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1.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Decisions in glioblastoma surgery are often guided by presumed eloquence of the tumor location. The authors introduce the "expected residual tumor volume" (eRV) and the "expected resectability index" (eRI) based on previous decisions aggregated in resection probability maps. The diagnostic accuracy of eRV and eRI to predict biopsy decisions, resectability, functional outcome, and survival was determined. METHODS: Consecutive patients with first-time glioblastoma surgery in 2012-2013 were included from 12 hospitals. The eRV was calculated from the preoperative MR images of each patient using a resection probability map, and the eRI was derived from the tumor volume. As reference, Sawaya's tumor location eloquence grades (EGs) were classified. Resectability was measured as observed extent of resection (EOR) and residual volume, and functional outcome as change in Karnofsky Performance Scale score. Receiver operating characteristic curves and multivariable logistic regression were applied. RESULTS: Of 915 patients, 674 (74%) underwent a resection with a median EOR of 97%, functional improvement in 71 (8%), functional decline in 78 (9%), and median survival of 12.8 months. The eRI and eRV identified biopsies and EORs of at least 80%, 90%, or 98% better than EG. The eRV and eRI predicted observed residual volumes under 10, 5, and 1 ml better than EG. The eRV, eRI, and EG had low diagnostic accuracy for functional outcome changes. Higher eRV and lower eRI were strongly associated with shorter survival, independent of known prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: The eRV and eRI predict biopsy decisions, resectability, and survival better than eloquence grading and may be useful preoperative indices to support surgical decisions.

3.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 891988720901783, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apathy symptoms are defined as a lack of interest and motivation. Patients with late-life depression (LLD) also suffer from lack of interest and motivation and previous studies have linked apathy to vascular white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of the brain in depressed and nondepressed patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apathy symptoms, depressive symptoms, and WMH in LLD. We hypothesize that late-onset depression (LOD; first episode of depression after 55 years of age) is associated with WMH and apathy symptoms. METHODS: Apathy scores were collected for 87 inpatients diagnosed with LLD. Eighty patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Associations between depressive and apathy symptoms and WMH were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: All 3 subdomains of the 10-item Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale correlated significantly with the apathy scale score (all P < .05). In the total sample, apathy nor depressive symptoms were related to specific WMH. In LOD only, periventricular WMH were associated with depression severity (ß = 5.21, P = .04), while WMH in the left infratentorial region were associated with apathy symptoms (ß coefficient = 5.89, P = .03). CONCLUSION: Apathy and depressive symptoms are highly overlapping in the current cohort of older patients with severe LLD, leading to the hypothesis that apathy symptoms are part of depressive symptoms in the symptom profile of older patients with severe LLD. Neither apathy nor depressive symptoms were related to WMH, suggesting that radiological markers of cerebrovascular disease, such as WMH, may not be useful in predicting these symptoms in severe LLD.

4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 89: 55-62, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029236

RESUMO

Amyloid and tau pathological accumulation should be considered for Alzheimer's disease (AD) definition and before subjects' enrollment in disease-modifying trials. Although age, APOEε4, and sex influence cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels, none of these variables are considered by current normality/abnormality cutoffs. Using baseline CSF data from 2 independent cohorts (PharmaCOG/European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), we investigated the effect of age, APOEε4 status, and sex on CSF Aß42/P-tau distribution and cutoff extraction by applying mixture models with covariates. The Aß42/P-tau distribution revealed the presence of 3 subgroups (AD-like, intermediate, control-like) and 2 cutoffs. The identification of the intermediate subgroup and of the higher cutoff was APOEε4 dependent in both cohorts. APOE-specific classification (higher cutoff for APOEε4+, lower cutoff for APOEε4-) showed higher diagnostic accuracy in identifying MCI due to AD compared to single Aß42 and Aß42/P-tau cutoffs. APOEε4 influences amyloid and tau CSF markers and AD progression in MCI patients supporting i) the use of APOE-specific cutoffs to identify MCI due to AD and ii) the utility of considering APOE genotype for early AD diagnosis.

