) were recruited between 1984-1987. Clinical and MRI data were collected prospectively over 30 years. Widths of the third ventricle and the medulla oblongata were used as linear atrophy measures. RESULTS: At 30 years, 27 participants remained classified as having had a clinically isolated syndrome, 34 converted to relapsing remitting MS, 26 to secondary progressive MS and 16 had died due to MS. The mean age at baseline was 31.7 years (SD 7.5) and the mean disease duration was 30.8 years (SD 0.9). Change in medullary and third ventricular width within the first 5 years, allowing for white matter lesion accrual and Expanded Disability Status Scale increases over the same period, predicted clinical outcome measures at 30 years. 1 mm of medullary atrophy within the first 5 years increased the risk for secondary progressive MS or MS related death by 30 years by 583% (OR 5.83, 95% CI 1.74 to 19.61, p<0.005), using logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that brain regional atrophy within 5 years of a clinically isolated syndrome predicts progressive MS or a related death, and disability 25 years later.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain structural alterations and their clinical significance of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) have not been determined. METHODS: We recruited 35 MOGAD, 38 aquaporin 4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum diseases (AQP4+ NMOSD), 37 multiple sclerosis (MS) and 60 healthy controls (HC) who underwent multimodal brain MRI from two centres. Brain lesions, volumes of the whole brain parenchyma, cortical and subcortical grey matter (GM), brainstem, cerebellum and cerebral white matter (WM) and diffusion measures (fractional anisotropy, FA and mean diffusivity, MD) were compared among the groups. Associations between the MRI measurements and the clinical variables were assessed by partial correlations. Logistic regression was performed to differentiate MOGAD from AQP4+ NMOSD and MS. RESULTS: In MOGAD, 19 (54%) patients had lesions on MRI, with cortical/juxtacortical (68%) as the most common location. MOGAD and MS showed lower cortical and subcortical GM volumes than HC, while AQP4+ NMOSD only demonstrated a decreased cortical GM volume. MS demonstrated a lower cerebellar volume, a lower FA and an increased MD than MOGAD and HC. The subcortical GM volume was negatively correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale in MOGAD (R=-0.51; p=0.004). A combination of MRI and clinical measures could achieve an accuracy of 85% and 93% for the classification of MOGAD versus AQP4+ NMOSD and MOGAD versus MS, respectively. CONCLUSION: MOGAD demonstrated cortical and subcortical atrophy without severe WM rarefaction. The subcortical GM volume correlated with clinical disability and a combination of MRI and clinical measures could separate MOGAD from AQP4+ NMOSD and MS.

7.
Neurology ; 96(14): 647-648, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653896
8.
Neuroimage ; 234: 117953, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762215

