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1.
Eur Spine J ; 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of literature identifying factors that influence the back and neck pain (BNP)-workplace absenteeism relationship. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between BNP and workplace absenteeism and potential mediating variables in a large sample of the US population. METHODS: Nationally representative data collected in 2019 from the RAND American Life Panel (ALP) were used for this retrospective study. Workplace absenteeism was defined as the number of days of absence in the past 12 months for health-related reasons (count variable), while BNP corresponded to the presence of back pain due to spinal stenosis, back pain due to other causes, or neck pain (dichotomous variable). Control variables included sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, education, occupation, annual family income, health insurance, obesity, and diabetes. There were eight influential variables (depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, alcohol dependence, opioid dependence, walking difficulty, standing difficulty, and sitting difficulty). The association between BNP and workplace absenteeism was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: There were 1,471 adults aged 22-83 years included in this study (52.9% of men; mean [standard deviation] age 44.5 [13.0] years). After adjusting for control variables, BNP was positively and significantly associated with workplace absenteeism (incidence rate ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.83). Walking, standing, and sitting difficulties individually explained between 24 and 43% of this association. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace interventions focusing on the management of BNP and overcoming difficulties in walking, standing, and sitting, potentially utilizing exercise, therapy, and ergonomic interventions, may prevent absenteeism.

2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, a small body of evidence suggests that sleep problems are positively associated with subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). However, no studies on this topic exist from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between sleep problems and SCC in a large sample of middle-age and older adults from 45 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative, community-based data were analyzed from the World Health Survey. Sleep problems (such as difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning) in the last 30 days were self-reported. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 (No SCC) to 100 (worse SCC). Multivariable linear regression was conducted to explore the association between sleep problems (exposure) and SCC (outcome). RESULTS: Data on 60,228 adults aged ≥ 50 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 61.4 (9.9) years; 53.9% females]. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those without sleep problems, the mean SCC score for the multivariable model was 13.32 (95% CI 12.01, 14.63), 19.46 (95% CI 17.95, 20.98), 24.17 (95% CI 22.02, 26.33), and 31.39 (95% CI 28.13, 34.65) points higher for mild, moderate, severe, and extreme sleep problems, respectively. Similar results were found for analyses stratified by age and country-income level. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems were positively associated in a dose-response manner with SCC among middle-aged and older adults in multiple LMICs. Addressing sleep problems may aid in the prevention of SCC and ultimately dementia, pending future longitudinal research.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 532-539, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no multi-country studies on the association between informal caregiving and anxiety from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated this relationship in a large predominantly nationally representative sample from 47 LMICs. METHODS: Cross sectional data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe or extreme problems with worries or anxiety in the past 30 days. Information on caregiving in the past 12 months was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, household size, employment, disability, and country was conducted. Data on 237,952 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 50.8% female] were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, caregiving was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.65). Greater number of caregiving activities was associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms dose-dependently, with the OR (95%CI) for engagement in 5 activities (vs. no caregiving) being 2.19 (1.86-2.58). CONCLUSION: Caregiving is associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms among adults in LMICs. Given the increasing importance of informal caregivers in long-term care provision and the fact that good health of caregivers is vital to sustain this system, interventions to address mental health of caregivers in LMICs are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Países em Desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza
4.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of studies on the relationship between visual impairment (VI) and time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association of objectively and subjectively measured VI with SB in adults aged ≥18 years across 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Objective and subjective visual acuity were measured. Information on self-reported SB was also collected. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess associations with time spent in SB as the outcome. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 42,489 individuals (mean age = 43.8 [14.4] y; 50.1% females). Only severe objective VI (vs no VI) was significantly associated with ≥11 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) (odds ratio = 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-12.92). Increasing severity of subjective VI was associated with greater odds for ≥8 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) dose dependently. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified an association of both objectively and subjectively measured VI with time spent in SB in adults residing in LMICs, with subjectively measured VI being a stronger predictor of time spent in SB. Targeted interventions to decrease SB especially in those who perceive themselves to have VI are needed in LMICs.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of weight modification on future dementia risk is currently a subject of debate and may be modified by age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (a preclinical stage of dementia) in middle-aged and older adults residing in six low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative data. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) were analyzed. MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. BMI (kg/m2) was based on measured weight and height and categorized as: underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30.0). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Data on 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities were analyzed [mean (SD) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 51.7% females]. Among those aged 50-64 years, compared to normal weight, underweight (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.14-1.81), overweight (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.002-1.37), and obesity (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.09-1.94) were all significantly associated with higher odds for MCI. In those aged ≥65 years, underweight (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54-0.95) and overweight (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.55-0.94) were associated with significantly lower odds for MCI, while obesity was not significantly associated with MCI. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that the association between BMI and MCI is likely moderated by age. Future longitudinal studies are required to confirm or refute the present findings before recommendations for policy and practice can be made.