5.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine clinical characteristics, cognitive decline, and predictors for time to dementia in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-LB) compared with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD). METHODS: We included 73 MCI-LB patients (12% female; 68 ± 6 years; Mini Mental State Examination, 27 ± 2) and 124 MCI-AD patients (48% female; 68 ± 7 years; Mini Mental State Examination, 27 ± 2) from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Follow-up was available for 61 MCI-LB patients and all MCI-AD patients (3 ± 2 years). We evaluated dementia with Lewy bodies core features, neuropsychiatric symptoms, caregiver burden (Zarit caregiver burden interview), MRI, apolipoprotein genotype, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (tau/Aß1-42 ratio). Longitudinal outcome measures included cognitive slopes (memory, attention, executive functions, and language and visuospatial functions) and time to dementia. RESULTS: Parkinsonism was the most frequently present core feature in MCI-LB (69%). MCI-LB patients more often had neuropsychiatric symptoms and scored higher on ZARIT when compared with the MCI-AD patients. Linear mixed models showed that at baseline, MCI-LB patients performed worse on nonmemory cognitive domains, whereas memory performance was worse in MCI-AD patients. Over time, MCI-LB patients declined faster on attention, whereas MCI-AD patients declined faster on the Mini Mental State Examination and memory. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that in the MCI-LB patients, lower attention (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.3) and more posterior cortical atrophy (HR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.8) predicted shorter time to dementia. In the MCI-AD patients, worse performance on memory (HR = 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2) and executive functions (HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6) were independently associated with time to Alzheimer's dementia. CONCLUSION: MCI-LB patients have distinct neuropsychiatric and cognitive profiles with prominent decline in attention when compared with MCI-AD patients. Our results highlight the importance of early diagnosis because symptoms already have an impact in the prodromal stages. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 16(3): 171-182, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094485

RESUMO

Early evaluation of treatment response and prediction of disease evolution are key issues in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). In the past 20 years, MRI has become the most useful paraclinical tool in both situations and is used clinically to assess the inflammatory component of the disease, particularly the presence and evolution of focal lesions - the pathological hallmark of MS. However, diffuse neurodegenerative processes that are at least partly independent of inflammatory mechanisms can develop early in people with MS and are closely related to disability. The effects of these neurodegenerative processes at a macroscopic level can be quantified by estimation of brain and spinal cord atrophy with MRI. MRI measurements of atrophy in MS have also been proposed as a complementary approach to lesion assessment to facilitate the prediction of clinical outcomes and to assess treatment responses. In this Consensus statement, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS (MAGNIMS) study group critically review the application of brain and spinal cord atrophy in clinical practice in the management of MS, considering the role of atrophy measures in prognosis and treatment monitoring and the barriers to clinical use of these measures. On the basis of this review, the group makes consensus statements and recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Consenso , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Medula Espinal/patologia
8.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(4): 388-391, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if vascular risk factor (VRF), that is, smoking, arterial hypertension (HT), dyslipidaemia and diabetes, have an effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology as measured by MS typical brain lesions, we have compared brain MRIs from patients with MS with and without VRF age-matched and sex-matched. METHODS: Brain MRIs from five centres were scored for the presence of Dawson's fingers (DF) and juxtacortical lesions (JCL). A regression model was built to predict the effect of each individual VRF on DF and JCL, considering age and disease duration. RESULTS: 92 MS cases without VRF and 106 MS with one or more VRF (80 ever-smokers, 43 hypertensives, 25 dyslipidaemics and 10 diabetics) were included. Ever-smoking associated with a higher burden of DF (Exp(B)=1.29, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.51, p<0.01) and JCL (Exp(B)=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57, p<0.01). No other VRF had an impact on DF. Dyslipidaemia associated with increased JCL (Exp(B)=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.56, p<0.01) but HT did not associate with any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Individual VRF appear to affect MS-specific lesions differently. An increase in MS lesions was mainly seen in smokers; however, this VRF is most likely to be present from onset of MS, and other VRF effects may be partly mitigated by treatment. Our findings support that treating VRF and cessation of smoking may be important in the management of MS.