RESUMO

Optimal pharmacokinetic models for quantifying amyloid beta (Aß) burden using both [18F]flutemetamol and [18F]florbetaben scans have previously been identified at a region of interest (ROI) level. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal quantitative methods for parametric analyses of [18F]flutemetamol and [18F]florbetaben scans. Forty-six participants were scanned on a PET/MR scanner using a dual-time window protocol and either [18F]flutemetamol (N=24) or [18F]florbetaben (N=22). The following parametric approaches were used to derive DVR estimates: reference Logan (RLogan), receptor parametric mapping (RPM), two-step simplified reference tissue model (SRTM2) and multilinear reference tissue models (MRTM0, MRTM1, MRTM2), all with cerebellar grey matter as reference tissue. In addition, a standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was calculated for the 90-110 min post injection interval. All parametric images were assessed visually. Regional outcome measures were compared with those from a validated ROI method, i.e. DVR derived using RLogan. Visually, RPM, and SRTM2 performed best across tracers and, in addition to SUVR, provided highest AUC values for differentiating between Aß-positive vs Aß-negative scans ([18F]flutemetamol: range AUC=0.96-0.97 [18F]florbetaben: range AUC=0.83-0.85). Outcome parameters of most methods were highly correlated with the reference method (R2≥0.87), while lowest correlation were observed for MRTM2 (R2=0.71-0.80). Furthermore, bias was low (≤5%) and independent of underlying amyloid burden for MRTM0 and MRTM1. The optimal parametric method differed per evaluated aspect; however, the best compromise across aspects was found for MRTM0 followed by SRTM2, for both tracers. SRTM2 is the preferred method for parametric imaging because, in addition to its good performance, it has the advantage of providing a measure of relative perfusion (R1), which is useful for measuring disease progression.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the sensitivity of visual read (VR) to detect early amyloid pathology and the overall utility of regional VR. METHODS: [18F]Flutemetamol PET images of 497 subjects (ALFA+ N = 352; ADC N = 145) were included. Scans were visually assessed according to product guidelines, recording the number of positive regions (0-5) and a final negative/positive classification. Scans were quantified using the standard and regional Centiloid (CL) method. The agreement between VR-based classification and published CL-based cut-offs for early (CL = 12) and established (CL = 30) pathology was determined. An optimal CL cut-off maximizing Youden's index was derived. Global and regional CL quantification was compared to VR. Finally, 28 post-mortem cases from the [18F]flutemetamol phase III trial were included to assess the percentage agreement between VR and neuropathological classification of neuritic plaque density. RESULTS: VR showed excellent agreement against CL = 12 (κ = .89, 95.2%) and CL = 30 (κ = .88, 95.4%) cut-offs. ROC analysis resulted in an optimal CL = 17 cut-off against VR (sensitivity = 97.9%, specificity = 97.8%). Each additional positive VR region corresponded to a clear increase in global CL. Regional VR was also associated with regional CL quantification. Compared to mCERADSOT-based classification (i.e., any region mCERADSOT > 1.5), VR was in agreement in 89.3% of cases, with 13 true negatives, 12 true positives, and 3 false positives (FP). Regional sparse-to-moderate neuritic and substantial diffuse Aß plaque was observed in all FP cases. Regional VR was also associated with regional plaque density. CONCLUSION: VR is an appropriate method for assessing early amyloid pathology and that grading the extent of visual amyloid positivity could present clinical value.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594474

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review how outcomes of clinical utility are operationalized in current amyloid-PET validation studies, to prepare for formal assessment of clinical utility of amyloid-PET-based diagnosis. METHODS: Systematic review of amyloid-PET research studies published up to April 2020 that included outcomes of clinical utility. We extracted and analyzed (a) outcome categories, (b) their definition, and (c) their methods of assessment. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were eligible. (a) Outcome categories were clinician-centered (found in 25/32 studies, 78%), patient-/caregiver-centered (in 9/32 studies, 28%), and health economics-centered (5/32, 16%). (b) Definition: Outcomes were mainly defined by clinical researchers; only the ABIDE study expressly included stakeholders in group discussions. Clinician-centered outcomes mainly consisted of incremental diagnostic value (25/32, 78%) and change in patient management (17/32, 53%); patient-/caregiver-centered outcomes considered distress after amyloid-pet-based diagnosis disclosure (8/32, 25%), including quantified burden of procedure for patients' outcomes (n = 8) (1/8, 12.5%), impact of disclosure of results (6/8, 75%), and psychological implications of biomarker-based diagnosis (75%); and health economics outcomes focused on costs to achieve a high-confidence etiological diagnosis (5/32, 16%) and impact on quality of life (1/32, 3%). (c) Assessment: all outcome categories were operationalized inconsistently across studies, employing 26 different tools without formal rationale for selection. CONCLUSION: Current studies validating amyloid-PET already assessed outcomes for clinical utility, although non-clinician-based outcomes were inconsistent. A wider participation of stakeholders may help produce a more thorough and systematic definition and assessment of outcomes of clinical utility and help collect evidence informing decisions on reimbursement of amyloid-PET.

11.
Radiology ; 299(1): 3-26, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620291

RESUMO

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) evolved from simple two-dimensional T2*-weighted sequences to three-dimensional sequences with improved spatial resolution and enhanced susceptibility contrast. SWI is an MRI sequence sensitive to compounds that distort the local magnetic field (eg, calcium and iron), in which the phase information can differentiate. But the term SWI is colloquially used to denote high-spatial-resolution susceptibility-enhanced sequences across different MRI vendors and sequences even when phase information is not used. The imaging appearance of SWI and related sequences strongly depends on the acquisition technique. Initially, SWI and related sequences were mostly used to improve the depiction of findings already known from standard two-dimensional T2*-weighted neuroimaging: more microbleeds in patients who are aging or with dementia or mild brain trauma; increased conspicuity of superficial siderosis in Alzheimer disease and amyloid angiopathy; and iron deposition in neurodegenerative diseases or abnormal vascular structures, such as capillary telangiectasia. But SWI also helps to identify findings not visible on standard T2*-weighted images: the nigrosome 1 in Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, the central vein and peripheral rim signs in multiple sclerosis, the peripheral rim sign in abscesses, arterial signal loss related to thrombus, asymmetrically prominent cortical veins in stroke, and intratumoral susceptibility signals in brain neoplasms.

