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1.
Int J Impot Res ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846587

RESUMO

Literature concerning corporotomy location in multicomponent inflatable penile prosthetic surgery via a penoscrotal approach is scarce if not nonexistent. Aim of our study was to report practices in low-, moderate-, and high-volume penile implant centers regarding corporotomy location and evaluate its potential impact on intraoperative and short-term postoperative complications. Data from 18 (13 European and 5 American) implant centers were collected retrospectively between September 1st, 2018 and August 31st, 2019. Variables included: intraoperative proximal and distal corpus cavernosum length measurement, total corporal length measurement, total penile implant cylinder length, and length of rear tip extenders. Eight hundred and nine virgin penile implant cases were included in the analysis. Mean age of participants was 61.5 ± 9.6 years old. In total, 299 AMS 700™ (Boston Scientific, USA) and 510 Coloplast Titan® (Minneapolis, MN USA) devices were implanted. The mean proximal/distal corporal measurement ratio during corporotomy was 0.93 ± 0.29 while no statistical difference was found among low-, moderate-, and high-volume penile implant centers. A statistically significant correlation between lower proximal/distal measurement ratio and higher age (p = 0.0013), lower BMI (p < 0.0001), lower use of rear tip extenders (RTE) (p = 0.04), lower RTE length (p < 0.0001), and absence of diabetes (p = 0.0004) was reported. In a 3-month follow up period, 49 complications and 37 revision procedures were reported. This is the first study reporting the current practices regarding corporotomy location during IPP placement in a multicenter cohort, particularly when including such a high number of patients. Nevertheless, the retrospective design and the short follow up period limits the study outcomes. Corporotomy location during penoscrotal IPP implantation does not correlate with intraoperative or short-term postoperative complication rates. Future studies with longer follow up are needed in order to evaluate the association of corporotomy location with long-term complications.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current type 2 diabetes (T2D) management contraindicates intensive glycemia treatment in patients with high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is partially motivated by evidence of harms in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Heterogeneity in response to intensive glycemia treatment has been observed, suggesting potential benefit for some individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ACCORD was a randomized controlled trial that investigated whether intensively treating glycemia in individuals with T2D would reduce CVD outcomes. Using a novel approach to cluster HbA1c trajectories, we identified groups in the intensive glycemia arm with modified CVD risk. Genome-wide analysis and polygenic score (PS) were developed to predict group membership. Mendelian randomization was performed to infer causality. RESULTS: We identified four clinical groupings in the intensive glycemia arm, and clinical group 4 (C4) displayed fewer CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.34; P = 2.01 × 10-3) and microvascular outcomes (HR 0.86; P = 0.015) than those receiving standard treatment. A single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs220721, in MAS1 reached suggestive significance in C4 (P = 4.34 × 10-7). PS predicted C4 with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.98), and this predicted C4 displayed reduced CVD risk with intensive versus standard glycemia treatment (HR 0.53; P = 4.02 × 10-6), but not reduced risk of microvascular outcomes (P < 0.05). Mendelian randomization indicated causality between PS, on-trial HbA1c, and reduction in CVD outcomes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of a T2D clinical group in ACCORD that benefited from intensive glycemia treatment, and membership in this group could be predicted using genetic variants. This study generates new hypotheses with implications for precision medicine in T2D and represents an important development in this landmark clinical trial warranting further investigation.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(16): 2040-2052, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888254

RESUMO

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Cardiovascular Medical Research and Education Fund held a workshop on the application of pulmonary vascular disease omics data to the understanding, prevention, and treatment of pulmonary vascular disease. Experts in pulmonary vascular disease, omics, and data analytics met to identify knowledge gaps and formulate ideas for future research priorities in pulmonary vascular disease in line with National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Strategic Vision goals. The group identified opportunities to develop analytic approaches to multiomic datasets, to identify molecular pathways in pulmonary vascular disease pathobiology, and to link novel phenotypes to meaningful clinical outcomes. The committee suggested support for interdisciplinary research teams to develop and validate analytic methods, a national effort to coordinate biosamples and data, a consortium of preclinical investigators to expedite target evaluation and drug development, longitudinal assessment of molecular biomarkers in clinical trials, and a task force to develop a master clinical trials protocol for pulmonary vascular disease.

