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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935076

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported discrimination is a source of psychosocial stress that has been previously associated with poor cognitive function in older African Americans without dementia. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examine the association of discrimination with dementia and cognitive impairment in racially diverse older Brazilians. METHODS: We included 899 participants 65 years or older (34.3% Black) from the Pathology, Alzheimer's and Related Dementias Study (PARDoS), a community-based study of aging and dementia. A structured interview with informants of the deceased was conducted. The interview included the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale for the diagnosis of dementia and cognitive impairment proximate to death and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) as a second measure of cognitive impairment. Informant-reported discrimination was assessed using modified items from the Major and Everyday Discrimination Scales. RESULTS: Discrimination was reported by informants of 182 (20.2%) decedents and was more likely reported by informants of Blacks than Whites (25.3% versus 17.6%, pâ=â0.006). Using the CDR, a higher level of informant-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of dementia (OR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 -1.42, pâ=â0.002) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06 -1.39, pâ=â0.004). Similar results were observed using the IQCODE (estimate: 0.07, SE: 0.02, pâ=â0.003). The effects were independent of race, sex, education, socioeconomic status, major depression, neuroticism, or comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Higher level of informant-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of dementia and cognitive impairment in racially diverse older Brazilians.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835152

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few older adults are able to achieve recommended levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity despite known cognitive benefits. Alternatively, less intense activities such as standing can be easily integrated into daily life. No existing study has examined the impact of free-living standing activity during daily life as measured by a device on cognition in older adults. Our purpose was to examine the association between free-living standing activity and cognitive function in cognitively healthy older adults. METHODS: Participants were 98 adult participants aged 65 years or older from the ongoing MIND trial (NCT02817074) without diagnoses or symptoms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Linear regression analyses tested cross-sectional associations between standing activity (duration and intensity from the MoveMonitor+ accelerometer/gyroscope) and cognition (4 cognitive domains constructed from 12 cognitive performance tests). RESULTS: Participants were on average 69.7 years old (SD = 3.7), 69.4% women, and 73.5% had a college degree or higher. Higher mean intensity of standing activity was significantly associated with higher levels of perceptual speed when adjusting for age, gender, and education level. Each log unit increase in standing activity intensity was associated with 0.72 units higher of perceptual speed (p=.023). When we additionally adjusted for cognitive activities and moderate-vigorous physical activity, and then also for body mass index, depressive symptoms, prescription medication use, and device wear time, the positive association remained. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should be further explored in longitudinal analyses and interventions for cognition that incorporate small changes to free-living activity in addition to promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity.

3.
Gerontology ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882498

##### RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that older Black adults are frequent victims of financial fraud and exploitation. This study aims to identify the factors associated with scam susceptibility in older Black adults. METHODS: Participants were 383 older Black adults living in the Chicago metropolitan area (mean age = 78 years and 82% female). A scam susceptibility measure assessed perceptions and behaviors that predispose older adults to fraud and scams. Categories of age-associated factors, including cognition, physical health, psychosocial factors, personality, and behavioral economics, were measured using uniform systematic assessments. For each category separately, measures associated with scam susceptibility were identified via stepwise variable selection. RESULTS: Older age was associated with greater scam susceptibility. Further, the analysis revealed a robust association of cognitive health with scam susceptibility, particularly the domains of semantic and working memory. Psychological well-being was associated with susceptibility, as was neuroticism. Behavioral economic measures including financial and health literacy and financial and health decision-making ability were also implicated. In a final model that included all the measures initially retained by variable selection, semantic memory, psychological well-being, and financial and health literacy were independently associated with scam susceptibility. Moreover, the association of age was attenuated and no longer significant after adjusting for these correlates. DISCUSSION: Age-associated vulnerabilities, rather than age itself, predispose older Black adults to financial fraud and scams. The correlates of scam susceptibility in community-living older Black adults primarily involve cognitive health, psychological, and behavioral economic factors.