9.
Neuroradiology ; 62(3): 283-300, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Miliary enhancement refers to the presence of multiple small, monomorphic, enhancing foci on T1-weighted post-contrast MRI images. In the absence of a clear clinical presentation, a broad differential diagnosis may result in invasive procedures and possibly brain biopsy for diagnostic purposes. METHODS: An extensive review of the literature is provided for diseases that may present with miliary enhancement on T1-weighted brain MR images. Additional disease-specific findings, both clinical and radiological, are summarized and categorized by the presence or absence of perivascular space involvement. RESULTS: Miliary pattern of enhancement may be due to a variety of underlying causes, including inflammatory, infectious, nutritional or neoplastic processes. The recognition of disease spread along the perivascular spaces in addition to the detection or exclusion of disease-specific features on MRI images, such as leptomeningeal enhancement, presence of haemorrhagic lesions, spinal cord involvement and specific localisation or systemic involvement, allows to narrow the potential differential diagnoses. CONCLUSION: A systematic approach to disease-specific findings from both clinical and radiological perspectives might facilitate diagnostic work-up, and recognition of disease spread along the perivascular spaces may help narrowing down differential diagnoses and may help to minimize the use of invasive diagnostic procedures.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An accurate and timely diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important, both for care and research. The current diagnostic criteria allow the use of CSF biomarkers to provide pathophysiological support for the diagnosis of AD. How these criteria should be operationalized by clinicians is unclear. Tools that guide in selecting patients in which CSF biomarkers have clinical utility are needed. We evaluated computerized decision support to select patients for CSF biomarker determination. METHODS: We included 535 subjects (139 controls, 286 Alzheimer's disease dementia, 82 frontotemporal dementia and 28 vascular dementia) from three clinical cohorts. Positive (AD like) and negative (normal) CSF biomarker profiles were simulated to estimate whether knowledge of CSF biomarkers would impact (confidence in) diagnosis. We applied these simulated CSF values and combined them with demographic, neuropsychology and MRI data to initiate CSF testing (computerized decision support approach). We compared proportion of CSF measurements and patients diagnosed with sufficient confidence (probability of correct class ≥0.80) based on an algorithm with scenarios without CSF (only neuropsychology, MRI and APOE), CSF according to the appropriate use criteria (AUC) and CSF for all patients. RESULTS: The computerized decision support approach recommended CSF testing in 140 (26%) patients, which yielded a diagnosis with sufficient confidence in 379 (71%) of all patients. This approach was more efficient than CSF in none (0% CSF, 308 (58%) diagnosed), CSF selected based on AUC (295 (55%) CSF, 350 (65%) diagnosed) or CSF in all (100% CSF, 348 (65%) diagnosed). CONCLUSIONS: We used a computerized decision support with simulated CSF results in controls and patients with different types of dementia. This approach can support clinicians in making a balanced decision in ordering additional biomarker testing. Computer-supported prediction restricts CSF testing to only 26% of cases, without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

11.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(3): 214-225, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration is the pathological substrate that causes major disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A synthesis of preclinical and clinical research identified three neuroprotective drugs acting on different axonal pathobiologies. We aimed to test the efficacy of these drugs in an efficient manner with respect to time, cost, and patient resource. METHODS: We did a phase 2b, multiarm, parallel group, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial at 13 clinical neuroscience centres in the UK. We recruited patients (aged 25-65 years) with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis who were not on disease-modifying treatment and who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 4·0-6·5. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) at baseline, by a research nurse using a centralised web-based service, to receive twice-daily oral treatment of either amiloride 5 mg, fluoxetine 20 mg, riluzole 50 mg, or placebo for 96 weeks. The randomisation procedure included minimisation based on sex, age, EDSS score at randomisation, and trial site. Capsules were identical in appearance to achieve masking. Patients, investigators, and MRI readers were unaware of treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was volumetric MRI percentage brain volume change (PBVC) from baseline to 96 weeks, analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for baseline normalised brain volume and minimisation criteria. The primary analysis was a complete-case analysis based on the intention-to-treat population (all patients with data at week 96). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01910259. FINDINGS: Between Jan 29, 2015, and June 22, 2016, 445 patients were randomly allocated amiloride (n=111), fluoxetine (n=111), riluzole (n=111), or placebo (n=112). The primary analysis included 393 patients who were allocated amiloride (n=99), fluoxetine (n=96), riluzole (n=99), and placebo (n=99). No difference was noted between any active treatment and placebo in PBVC (amiloride vs placebo, 0·0% [95% CI -0·4 to 0·5; p=0·99]; fluoxetine vs placebo -0·1% [-0·5 to 0·3; p=0·86]; riluzole vs placebo -0·1% [-0·6 to 0·3; p=0·77]). No emergent safety issues were reported. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and similar across study groups (ten [9%] patients in the amiloride group, seven [6%] in the fluoxetine group, 12 [11%] in the riluzole group, and 13 [12%] in the placebo group). The most common serious adverse events were infections and infestations. Three patients died during the study, from causes judged unrelated to active treatment; one patient assigned amiloride died from metastatic lung cancer, one patient assigned riluzole died from ischaemic heart disease and coronary artery thrombosis, and one patient assigned fluoxetine had a sudden death (primary cause) with multiple sclerosis and obesity listed as secondary causes. INTERPRETATION: The absence of evidence for neuroprotection in this adequately powered trial indicates that exclusively targeting these aspects of axonal pathobiology in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is insufficient to mitigate neuroaxonal loss. These findings argue for investigation of different mechanistic targets and future consideration of combination treatment trials. This trial provides a template for future simultaneous testing of multiple disease-modifying medicines in neurological medicine. FUNDING: Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme, an MRC and NIHR partnership, UK Multiple Sclerosis Society, and US National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