4.
Circ Res ; 128(8): 1214-1236, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856918

RESUMO

A pandemic of historic impact, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has potential consequences on the cardiovascular health of millions of people who survive infection worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, can infect the heart, vascular tissues, and circulating cells through ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), the host cell receptor for the viral spike protein. Acute cardiac injury is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of COVID-19 with potential chronic consequences. This update provides a review of the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular involvement, potential direct SARS-CoV-2 and indirect immune response mechanisms impacting the cardiovascular system, and implications for the management of patients after recovery from acute COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Internalização do Vírus , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , /epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Volta ao Esporte , Fatores de Risco , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Troponina/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Genetics ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in datasets comprised of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence datasets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently amongst the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

7.
Nature ; 590(7845): 290-299, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568819

RESUMO

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes)1. In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Medicina de Precisão , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mutagênese , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Densidade Demográfica , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Tamanho da Amostra , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
8.
Pflugers Arch ; 473(3): 461-475, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454842

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is strongly associated with risk of stroke and heart failure. AF promotes atrial remodeling that increases risk of stroke due to left atrial thrombogenesis, and increases energy demand to support high rate electrical activity and muscle contraction. While many transcriptomic studies have assessed AF-related changes in mRNA abundance, fewer studies have assessed proteomic changes. We performed a proteomic analysis on left atrial appendage (LAA) tissues from 12 patients with a history of AF undergoing elective surgery; atrial rhythm was documented at time of surgery. Proteomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Data-dependent analysis identified 3090 unique proteins, with 408 differentially expressed between sinus rhythm and AF. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of differentially expressed proteins identified mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, and sirtuin signaling among the most affected pathways. Increased abundance of electron transport chain (ETC) proteins in AF was accompanied by decreased expression of ETC complex assembly factors, tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins, and other key metabolic modulators. Discordant changes were also evident in the contractile unit with both up and downregulation of key components. Similar pathways were affected in a comparison of patients with a history of persistent vs. paroxysmal AF, presenting for surgery in sinus rhythm. Together, these data suggest that while the LAA attempts to meet the energetic demands of AF, an uncoordinated response may reduce ATP availability, contribute to tissue contractile and electrophysiologic heterogeneity, and promote a progression of AF from paroxysmal episodes to development of a substrate amenable to persistent arrhythmia.

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(2): 447-453, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350168

RESUMO

The utility of the International Working Group (IWG) 2006 response criteria for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as a surrogate endpoint for outcomes is unclear. We assessed the validity of the IWG 2006 response criteria in a large cohort of higher-risk MDS patients (pts) treated at centers from the MDS Clinical Research Consortium. The best overall response rate (ORR) by IWG 2006 criteria to first-line therapy among 597 evaluable pts was 38% and include complete response (CR) 16%, marrow CR (mCR) 2%, partial response (PR) 10%, hematological improvement (HI) 10%, stable disease (SD) 33%, and progressive disease (PD) 24%. CR was associated with a better overall survival (OS) compared to all other response groups (P < 0.001). Among 470 pts treated with hypomethylating agent (HMA) as first-line therapy, the overall Response Rate, defined as HI or better was 39%. The median OS from time of best response was 21 mo, 8 mo, 14 mo, 12 mo, 13 mo, and 8 mo for CR, mCR, PR, HI, SD, and PD, respectively (P < 0.001). We validated those results in a separate cohort of 539 higher-risk MDS pts treated at Moffitt Cancer Center who received first-line HMA therapy, particularly addressing the value of mCR and mCR+HI. mCR alone without HI, SD, and PD outcomes were inferior to CR, PR, mCR+HI, and HI. In conclusion, CR by IWG 2006 response criteria can be used as a surrogate endpoint for OS in higher-risk MDS pts. Any response associated with restoration of effective hematopoiesis is associated with better outcome.