12.
Neuroimage ; 232: 117821, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588030

RESUMO

Accurate regional brain quantitative PET measurements, particularly when using partial volume correction, rely on robust image registration between PET and MR images. We argue here that the precision, and hence the uncertainty, of MR-PET image registration is mainly driven by the registration implementation and the quality of PET images due to their lower resolution and higher noise compared to the structural MR images. We propose a dedicated uncertainty analysis for quantifying the precision of MR-PET registration, centred around the bootstrap resampling of PET list-mode events to generate multiple PET image realisations with different noise (count) levels. The effects of PET image reconstruction parameters, such as the use of attenuation and scatter corrections and different number of iterations, on the precision and accuracy of MR-PET registration were investigated. In addition, the performance of four software packages with their default settings for rigid inter-modality image registration were considered: NiftyReg, Vinci, FSL and SPM. Four distinct PET image distributions made of two early time frames (similar to cortical FDG) and two late frames using two amyloid PET dynamic acquisitions of one amyloid positive and one amyloid negative participants were investigated. For the investigated four PET frames, the biggest impact on the uncertainty was observed between registration software packages (up to 10-fold difference in precision) followed by the reconstruction parameters. On average, the lowest uncertainty for different PET frames and brain regions was observed with SPM and two iterations of fully quantitative image reconstruction. The observed uncertainty for the varying PET count-level (from 5% to 60%) was slightly lower than for the reconstruction parameters. We also observed that the registration uncertainty in quantitative PET analysis depends on amyloid status of the considered PET frames, with increased uncertainty (up to three times) when using post-reconstruction partial volume correction. This analysis is applicable for PET data obtained from either PET/MR or PET/CT scanners.

13.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 35, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood and may be associated with tau pathology. In this combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we aimed to investigate spatial associations between regional tau pathology ([18F]flortaucipir PET), synaptic density (synaptic vesicle 2A [11C]UCB-J PET) and synaptic function (MEG) in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Seven amyloid-positive Alzheimer's disease subjects from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort underwent dynamic 130-min [18F]flortaucipir PET, dynamic 60-min [11C]UCB-J PET with arterial sampling and 2 × 5-min resting-state MEG measurement. [18F]flortaucipir- and [11C]UCB-J-specific binding (binding potential, BPND) and MEG spectral measures (relative delta, theta and alpha power; broadband power; and peak frequency) were assessed in cortical brain regions of interest. Associations between regional [18F]flortaucipir BPND, [11C]UCB-J BPND and MEG spectral measures were assessed using Spearman correlations and generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Across subjects, higher regional [18F]flortaucipir uptake was associated with lower [11C]UCB-J uptake. Within subjects, the association between [11C]UCB-J and [18F]flortaucipir depended on within-subject neocortical tau load; negative associations were observed when neocortical tau load was high, gradually changing into opposite patterns with decreasing neocortical tau burden. Both higher [18F]flortaucipir and lower [11C]UCB-J uptake were associated with altered synaptic function, indicative of slowing of oscillatory activity, most pronounced in the occipital lobe. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in Alzheimer's disease, tau pathology is closely associated with reduced synaptic density and synaptic dysfunction.