4.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120030226, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840227

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The general cardiovascular Framingham risk score (FRS) identifies adults at increased risk for stroke. We tested the hypothesis that baseline FRS is associated with the presence of postmortem cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathologies. METHODS: We studied the brains of 1672 older decedents with baseline FRS and measured CVD pathologies including macroinfarcts, microinfarcts, atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We employed a series of logistic regressions to examine the association of baseline FRS with each of the 5 CVD pathologies. RESULTS: Average age at baseline was 80.5±7.0 years and average age at death was 89.2±6.7 years. A higher baseline FRS was associated with higher odds of macroinfarcts (odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.07-1.13], P<0.001), microinfarcts (odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.07], P=0.009), atherosclerosis (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.04-1.11], P<0.001), and arteriolosclerosis (odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.07], P=0.005). C statistics for these models ranged from 0.537 to 0.595 indicating low accuracy for predicting CVD pathologies. FRS was not associated with the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. CONCLUSIONS: A higher FRS score in older adults is associated with higher odds of some, but not all, CVD pathologies, with low discrimination at the individual level. Further work is needed to develop a more robust risk score to identify adults at risk for accumulating CVD pathologies.

5.
Neurology ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853892

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that an inverse association exists between diabetes mellitus (DM) and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) with Transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) levels in older adults. METHODS: We leveraged antemortem and postmortem data of decedents from three community-based clinical-pathological studies. DM status, A1C levels, and medications for DM were documented annually. TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions, evaluated in 6 brain regions using immunohistochemistry, were used to obtain a semiquantitative TDP-43 score (0-5) in each region, and scores were averaged across regions to obtain a TDP-43 severity score. We used linear regressions to test the association of DM and A1C with the TDP-43 severity score. RESULTS: On average, participants (n=817) were 90 years old at the time of death, three fourth were women, and one fourth had DM. The mean A1C was 6.0% (SD=0.6). TDP-43 was observed in 54% of participants, and the mean TDP-43 score was 0.7 (range 0-4.5). A higher level of A1C was associated with a lower TDP-43 score (estimate=-0.156, S.E.=0.060, p=0.009) while DM had a borderline inverse association with the TDP-43 score (estimate=-0.163, S.E.=0.087, p=0.060). The association of higher levels of A1C with lower TDP-43 scores persisted after further adjustment by Apolipoprotein Îµ4, vascular risk factors, stroke, and hypoglycemic medications. Exclusion of the oldest old participants did not change the results. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results suggest that a high level of A1C is associated with less TDP-43 proteinopathy in older persons while the relationship of DM with TDP-43 needs further study.

6.
J Aging Health ; : 8982643211005905, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788658

##### RESUMO

Objectives: This study examined the joint trajectories of behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, and body mass index) and their associations with cognitive function trajectories among older African Americans and white Americans. Methods: Data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2014) were used. Group-based mixture modeling and multinomial logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: Three joint trajectories of behavioral risk factors (overweight, smoking and drinking, and drinking and overweight) and three cognitive function trajectories (low, moderate, and high) were identified. A significantly higher percentage of African Americans were in the "overweight," "smoking and drinking," and "low" cognitive functioning groups as measured by the total cognition composite score compared to white Americans. After accounting for covariates, the "drinking and overweight" group was associated with the "moderate" or "high" cognitive functioning group. Discussion: Future interventions targeting the combinations of behavioral risk factors are needed to promote healthy aging among high-risk populations.

7.
Gerontologist ; 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772304

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The influx of people with higher socioeconomic status into large Black communities is well documented; less is known regarding smaller, aging Black communities. Older Black adults in Portland, Oregon, among America's fastest gentrifying cities with the smallest metropolitan Black population, discussed barriers to healthy aging. Perspectives centered on the experience of gentrification, displacement, and its impact on social microsystems, place security, and aging in place. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One-time focus groups engaged 41 Black adults aged ≥45. A demographic survey included residence area/duration. Discussions were thematically coded. Ecological Systems Theory guided interpretation. RESULTS: The majority of participants resided within gentrifying historically Black neighborhoods (89.2%), were aged ≥65 (54.6%), and lived in their neighborhood ≥21 years (24.3%). Emergent discussion themes were: Rise and fall of Black ownership; Displacement; Race-related stress; and Financial burden. Gentrification contributed to the dismantling of Black property ownership curated over generations, increased financial burden, and threatened place security. Physical displacement strained social networks, diminishing intergenerational neighborhood ties that supported aging in place. Cultural and physical displacement weakened sense of social cohesion and belonging, and induced race-related stressful interactions with new residents within original and relocation neighborhoods. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Gentrification in the Pacific Northwest echoes national trends, uprooting critical close-proximity social networks and deteriorating motivation to engage in neighborhood-based social activity. Smaller, aging Black communities may be particularly vulnerable to these effects which critically impact aging in place. Data inform researchers and policymakers to better understand how gentrification affects smaller, aging Black communities.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580752

##### RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The goal was to investigate effects of APOE-TOMM40-'523 haplotypes on cognitive decline in non-demented non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), and determine whether effects differ from non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). METHODS: The impact of zero to two copies of the '523-Short variant (S; poly-T alleles < 20) within apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on a composite measure of global cognition and five domains was examined. RESULTS: In NHB with Îµ3/Îµ3 (N = 294), '523-S/S was associated with faster decline in global cognition (ß = -0.048, P = 0.017), episodic memory (ß = -0.05, P = 0.031), and visuospatial ability (ß = -0.037, P = 0.034) relative to those without '523-S. For NHB Îµ4+ (N = 182), '523-S/S had slower decline in global cognition (ß = 0.047, P = 0.042) and visuospatial ability (ß = 0.07, P = 0.0005) relative to '523-S non-carriers. NHB Îµ4+ with '523-S also had a slower rate of decline than NHWs Îµ4+ with '523-S. DISCUSSION: '523-S/S has a different effect on cognitive decline among NHB dependent on APOE allele. Differences in the effect of Îµ4-'523-S in NHB may explain prior mixed findings on Îµ4 and decline in this population.

9.
Brain Pathol ; : e12939, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624322

##### RESUMO

Limbic-predominant age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) and microvascular pathologies, including microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and arteriolosclerosis are common in old age. A relationship between LATE-NC and arteriolosclerosis has been reported in some but not all studies. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of co-occurring LATE-NC and microvascular pathologies and test the hypothesis that arteriolosclerosis, specifically, is related to LATE-NC in brains from community-dwelling older persons. Analyses included 749 deceased participants with completed data on LATE-NC and microvascular pathology from 3 longitudinal clinical pathologic studies of aging. Given the specific interest in arteriolosclerosis, we expanded the examination of arteriolosclerosis to include not only the basal ganglia but also two additional white matter regions from anterior and posterior watershed territories. Ordinal logistic regression models examined the association of microvascular pathology with LATE-NC. LATE-NC was present in 409 (54.6%) decedents, of which 354 (86.5%) had one or multiple microvascular pathologies including 132 (32.3%) with moderate-severe arteriolosclerosis in basal ganglia, 195 (47.6%) in anterior watershed, and 144 (35.2%) in posterior watershed; 170 (41.5%) with moderate-severe CAA, and 150 (36.6%) with microinfarcts. In logistic regression models, only posterior watershed arteriolosclerosis, but not other regions of arteriolosclerosis was associated with a higher odds of more advanced LATE-NC stages (Odds Ratio = 1.12; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.01-1.25) after controlling for demographics, AD, and other age-related pathologies. Capillary CAA, but not the severity of CAA was associated with an increased odds of LATE-NC burden (Odds Ratio = 1.71; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13-2.58). Findings were unchanged in analyses controlling for APOE Îµ4, vascular risk factors, or vascular diseases. These findings suggest that LATE-NC with microvascular pathology is a very common mixed pathology and small vessel disease pathology may contribute to LATE-NC in the aging brain.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631006

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data about African American (AA) patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonism which may precede PD in older adults. Prior studies suggest that there are lower rates of PD in the AA population, with more cognitive impairment in AA with PD. This study aimed to investigate differences in PD, parkinsonism, and cognition between white and AA populations in three longitudinal epidemiologic cohort studies of aging. METHODS: This study examined parkinsonism, PD frequency, and cognition of community dwelling older individuals in three longitudinal epidemiologic cohort studies. Parkinsonism was based on an exam utilizing the modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) performed by a nurse. PD was based on self-report, medications used for treatment of PD, and examination findings. Cognition was assessed using 19 performance-based tests that assess five cognitive domains. RESULTS: AA subjects were less likely to have parkinsonism compared to whites, even with age and gender differences. Frequency of PD was not significant between groups. AA were more likely to have lower cognitive scores as compared to whites. AA were less likely to have parkinsonism even with controlling for cognitive differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinsonian signs are present among AAs in the community at lower rates than in white individuals. Cognitive profiles of AA and whites with parkinsonism may be different, suggesting differing contributions of pathology to cognitive decline and parkinsonism between groups. Additional research is needed to understand the progression of parkinsonism to PD, as well as to understanding the cognitive differences in AA with parkinsonism.