10.
Cytotherapy ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092987

RESUMO

Reliable and reproducible cell therapy strategies to treat osteoarthritis demand an improved characterization of the cell and heterogeneous cell population resident in native cartilage tissue. Using live-cell phase-contrast time-lapse imaging (PC-TLI), this study investigates the morphological attributes and biological performance of the three primary biological objects enzymatically isolated from primary human cartilage: connective tissue progenitors (CTPs), non-progenitors (NPs) and multi-cellular structures (MCSs). The authors' results demonstrated that CTPs were smaller in size in comparison to NPs (P < 0.001). NPs remained part of the adhered cell population throughout the cell culture period. Both NPs and CTP progeny on day 8 increased in size and decreased in circularity in comparison to their counterparts on day 1, although the percent change was considerably less in CTP progeny (P < 0.001). PC-TLI analyses indicated three colony types: single-CTP-derived (29%), multiple-CTP-derived (26%) and MCS-derived (45%), with large heterogeneity with respect to cell morphology, proliferation rate and cell density. On average, clonal (CL) (P = 0.009) and MCS (P = 0.001) colonies exhibited higher cell density (cells per colony area) than multi-clonal (MC) colonies; however, it is interesting to note that the behavior of CL (less cells per colony and less colony area) and MCS (high cells per colony and high colony area) colonies was quite different. Overall effective proliferation rate (EPR) of the CTPs that formed CL colonies was higher than the EPR of CTPs that formed MC colonies (P = 0.02), most likely due to CTPs with varying EPR that formed the MC colonies. Finally, the authors demonstrated that lag time before first cell division of a CTP (early attribute) could potentially help predict its proliferation rate long-term. Quantitative morphological characterization using non-invasive PC-TLI serves as a reliable and reproducible technique to understand cell heterogeneity. Size and circularity parameters can be used to distinguish CTP from NP populations. Morphological cell and colony features can also be used to reliably and reproducibly identify CTP subpopulations with preferred proliferation and differentiation potentials in an effort to improve cell manufacturing and therapeutic outcomes.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102907, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by binding of its spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been reported to increase ACE2 expression in animal models, and worse outcomes are reported in patients with co-morbidities commonly treated with these agents, leading to controversy during the COVID-19 pandemic over whether these drugs might be helpful or harmful. METHODS: Animal, in vitro and clinical data relevant to the biology of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), its interaction with the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) and SARS-CoV-2, and clinical studies were reviewed. FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 hijacks ACE2to invade and damage cells, downregulating ACE2, reducing its protective effects and exacerbating injurious Ang II effects. However, retrospective observational studies do not show higher risk of infection with ACEI or ARB use. Nevertheless, study of the RAS and KKS in the setting of coronaviral infection may yield therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(7): 3, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832210

RESUMO

Purpose: Evaluate efficiency, precision, and validity of RetCAT, which comprises ten diabetic retinopathy (DR) quality of life (QoL) computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Methods: In this cross-sectional clinical study, 183 English and/or Mandarin-speaking participants with DR (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 56.4 ± 11.9 years; 38% proliferative DR [worse eye]) were recruited from retinal clinics in Singapore. Participants answered the RetCAT tests (Symptoms, Activity Limitation, Mobility, Emotional, Health Concerns, Social, Convenience, Economic, Driving, and Lighting), which were capped at seven items each, and other questionnaires, and underwent eye tests. Our primary evaluation focused on RetCAT efficiency (i.e. standard error of measurement [SEM] ± SD achieved and time needed to complete each CAT). Secondary evaluations included an assessment of RetCAT's test precision and validity. Results: Mean SEM across all RetCAT tests was 0.351, ranging from 0.272 ± 0.130 for Economic to 0.484 ± 0.130 for Emotional. Four tests (Mobility, Social, Convenience, and Driving) had a high level of measurement error. The median time to take each RetCAT test was 1.79 minutes, ranging from 1.12 (IQR [interquartile range] 1.63) for Driving to 3.28 (IQR 2.52) for Activity Limitation. Test precision was highest for participants at the most impaired end of the spectrum. Most RetCAT tests displayed expected correlations with other scales (convergent/divergent validity) and were sensitive to DR and/or vision impairment severity levels (criterion validity). Conclusions: RetCAT can provide efficient, precise, and valid measurement of DR-related QoL impact. Future application of RetCAT will employ a stopping rule based on SE rather than number of items to ensure that all tests can detect meaningful differences in person abilities. Responsiveness of RetCAT to treatment interventions must also be determined. Translational Relevance: RetCAT may be useful for measuring the patient-centered impact of DR severity and disease progression and evaluating the effectiveness of new therapies.