6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is essential for almost all facets of health; however, research suggests that PA levels among populations with sight loss are critically low. The aim of this review was to identify the correlates of PA among people with sight loss in high income countries, to inform future interventions and policies. METHODS: MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, The British Journal of Visual Impairment, The Journal of Visual Impairment and grey literature were searched for studies which reported correlates of PA among adults with sight loss. The protocol is available from PROSPERO (CRD42020215596). RESULTS: A total of 29 articles were eligible for review. Evidence from multiple studies reported that the vision impairment category, worse visual acuity, bilateral visual field loss, worse contrast sensitivity, those of the female gender, low self-efficacy, and environmental barriers were associated with lower levels of PA among populations with sight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, correlates of PA among people with sight loss in high income countries are complex and vary across different population groups. Health professionals, eye care, and sight loss services should work together to identify people at risk of low PA, and provide a range of services and interventions to influence the modifiable factors that are associated with low PA.

9.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 45-53, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598008

RESUMO

Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide in young people aged 15-19 years. However, little is known about the correlates of multiple suicide attempts in adolescents, especially from a global perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of putative physical, behavioral, and social correlates with multiple suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 years from 61 countries. Data from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (2009-2017) were analyzed. Multiple suicide attempts was classified as having attempted suicide at least twice in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential correlates. Data on 162,994 adolescents [mean (SD) age 13.8 (0.9) years; 50.8% boys] were analyzed. The overall prevalence of multiple suicide attempts was 4.4% [range 1.2% (Laos) to 13.8% (Ghana)]. Among those who had attempted suicide at least once in the past 12 months, in the overall sample, food insecurity, smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis use, amphetamine use, sedentary behavior, sexual intercourse, sleep problems, loneliness, no close friends, and bullying victimization were all independently associated with higher odds for multiple suicide attempts although some regional differences were observed. Our study results indicate potential target factors that could be addressed amongst those who had attempted suicide in the past to reduce future suicide attempts and possibly completed suicides. Furthermore, it is possible that region-specific interventions are necessary.

11.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight may be a risk factor for anxiety; however, there is a scarcity of studies on this association in older adults especially from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The BMI was based on measured weight and height and was categorized as: < 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), 30.0-34.9 kg/m2 (obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity class II), and ≥ 40 kg/m2 (obesity class III). Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥ 50 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD 16.0 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed. Overall, compared to normal weight, only underweight was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.26-1.95). Obesity class III (vs. normal weight) was associated with significantly increased odds for anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.15; 95%CI = 1.49-11.59) only among males. CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of older adults from LMICs, underweight was associated with anxiety symptoms in males and females. Class III obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only in males. Future studies to shed light on the reason why severe obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only among males in LMICs are needed.