14.
Neurology ; 96(11): e1561-e1573, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gay matter (GM) involvement is clinically relevant in multiple sclerosis (MS). Using source-based morphometry (SBM), we characterized GM atrophy and its 1-year evolution across different MS phenotypes. METHODS: Clinical and MRI data were obtained at 8 European sites from 170 healthy controls (HCs) and 398 patients with MS (34 with clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 226 with relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 95 with secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 43 with primary progressive MS [PPMS]). Fifty-seven HCs and 144 with MS underwent 1-year follow-up. Baseline GM loss, atrophy progression, and correlations with disability and 1-year clinical worsening were assessed. RESULTS: SBM identified 26 cerebellar, subcortical, sensory, motor, and cognitive GM components. GM atrophy was found in patients with MS vs HCs in almost all components (p range <0.001-0.04). Compared to HCs, patients with CIS showed circumscribed subcortical, cerebellar, temporal, and salience GM atrophy, while patients with RRMS exhibited widespread GM atrophy. Cerebellar, subcortical, sensorimotor, salience, and frontoparietal GM atrophy was found in patients with PPMS vs HCs and in patients with SPMS vs those with RRMS. At 1 year, 21 (15%) patients had clinically worsened. GM atrophy progressed in MS in subcortical, cerebellar, sensorimotor, and fronto-temporo-parietal components. Baseline higher disability was associated (R 2 = 0.65) with baseline lower normalized brain volume (ß = -0.13, p = 0.001), greater sensorimotor GM atrophy (ß = -0.12, p = 0.002), and longer disease duration (ß = 0.09, p = 0.04). Baseline normalized GM volume (odds ratio 0.98, p = 0.008) and cerebellar GM atrophy (odds ratio 0.40, p = 0.01) independently predicted clinical worsening (area under the curve 0.83). CONCLUSION: GM atrophy differed across disease phenotypes and progressed at 1 year in MS. In addition to global atrophy measures, sensorimotor and cerebellar GM atrophy explained baseline disability and clinical worsening.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
15.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 17(3): 173-184, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437067

RESUMO

MRI studies have provided valuable insights into the structure and function of neural networks, particularly in health and in classical neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer disease. However, such work is also highly relevant in other diseases of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In this Review, we consider the effects of MS pathology on brain networks, as assessed using MRI, and how these changes to brain networks translate into clinical impairments. We also discuss how this knowledge can inform the targeting of MS treatments and the potential future directions for research in this area. Studying MS is challenging as its pathology involves neurodegenerative and focal inflammatory elements, both of which could disrupt neural networks. The disruption of white matter tracts in MS is reflected in changes in network efficiency, an increasingly random grey matter network topology, relative cortical disconnection, and both increases and decreases in connectivity centred around hubs such as the thalamus and the default mode network. The results of initial longitudinal studies suggest that these changes evolve rather than simply increase over time and are linked with clinical features. Studies have also identified a potential role for treatments that functionally modify neural networks as opposed to altering their structure.

16.
Radiology ; 298(3): 517-530, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464184

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of dementia worldwide places a high demand on healthcare providers to perform a diagnostic work-up in relatively early stages of the disease, given that the pathologic process usually begins decades before symptoms are evident. Structural imaging is recommended to rule out other disorders and can only provide diagnosis in a late stage with limited specificity. Where PET imaging previously focused on the spatial pattern of hypometabolism, the past decade has seen the development of novel tracers to demonstrate characteristic protein abnormalities. Molecular imaging using PET/SPECT is able to show amyloid and tau deposition in Alzheimer disease and dopamine depletion in parkinsonian disorders starting decades before symptom onset. Novel tracers for neuroinflammation and synaptic density are being developed to further unravel the molecular pathologic characteristics of dementia disorders. In this article, the authors review the current status of established and emerging PET tracers in a diagnostic setting and also their value as prognostic markers in research studies and outcome measures for clinical trials in Alzheimer disease.

17.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(2): 348-358, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition and markers of brain structure on cognitive decline in oldest-old individuals with initial normal cognition. METHODS: We studied cognitive functioning in four domains at baseline and change over time in fifty-seven cognitively intact individuals from the EMIF-AD 90+ study. Predictors were Aß status determined by [18 F]-flutemetamol PET (normal = Aß - vs. abnormal = Aß+), cortical thickness in 34 regions and hippocampal volume. Mediation analyses were performed to test whether effects of Aß on cognitive decline were mediated by atrophy of specific anatomical brain areas. RESULTS: Subjects had a mean age of 92.7 ± 2.9 years, of whom 19 (33%) were Aß+. Compared to Aß-, Aß+ individuals showed steeper decline on memory (ß ± SE = -0.26 ± 0.09), and processing speed (ß ± SE = -0.18 ± 0.08) performance over 1.5 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, medial and lateral temporal lobe atrophy was associated with steeper decline in memory and language across individuals. Mediation analyses revealed that part of the memory decline observed in Aß+ individuals was mediated through parahippocampal atrophy. INTERPRETATION: These results show that Aß abnormality even in the oldest old with initially normal cognition is not part of normal aging, but is associated with a decline in cognitive functioning. Other pathologies may also contribute to decline in the oldest old as cortical thickness predicted cognitive decline similarly in individuals with and without Aß pathology.