12.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 10, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, no symptomatic treatment is available for patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). In the proof-of-principle study Symptomatic Treatment of Vascular Cognitive Impairment (STREAM-VCI), we investigated whether a single dose of a monoaminergic drug (methylphenidate) improves executive functioning and whether a single dose of a cholinergic drug (galantamine) improves memory in VCI patients. METHODS: STREAM-VCI is a single-center, double-blind, three-way crossover trial. We included 30 VCI patients (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥ 16 and Clinical Dementia Rating score 0.5-1.0) with cerebrovascular pathology on MRI. All patients received single doses of methylphenidate (10 mg), galantamine (16 mg), and placebo in random order on three separate study visits. We used the NeuroCart®, a computerized test battery, to assess drug-sensitive cognitive effects. Predefined main outcomes, measured directly after a single dose of a study drug, were (i) change in performance on the adaptive tracker for executive functioning and (ii) performance on the Visual Verbal Learning Test-15 (VVLT-15) for memory, compared to placebo. We performed mixed model analysis of variance. RESULTS: The study population had a mean age of 67 ± 8 years and MMSE 26 ± 3, and 9 (30%) were female. Methylphenidate improved performance on the adaptive tracker more than placebo (mean difference 1.40%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-2.25; p = 0.002). In addition, methylphenidate led to better memory performance on the VVLT-15 compared to placebo (mean difference in recalled words 0.59; 95% CI 0.03-1.15; p = 0.04). Galantamine did not improve performance on the adaptive tracker and led to worse performance on delayed recall of the VVLT-15 (mean difference - 0.84; 95% CI - 1.65, - 0.03; p = 0.04). Methylphenidate was well tolerated while galantamine produced gastrointestinal side effects in a considerable number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-principle study, methylphenidate is well tolerated and improves executive functioning and immediate recall in patients with VCI. Galantamine did not improve memory or executive dysfunction. Results might be influenced by the considerable amount of side effects seen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Registration number: NCT02098824. Registration date: March 28, 2014.

13.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519900971, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathology in the spinal cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) contributes to disability progression. We previously reported abnormal Q-space imaging (QSI)-derived indices in the spinal cord at baseline in patients with early PPMS, suggesting early neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether changes in spinal cord QSI over 3 years in the same cohort are associated with disability progression and if baseline QSI metrics predict clinical outcome. METHODS: Twenty-three PPMS patients and 23 healthy controls recruited at baseline were invited for follow-up cervical cord 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical assessment after 1 year and 3 years. Cord cross-sectional area (CSA) and QSI measures were obtained, together with standard brain MRI measures. Mixed-effect models assessed MRI changes over time and their association with clinical changes. Linear regression identified baseline MRI indices associated with disability at 3 years. RESULTS: Over time, patients deteriorated clinically and showed an increase in cord QSI indices of perpendicular diffusivity that was associated with disability worsening, independently of the decrease in CSA. Higher perpendicular diffusivity and lower CSA at baseline predicted worse disability at 3 years. CONCLUSION: Increasing spinal cord perpendicular diffusivity may indicate ongoing neurodegeneration, which underpins disability progression in PPMS, independently of the development of spinal cord atrophy.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(1): 213-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985466