11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585904

##### RESUMO

Adherence to a healthy lifestyle -characterized by abstaining from smoking, being physically and cognitively active, having a high-quality diet, and limiting alcohol use- is associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults, but whether this relationship extends to individuals with a genetic predisposition (e.g., ApoE4 carriers) remains uncertain. From the population-based study, the Chicago Health and Aging Project, we followed 3,886 individuals with regular clinical and cognitive assessments from 1993 to 2012. Of 3,886 older adults, 1,269 (32.7%) were ApoE4 carriers. Compared to non-carries, ApoE4 carriers had a faster cognitive decline by -0.027 (95%CI -0.032, -0.023) units per year. In contrast, individuals with 2-3 and 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors had a slower cognitive decline by 0.008 (95%CI 0.002, 0.014) and 0.019 (95%CI 0.011, 0.026) units per year, compared to those with 0-1 factor. In analyses stratified by ApoE4 status, adherence to a healthy lifestyle (e.g., 4-5 vs. 0-1 factors) was associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline in both ApoE4 carriers ($\beta$=0.029 units/year; 95%CI 0.013, 0.045) and non-carriers ($\beta$=0.013, 95%CI 0.005, 0.022). These results underscore the impact of a healthy lifestyle on cognition, particularly among individuals with a genetic predisposition who are more vulnerable to cognitive decline as they age.

12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 102: 106270, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434704

##### RESUMO

Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S., with an estimated \$305 billion cost of care in 2020. Currently there are no cures or therapies to ameliorate the disease progression and symptoms. Growing evidence links a diet characterized by high antioxidant components with benefits to cognitive function, which is indicative of the preventative potential of dietary inteventions. The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) study is a 3-year, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to test the effects of the MIND diet on cognitive function in 604 individuals at risk for AD. Men and women ages 65 to 84 years were recruited. Eligible participants were randomized to either the MIND diet with mild caloric restriction or their usual diet with mild caloric restriction. Cognitive assessments, medical history, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and blood and urine sample collections will be taken at baseline and follow-up visits. MRI scans will be completed on approximately half of the enrolled participants at the start and end of the study. Unique features of the MIND study include: 1) a dietary pattern, rather than single nutrient or food, tested in an at-risk population; 2) foods featured as key components of the MIND diet (i.e. extra-virgin olive oil, blueberries, and nuts) provided for participants; and 3) MRI scans of brain structure and volume that may provide potential mechanistic evidence on the effects of the diet. Results from the study will be crucial to the development of dietary guidelines for the prevention of AD.

13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410584

##### RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether eating Western diet food components offsets the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) potential benefits on cognitive decline. METHODS: The study includes 5001 Chicago Health and Aging Project participants (63% African American, 36% males, 74 ± 6.0 years old), with food frequency questionnaires and ≥ two cognitive assessments over 6.3 ± 2.8 years of follow-up. Mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex, education, race, cognitive activities, physical activity, and total calories. RESULTS: Stratified analysis showed a significant effect of higher MedDiet on cognitive decline only with a low Western diet score (highest vs lowest MedDiet tertile: ß = 0.020, P = .002; p trend = 0.002) and not with a high Western diet score (highest vs lowest MedDiet tertile: ß = 0.010, P = .11; p trend = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This prospective study found that high consumption of Western diet components attenuates benefits of the MedDiet on cognition.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 101: 106254, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383230

##### RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment (CI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affect women compared to men, and CVD increases risk of CI. Physical activity and cognitive training can improve cognition in older adults and may have additive or synergistic effects. However, no combined intervention has targeted women with CVD or utilized a sustainable lifestyle approach. The purpose of the trial is to evaluate efficacy of MindMoves, a 24-week multimodal physical activity and cognitive training intervention, on cognition and serum biomarkers in older women with CVD. Three serum biomarkers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], and insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) were selected as a priori hypothesized indicators of the effects of physical activity and/or cognitive training on cognition. METHODS: The study design is a randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design, to determine independent and combined efficacies of Mind (tablet-based cognitive training) and Move (lifestyle physical activity with goal-setting and group meetings) on change in cognition (primary outcome) and serum biomarkers (secondary outcomes). We will recruit 254 women aged ≥65 years with CVD and without CI from cardiology clinics. Women will be randomized to one of four conditions: (1) Mind, (2) Move, (3) MindMoves, or (4) usual care. Data will be obtained from participants at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 weeks. DISCUSSION: This study will test efficacy of a lifestyle-focused intervention to prevent or delay cognitive impairment in older women with CVD and may identify relevant serum biomarkers that could be used as early indicators of intervention response.

15.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283037

##### RESUMO

Introduction: Federally funded Alzheimer's Disease Centers in the United States have been using a standardized neuropsychological test battery as part of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set (UDS) since 2005. Version 3 (V3) of the UDS replaced the previous version (V2) in 2015. We compared V2 and V3 neuropsychological tests with respect to their ability to distinguish among the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) global scores of 0, 0.5, and 1. Methods: First, we matched participants receiving V2 tests (V2 cohort) and V3 tests (V3 cohort) in their cognitive functions using tests common to both versions. Then, we compared receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve in differentiating CDRs for the remaining tests. Results: Some V3 tests performed better than V2 tests in differentiating between CDR 0.5 and 0, but the improvement was limited to Caucasian participants. Discussion: Further efforts to improve the ability for early identification of cognitive decline among diverse racial groups are required.

16.
Gerontologist ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326557

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Self-perceptions of memory problems may impact older adults' mood as well as their activity participation, thereby negatively affecting health and well-being. We examined within-person associations among self-reported memory, depressive symptoms, as well as physical, social, and cognitive activity participation in older adults without cognitive impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples were drawn from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP), and Minority Aging Research Study (MARS), with over 8,000 participants (65+ years) included across datasets. In a series of coordinated analyses, multilevel structural equation modeling was used to examine within-person relationships over periods of up to 20 years. RESULTS: Across EAS, NHATS, and MAP/MARS samples, we found that older adults' self-perceptions of memory did not directly co-vary with activity participation over time. However, we did find an indirect association in NHATS such that within-person changes in depressive symptoms were associated with changes in self-reported memory, and these contributed to lower physical as well as social activity participation. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Older adults' activity participation is important for health, but maximizing engagement requires understanding potentially impeding factors. We found some evidence that as self-perceptions of memory change over time, associated depressive symptoms may contribute to lower activity participation. Inconsistent findings across data sets, however, suggest future research is needed to understand individual characteristics that may influence these relationships.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377540

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to negative life events (NLEs) and neuroticism are associated with dementia. It is unknown whether neuroticism explains or modifies the association of NLEs with dementia in older Black and White Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 1747 decedents 65 years and older White and Black (11% Black and 23% Mixed) Brazilians, 53% women, were included in the analyses. Data were obtained in a face-to-face interview with an informant (71% their children) who knew the decedents for 47 years on average. Dementia was classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating. NLEs were assessed with a 10-item scale involving common problems (e.g., death, illness, alcoholism, and financial). Neuroticism was assessed with a 6-item neuroticism scale adapted from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Models adjusted for age, sex, and education. Black and mixed-race were combined in the analyses. RESULTS: NLEs (median of 2) were more common in Blacks than Whites (2.04 vs. 1.82, p = 0.007). More NLEs increased the odds of dementia (OR = 1.112, ß = 0.106, p = 0.002), similarly in Blacks and Whites (ßinteraction  = 0.046, p = 0.526). More NLEs were also associated with higher neuroticism (ß = 0.071, p < 0.0001), in Whites but not in Blacks (ßinteraction  = -0.048, p = 0.006). Neuroticism was associated with higher odds of dementia (OR = 1.658, ß = 0.506, p=<0.001), in Whites but not in Blacks (ßinteraction  = -0.420, p = 0.040). Overall, 34% of the effect of NLEs on dementia was associated with the underlying neuroticism trait in Whites (65%, Indirect OR = 1.060, p < 0.001) but no association was evident in Blacks (6%, Indirect OR = 1.008, p = 0.326). Neuroticism did not moderate the association of NLEs with dementia (OR = 0.979, ß = -0.021, p = 0.717). CONCLUSION: The association of NLEs and dementia is partially explained by neuroticism in older White but not in Blacks Brazilians.