18.
Neuroimage Clin ; 29: 102549, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Thalamus atrophy has been linked to cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis (MS) using various segmentation methods. We investigated the consistency of the association between thalamus volume and cognition in MS for two common automated segmentation approaches, as well as fully manual outlining. METHODS: Standardized neuropsychological assessment and 3-Tesla 3D-T1-weighted brain MRI were collected (multi-center) from 57 MS patients and 17 healthy controls. Thalamus segmentations were generated manually and using five automated methods. Agreement between the algorithms and manual outlines was assessed with Bland-Altman plots; linear regression assessed the presence of proportional bias. The effect of segmentation method on the separation of cognitively impaired (CI) and preserved (CP) patients was investigated through Generalized Estimating Equations; associations with cognitive measures were investigated using linear mixed models, for each method and vendor. RESULTS: In smaller thalami, automated methods systematically overestimated volumes compared to manual segmentations [ρ=(-0.42)-(-0.76); p-values < 0.001). All methods significantly distinguished CI from CP MS patients, except manual outlines of the left thalamus (p = 0.23). Poorer global neuropsychological test performance was significantly associated with smaller thalamus volumes bilaterally using all methods. Vendor significantly affected the findings. CONCLUSION: Automated and manual thalamus segmentation consistently demonstrated an association between thalamus atrophy and cognitive impairment in MS. However, a proportional bias in smaller thalami and choice of MRI acquisition system might impact the effect size of these findings.

19.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subtyping relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients may help predict disease progression and triage patients for treatment. We aimed to subtype RRMS patients by structural MRI and investigate their clinical significances. METHODS: 155 relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) and 210 healthy controls (HC) were retrospectively enrolled with structural 3DT1, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI. Z scores of cortical and deep gray matter volumes (CGMV and DGMV) and white matter fractional anisotropy (WM-FA) in RRMS patients were calculated based on means and standard deviations of HC. We defined RRMS as "normal" (- 2 < z scores of both GMV and WM-FA), DGM (z scores of DGMV < - 2), and DGM-plus types (z scores of DGMV and [CGMV or WM-FA] < - 2) according to combinations of z scores compared to HC. Expanded disability status scale (EDSS), cognitive and functional MRI measurements, and conversion rate to secondary progressive MS (SPMS) at 5-year follow-up were compared between subtypes. RESULTS: 77 (49.7%) patients were "normal" type, 37 (23.9%) patients were DGM type and 34 (21.9%) patients were DGM-plus type. 7 (4.5%) patients who were not categorized into the above types were excluded. DGM-plus type had the highest EDSS. Both DGM and DGM-plus types had more severe cognitive impairment than "normal" type. Only DGM-plus type showed decreased functional MRI measures compared to HC. A higher conversion ratio to SPMS in DGM-plus type (55%) was identified compared to "normal" type (14%, p < 0.001) and DGM type (20%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Three MRI-subtypes of RRMS were identified with distinct clinical and imaging features and different prognosis.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1195-1201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right temporal variant frontotemporal dementia (rtvFTD) has been generally considered as a right sided variant of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), which is a genetically sporadic disorder. Recently, we have shown that rtvFTD has a unique clinical syndrome compared to svPPA and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. OBJECTIVE: We challenge the assumption that rtvFTD is a sporadic, non-familial variant of FTD by identifying potential autosomal dominant inheritance and related genes in rtvFTD. METHODS: We collected all subjects with a diagnosis of FTD or primary progressive aphasia who had undergone genetic screening (n = 284) and subsequently who had a genetic variant (n = 48) with a diagnosis of rtvFTD (n = 6) in 2 specialized memory clinics. RESULTS: Genetic variants in FTD related genes were found in 33% of genetically screened rtvFTD cases; including MAPT (n = 4), GRN (n = 1), and TARDBP (n = 1) genes, whereas only one svPPA case had a genetic variant in our combined cohorts. Additionally, 4 out of 6 rtvFTD subjects had a strong family history for dementia. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that rtvFTD, unlike svPPA, is not a pure sporadic, but a heterogeneous potential genetic variant of FTD, and screening for genetic causes for FTD should be performed in patients with rtvFTD.

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