RESUMO

We have previously investigated, discovered, and replicated plasma protein biomarkers for use to triage potential trials participants for PET or cerebrospinal fluid measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This study sought to undertake validation of these candidate plasma biomarkers in a large, multi-center sample collection. Targeted plasma analyses of 34 proteins with prior evidence for prediction of in vivo pathology were conducted in up to 1,000 samples from cognitively healthy elderly individuals, people with mild cognitive impairment, and in patients with AD-type dementia, selected from the EMIF-AD catalogue. Proteins were measured using Luminex xMAP, ELISA, and Meso Scale Discovery assays. Seven proteins replicated in their ability to predict in vivo amyloid pathology. These proteins form a biomarker panel that, along with age, could significantly discriminate between individuals with high and low amyloid pathology with an area under the curve of 0.74. The performance of this biomarker panel remained consistent when tested in apolipoprotein E ɛ4 non-carrier individuals only. This blood-based panel is biologically relevant, measurable using practical immunocapture arrays, and could significantly reduce the cost incurred to clinical trials through screen failure.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(2): 559-569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyloid-ß positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aß42 are considered interchangeable for clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical reasoning for requesting additional amyloid-ß PET after performing CSF biomarkers. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 72 memory clinic patients who underwent amyloid-ß PET after CSF biomarkers analysis for clinical diagnostic evaluation between 2011 and 2019. We performed patient chart reviews to identify factors which led to additional amyloid-ß PET. Additionally, we assessed accordance with appropriate-use-criteria (AUC) for amyloid-ß PET. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 62.0 (SD = 8.1) and mean Mini-Mental State Exam score was 23.6 (SD = 3.8). CSF analysis conflicting with the clinical diagnosis was the most frequent reason for requesting an amyloid-ß PET scan (n = 53, 74%), followed by incongruent MRI (n = 16, 22%), unusual clinical presentation (n = 11, 15%) and young age (n = 8, 11%). An amyloid-ß PET scan was rarely (n = 5, 7%) requested in patients with a CSF Aß+/tau+ status. Fifteen (47%) patients with a post-PET diagnosis of AD had a predominantly non-amnestic presentation. In n = 11 (15%) cases, the reason that the clinician requested amyloid-ß was not covered by AUC. This happened most often (n = 7) when previous CSF analysis did not support current clinical diagnosis, which led to requesting amyloid-ß PET. CONCLUSION: In this single-center study, the main reason for requesting an amyloid-ß PET scan after performing CSF biomarkers was the occurrence of a mismatch between the primary clinical diagnosis and CSF Aß/tau results.

16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(2): 354-364, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786129

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, the clinical relevance of comorbid amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology in patients with vascular cognitive disorders (VCD) is largely unknown. METHODS: We included 218 VCD patients with available cerebrospinal fluid Aß42 levels. Patients were divided into Aß+ mild-VCD (n = 84), Aß- mild-VCD (n = 68), Aß+ major-VCD (n = 31), and Aß- major-VCD (n = 35). We measured depression with the Geriatric Depression Scale, cognition with a neuropsychological test battery and derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and gray matter atrophy from MRI. RESULTS: Aß- patients showed more depressive symptoms than Aß+. In the major-VCD group, Aß- patients performed worse on attention (P = .02) and executive functioning (P = .008) than Aß+. We found no cognitive differences in patients with mild VCD. In the mild-VCD group, Aß- patients had more WMH than Aß+ patients, whereas conversely, in the major-VCD group, Aß+ patients had more WMH. Atrophy patterns did not differ between Aß+ and Aß- VCD group. DISCUSSION: Comorbid Aß pathology affects the manifestation of VCD, but effects differ by severity of VCD.

17.
Stroke ; 51(1): 170-178, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699021

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Cerebral small vessel disease is characterized by a wide range of focal and global brain changes. We used a magnetic resonance imaging segmentation tool to quantify multiple types of small vessel disease-related brain changes and examined their individual and combined predictive value on cognitive and functional abilities. Methods- Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 560 older individuals from LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study) were analyzed using automated atlas- and convolutional neural network-based segmentation methods yielding volumetric measures of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, chronic cortical infarcts, and global and regional brain atrophy. The subjects were followed up with annual neuropsychological examinations for 3 years and evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living for 7 years. Results- The strongest predictors of cognitive performance and functional outcome over time were the total volumes of white matter hyperintensities, gray matter, and hippocampi (P<0.001 for global cognitive function, processing speed, executive functions, and memory and P<0.001 for poor functional outcome). Volumes of lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cortical infarcts were significantly associated with part of the outcome measures, but their contribution was weaker. In a multivariable linear mixed model, volumes of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, gray matter, and hippocampi remained as independent predictors of cognitive impairment. A combined measure of these markers based on Z scores strongly predicted cognitive and functional outcomes (P<0.001) even above the contribution of the individual brain changes. Conclusions- Global burden of small vessel disease-related brain changes as quantified by an image segmentation tool is a powerful predictor of long-term cognitive decline and functional disability. A combined measure of white matter hyperintensities, lacunar, gray matter, and hippocampal volumes could be used as an imaging marker associated with vascular cognitive impairment.