13.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(7): e008210, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves heart failure outcomes but has significant nonresponse rates, highlighting limitations in ECG selection criteria: QRS duration (QRSd) ≥150 ms and subjective labeling of left bundle branch block (LBBB). We explored unsupervised machine learning of ECG waveforms to identify CRT subgroups that may differentiate outcomes beyond QRSd and LBBB. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 946 CRT patients with conduction delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) dimensionality reduction obtained a 2-dimensional representation of preCRT 12-lead QRS waveforms. k-means clustering of the 2-dimensional PCA representation of 12-lead QRS waveforms identified 2 patient subgroups (QRS PCA groups). Vectorcardiographic QRS area was also calculated. We examined following 2 primary outcomes: (1) composite end point of death, left ventricular assist device, or heart transplant, and (2) degree of echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) change after CRT. RESULTS: Compared with QRS PCA Group 2 (n=425), Group 1 (n=521) had lower risk for reaching the composite end point (HR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.38-0.53]; P<0.001) and experienced greater mean LVEF improvement (11.1±11.7% versus 4.8±9.7%; P<0.001), even among patients with LBBB with QRSd ≥150 ms (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.30-0.57]; P<0.001; mean LVEF change 12.5±11.8% versus 7.3±8.1%; P=0.001). QRS area also stratified outcomes but had significant differences from QRS PCA groups. A stratification scheme combining QRS area and QRS PCA group identified patients with LBBB with similar outcomes to non-LBBB patients (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 0.93-1.62]; difference in mean LVEF change: 0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 3.7%]). The stratification scheme also identified patients with LBBB with QRSd <150 ms with comparable outcomes to patients with LBBB with QRSd ≥150 ms (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.67-1.29]; difference in mean LVEF change: -0.2% [95% CI, -2.7% to 3.0%]). CONCLUSIONS: Unsupervised machine learning of ECG waveforms identified CRT subgroups with relevance beyond LBBB and QRSd. This method may assist in objective classification of bundle branch block morphology in CRT.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Diagnóstico por Computador , Eletrocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Idoso , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/etiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(9): e597-e605, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of chromosome 3 in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), that is, inversion 3 (inv[3]), translocation 3q (t[3q]), or deletion 3q (del[3q]), are defined as poor-risk karyotypes in the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). The objective of this study was to further define the outcomes of patients with MDS with chromosome 3 abnormalities and address the impact of hypomethylating agent (HMA) therapy on this patient subset. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Through the MDS Clinical Research Consortium, we identified 411 patients with chromosome 3 abnormalities and MDS or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (20%-30% blasts). RESULTS: Specific chromosome 3 aberrations and cytogenetic complexity were predictive of survival; patients with t(3q) and isolated chromosome 3 had improved overall survival (OS), albeit still poor, whereas patients with complex cytogenetics, including those with 3p abnormalities, had inferior OS. Overall response rates to HMAs among this patient population were similar to those of patients with nonchromosome 3-MDS (52%, with a 25% complete remission rate), although with higher response rates in decitabine-treated patients (69% vs. 45%, P = .008). HMA therapy improved the OS of patients with higher-risk MDS compared with intensive chemotherapy (median OS of 15.5 vs. 8.2 months; P = .017). This improvement remained significant in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio, 0.60; P = .018); however, there were no chromosome 3 aberrations among this subgroup predictive of improved response rates to or survival from HMAs. CONCLUSION: Patients with MDS with chromosome 3 abnormalities represent a cytogenetic cohort with poor OS, and there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies.

15.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(3): e007676, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation is a widely used therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, arrhythmia recurrence and repeat procedures are common. Studies examining surrogate markers of genetic susceptibility to AF, such as family history and individual AF susceptibility alleles, suggest these may be associated with recurrence outcomes. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the association between AF genetic susceptibility and recurrence after ablation using a comprehensive polygenic risk score for AF. METHODS: Ten centers from the AF Genetics Consortium identified patients who had undergone de novo AF ablation. AF genetic susceptibility was measured using a previously described polygenic risk score (N=929 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and tested for an association with clinical characteristics and time-to-recurrence with a 3 month blanking period. Recurrence was defined as >30 seconds of AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, persistent AF, hypertension, coronary disease, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, and year of ablation. RESULTS: Four thousand two hundred seventy-six patients were eligible for analysis of baseline characteristics and 3259 for recurrence outcomes. The overall arrhythmia recurrence rate between 3 and 12 months was 44% (1443/3259). Patients with higher AF genetic susceptibility were younger (P<0.001) and had fewer clinical risk factors for AF (P=0.001). Persistent AF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39 [95% CI, 1.22-1.58]; P<0.001), left atrial size (per cm: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.19-1.46]; P<0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (per 10%: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80-0.97]; P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of recurrence. In univariate analysis, higher AF genetic susceptibility trended towards a higher risk of recurrence (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99-1.18]; P=0.07), which became less significant in multivariable analysis (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.15]; P=0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Higher AF genetic susceptibility was associated with younger age and fewer clinical risk factors but not recurrence. Arrhythmia recurrence after AF ablation may represent a genetically different phenotype compared to AF susceptibility.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Ablação por Cateter , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Mapeamento Potencial de Superfície Corporal/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva
16.
Case Rep Urol ; 2020: 9285071, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089945

RESUMO

Spontaneous urethral laceration in the female without associated external trauma is an exceedingly rare phenomenon. Most cases are related to childbirth or the presence of a concomitant pelvic fracture or penetrating injury. Herein, we present a novel case of spontaneous urethral laceration in a female which happened to occur during an acute flare of her previously diagnosed ulcerative colitis. The diagnosis of spontaneous urethral laceration is rare, and underlying etiology is often uncertain.