18.
Ethn Dis ; 30(Suppl 2): 709-718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250618

##### RESUMO

Background: A small number of older adults in the United States who agree to brain donation for clinical research belong to diverse racial, ethnic, and economic groups. Those who agree, however, are less likely to have completed brain autopsies compared with older non-Latino Whites of higher socioeconomic status. As such, our understanding of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias remains limited in these underrepresented and understudied populations. Here, we examine perceived impediments to completed brain autopsies among diverse older adults who have agreed to brain donation for clinical research. Methods: Participants (N=22) were older adults (mean age=77 years) who self-identified as African American (n=8), Latino (n=6), or White of lower income (n=8). All participants had previously agreed to brain donation via the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. Each participant took part in a one-time, semi-structured focus group. Data were analyzed using a Grounded Theory Approach with both Open Coding and Constant Comparative Coding. Results: Perceived impediments to completed brain autopsies varied by group. Older African Americans and older Latinos expressed concern about a lack of follow-through by family members regarding their brain donation wishes. Older Whites of lower income indicated that their own uncertainty surrounding the processes of brain donation and brain autopsy might serve as an impediment. Discussion: Diverse older adults expressed different perceived impediments to having brain autopsies completed upon their death. Continuous education for diverse older adults and their family members regarding brain donation for clinical research, including clear guidelines and processes, may facilitate completed brain autopsies among diverse older adults.

19.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 553998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192454

##### RESUMO

Objectives: Non-Latino Black adults have greater risk for Alzheimer's dementia compared to non-Latino White adults, possibly due to factors disproportionally affecting Black adults including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic peripheral inflammation is implicated in both Alzheimer's dementia and CVD and is known to impact cognition and cerebral white matter, yet little work has examined these associations by race. This study examined associations between inflammation, cognition, and cerebral white matter generally, and by race. Methods: Eighty-six non-demented older Black and White participants (age = 69.03; 50% female; 45% Black participants) underwent fasting venipuncture, cognitive testing, and MRI. Serum was assayed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 1-beta. Cognitive domains included memory, executive function, and attention/information processing. MRI measures included white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMH) and quantification of white matter integrity in areas outside WMHs via DTI-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, as well as multi-component relaxometry derived myelin water fraction (MWF). Results: Black and White participants did not differ on age, sex, or CVD risk. Separate linear regression models adjusting for relevant confounders revealed that higher IL-6 associated with lower executive function and higher CRP levels associated with lower FA and MWF. Stratified analyses revealed that these association were significant for Black participants only. Discussion: These findings suggest that peripheral inflammation is inversely associated with select cognitive domains and white matter integrity (but not WMHs), particularly in older Black adults. It is important to consider race when investigating inflammatory associates of brain and behavior.

20.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100990

##### RESUMO

The elderly population in the US is increasing and projected to be 44% minority by 2060. African Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease compared to non-Hispanic whites. These conditions are associated with many other adverse health outcomes, lower quality of life, and substantial economic burden. In the past few decades, diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Some studies report poor diet quality among African American and Hispanic older adult populations compared to their white counterparts. We have a limited understanding of how diet affects brain health in different racial-ethnic groups. One primary reason for our lack of knowledge is that most cohort studies are of majority non-Hispanic white participants. Moreover, those that do include minority participants do not publish their findings stratified by racial-ethnic groups, and likely have a less accurate measurement of dietary intake among minority groups. In this review, we summarize the current, albeit limited, literature on racial/ethnic differences in dietary relations to dementia outcomes. We will also discuss methodological issues in conducting nutrition studies in diverse cultures, and suggestions for future research directions. Overcoming the gaps will make it possible to make dietary recommendations for Alzheimer's prevention that are more relevant for different racial/ethnic groups and set us on a faster track to reduce health disparities.

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