18.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(2): 379-389, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705174

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The novel PET tracer [11C]SMW139 binds with high affinity to the P2X7 receptor, which is expressed on pro-inflammatory microglia. The purposes of this first in-man study were to characterise pharmacokinetics of [11C]SMW139 in patients with active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC) and to evaluate its potential to identify in vivo neuroinflammation in RRMS. METHODS: Five RRMS patients and 5 age-matched HC underwent 90-min dynamic [11C]SMW139 PET scans, with online continuous and manual arterial sampling to generate a metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. Tissue time activity curves were fitted to single- and two-tissue compartment models, and the model that provided the best fits was determined using the Akaike information criterion. RESULTS: The optimal model for describing [11C]SMW139 kinetics in both RRMS and HC was a reversible two-tissue compartment model with blood volume parameter and with the dissociation rate k4 fixed to the whole-brain value. Exploratory group level comparisons demonstrated an increased volume of distribution (VT) and binding potential (BPND) in RRMS compared with HC in normal appearing brain regions. BPND in MS lesions was decreased compared with non-lesional white matter, and a further decrease was observed in gadolinium-enhancing lesions. In contrast, increased VT was observed in enhancing lesions, possibly resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier in active MS lesions. In addition, there was a high correlation between parameters obtained from 60- to 90-min datasets, although analyses using 60-min data led to a slight underestimation in regional VT and BPND values. CONCLUSIONS: This first in-man study demonstrated that uptake of [11C]SMW139 can be quantified with PET using BPND as a measure for specific binding in healthy controls and RRMS patients. Additional studies are warranted for further clinical evaluation of this novel neuroinflammation tracer.

19.
Epilepsia ; 61(2): 297-309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy, and its accurate detection is important to guide epilepsy surgery. Radiological features of HS include hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal, which can both be quantified to help improve detection. In this work, we extend these quantitative methods to generate cross-sectional area and T2 profiles along the hippocampal long axis to improve the localization of hippocampal abnormalities. METHODS: T1-weighted and T2 relaxometry data from 69 HS patients (32 left, 32 right, 5 bilateral) and 111 healthy controls were acquired on a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Automated hippocampal segmentation and T2 relaxometry were performed and used to calculate whole-hippocampal volumes and to estimate quantitative T2 (qT2) values. By generating a group template from the controls, and aligning this so that the hippocampal long axes were along the anterior-posterior axis, we were able to calculate hippocampal cross-sectional area and qT2 by a slicewise method to localize any volume loss or T2 hyperintensity. Individual patient profiles were compared with normative data generated from the healthy controls. RESULTS: Profiling of hippocampal volumetric and qT2 data could be performed automatically and reproducibly. HS patients commonly showed widespread decreases in volume and increases in T2 along the length of the affected hippocampus, and focal changes may also be identified. Patterns of atrophy and T2 increase in the left hippocampus were similar between left, right, and bilateral HS. These profiles have potential to distinguish between sclerosis affecting volume and qT2 in the whole or parts of the hippocampus, and may aid the radiological diagnosis in uncertain cases or cases with subtle or focal abnormalities where standard whole-hippocampal measurements yield normal values. SIGNIFICANCE: Hippocampal profiling of volumetry and qT2 values can help spatially localize hippocampal MRI abnormalities and work toward improved sensitivity of subtle focal lesions.

20.
Neuroimage ; 209: 116489, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877375

RESUMO

Spinal cord atrophy measurements obtained from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with disability in many neurological diseases and serve as in vivo biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Longitudinal spinal cord atrophy rate is commonly determined from the numerical difference between two volumes (based on 3D surface fitting) or two cross-sectional areas (CSA, based on 2D edge detection) obtained at different time-points. Being an indirect measure, atrophy rates are susceptible to variable segmentation errors at the edge of the spinal cord. To overcome those limitations, we developed a new registration-based pipeline that measures atrophy rates directly. We based our approach on the generalised boundary shift integral (GBSI) method, which registers 2 scans and uses a probabilistic XOR mask over the edge of the spinal cord, thereby measuring atrophy more accurately than segmentation-based techniques. Using a large cohort of longitudinal spinal cord images (610 subjects with multiple sclerosis from a multi-centre trial and 52 healthy controls), we demonstrated that GBSI is a sensitive, quantitative and objective measure of longitudinal spinal cord volume change. The GBSI pipeline is repeatable, reproducible, and provides more precise measurements of longitudinal spinal cord atrophy than segmentation-based methods in longitudinal spinal cord atrophy studies.

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