17.
Cardiol Rev ; 27(6): 302-307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584471

RESUMO

From the bedside of patients contributing samples to large genome-wide association studies for atrial fibrillation (AF), over 100 AF risk loci have been identified. The top locus is near a gene implicated in pulmonary vein formation; the ostia of the pulmonary veins harbor initiating triggers of AF, and isolation of these areas is the cornerstone of ablation therapies for AF. Transcriptomic studies suggest that AF is associated with impaired or overwhelmed responses to cell stress. A dual risk model proposes that in genetically-susceptible individuals, inadequate transcriptional responses to stress predispose to AF in later life. Drugs targeting metabolic, oxidative, or protein handling stress may be novel upstream agents to bring back to the bedside for study in the prevention of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We developed an unbiased framework to study the association of several mutations in predicting resistance to hypomethylating agents (HMAs) in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), analogous to consumer and commercial recommender systems in which customers who bought products A and B are likely to buy C: patients who have a mutation in gene A and gene B are likely to respond or not respond to HMAs. METHODS: We screened a cohort of 433 patients with MDS who received HMAs for the presence of common myeloid mutations in 29 genes that were obtained before the patients started therapy. The association between mutations and response was evaluated by the Apriori market basket analysis algorithm. Rules with the highest confidence (confidence that the association exists) and the highest lift (strength of the association) were chosen. We validated our biomarkers in samples from patients enrolled in the S1117 trial. RESULTS: Among 433 patients, 193 (45%) received azacitidine, 176 (40%) received decitabine, and 64 (15%) received HMA alone or in combination. The median age was 70 years (range, 31 to 100 years), and 28% were female. The median number of mutations per sample was three (range, zero to nine), and 176 patients (41%) had three or more mutations per sample. Association rules identified several genomic combinations as being highly associated with no response. These molecular signatures were present in 30% of patients with three or more mutations/sample with an accuracy rate of 87% in the training cohort and 93% in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: Genomic biomarkers can identify, with high accuracy, approximately one third of patients with MDS who will not respond to HMAs. This study highlights the importance of machine learning technologies such as the recommender system algorithm in translating genomic data into useful clinical tools.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13118, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511657

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions defined by impairments in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests or activities. Only a minority of ASD cases are determined to have a definitive etiology and the pathogenesis of most ASD is poorly understood. We hypothesized that a global analysis of the proteomes of human ASD vs. control brain, heretofore not done, would provide important data with which to better understand the underlying neurobiology of autism. In this study, we characterized the proteomes of two brain regions, Brodmann area 19 (BA19) and posterior inferior cerebellum (CB), from carefully selected idiopathic ASD cases and matched controls using label-free HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. The data revealed marked differences between ASD and control brain proteomes for both brain regions. Unlike earlier transcriptomic analyses using frontal and temporal cortex, however, our proteomic analysis did not support ASD attenuating regional gene expression differences. Bioinformatic analyses of the differentially expressed proteins between cases and controls highlighted canonical pathways involving glutamate receptor signaling and glutathione-mediated detoxification in both BA19 and CB; other pathways such as Sertoli cell signaling and fatty acid oxidation were specifically enriched in BA19 or CB, respectively. Network analysis of both regions of ASD brain showed up-regulation of multiple pre- and post-synaptic membrane or scaffolding proteins including glutamatergic ion channels and related proteins, up-regulation of proteins involved in intracellular calcium signaling, and down-regulation of neurofilament proteins, with DLG4 and MAPT as major hub proteins in BA19 and CB protein interaction networks, respectively. Upstream regulator analysis suggests neurodegeneration-associated proteins drive the differential protein expression for ASD in both BA19 and CB. Overall, the proteomic data provide support for shared dysregulated pathways and upstream regulators for two brain regions in human ASD brain, suggesting a common ASD pathophysiology that has distinctive regional expression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Humanos , Lobo Occipital/metabolismo
20.
Case Rep Urol ; 2019: 1086575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534813

RESUMO

Leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle tumors that have low malignant potential (0.1%) and can arise in nearly any area of the body. Genitourinary involvement is very rare and represents only 0.05% of all bladder tumors (Mendes et al., 2017; GÖK, 2017). The most common presenting symptoms of bladder leiomyomas are obstructive voiding (49%), irritative voiding (38%), and hematuria (11%) (Goluboff et al., 1994). Treatment involves complete excision, in this case transurethral resection (TUR), and generally results in complete cure with no recurrences noted in the 250 cases reported in the literature for open resection and 18% recurrence rates after TUR which were successfully treated with a repeat TUR in all cases. Herein, we report a case of leiomyoma of the bladder which was refractory to four visually complete transurethral resections and ultimately required radical cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion.

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