12.
Exp Gerontol ; 154: 111513, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited available literature suggests that sleep problems are linked to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, this association has been little studied to date in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sleep problems and MCI in a large sample of adults from six low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SUBJECTS: 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities [age range 50-114 years; 51.7% females]. METHODS: MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Sleep problems were assessed by the question "Overall in the last 30 days, how much of a problem did you have with sleeping, such as falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning?" and categorized as "None", "Mild", "Moderate", "Severe/Extreme". Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to no sleep problems, mild, moderate, and severe/extreme sleep problems were associated with significant 1.40, 1.83, and 2.69 times higher odds for MCI with similar associations being observed between age groups and sex. Severe/extreme sleep problems were positively associated with MCI (i.e., OR > 1) in the six countries studied with the overall estimate being OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.50-2.16), and a low level of between-country heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 28.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems were associated with higher odds for MCI. Interventions to improve sleep quality among middle-aged and older adults in LMICs may be an effective strategy in reducing risk of MCI and dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
13.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453019

RESUMO

The authors investigated the association between vision impairment and physical activity among older adults from low- and middle-income countries. Visual acuity was measured using the tumbling ElogMAR chart, and vision impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 6/18 (0.48 logMAR) in the better seeing eye. Physical activity was assessed by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. The sample included 34,129 individuals aged 50-114 years (mean [SD] age 62.4 [16.0] years; 47.9% male). After adjustment for confounders, near vision impairment was not significantly associated with low physical activity, but far vision impairment showed a significant association (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval [1.17, 1.49], I2 = 0.0%). Far vision impairment was dose-dependently associated with low physical activity (e.g., severe [<6/10] vs. no [≥6/12] far vision impairment; odds ratio = 1.80; 95% confidence interval [1.03, 3.15]). Interventions to address low levels of physical activity in the visually impaired in low- and middle-income countries should target those with far vision impairment.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 22: 100809, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195472

RESUMO

Background: Participation in physical activity has been found to be beneficial for mental and physical health outcomes among cancer survivors. However, to date no intervention exists specifically to promote physical activity among bladder cancer survivors. In light of this knowledge a home-based exercise intervention was co-created for those recently diagnosed with bladder cancer. Aim: The aim of the present study, financially supported by Action Bladder Cancer UK [1], is to pilot the home-based exercise intervention tailored specifically for bladder cancer survivors (i.e. from the point of diagnosis) to improve physical and mental health outcomes (during treatment and beyond) in this population. Methods: This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Arm one will consists of the 14 week home-based exercise intervention and arm two usual care (15 participants will be randomised to each arm). Baseline data collection will take place shortly after clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer, and follow-up approximately 7 weeks and then again approximately 14 weeks after commencement of the intervention. At each data collection point data will be collected from participants relating to demographics, physical and mental health. Participants will aslo be asked to wear an Actigraph Accelerometer at each data collection point for seven consecutive days. Immediately after baseline data collection participants in the intervention arm will be given the home-based exercise booklet. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained for the present study via The London- City and East Research Ethics Committee (ID:291676). Results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations.

15.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 2038-2046, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no prospective studies on the association between multimorbidity and urinary incontinence (UI), while mediators in this association are unknown. Thus, we aimed to (i) investigate the longitudinal association between multimorbidity and UI in a large sample of Irish adults aged ≥50 years and (ii) investigate to what extent physical activity, polypharmacy, cognitive function, sleep problems, handgrip strength and disability mediate the association. METHODS: Data on 5,946 adults aged ≥50 years old from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging were analysed. The baseline survey was conducted between 2009 and 2011 and follow-up after 2 years was conducted. Information on self-reported occurrence of UI in the past 12 months and lifetime diagnosis of 14 chronic conditions were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analysis were conducted. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to having no chronic conditions at baseline, having three (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.48) and four or more (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.32-2.60), chronic conditions were significantly associated with incident UI. Mediation analysis showed that polypharmacy, sleep problems and disability explained 22.7, 17.8 and 14.7% of the association between multimorbidity (i.e. two or more chronic conditions) and incident UI, respectively. CONCLUSION: A greater number of chronic conditions at baseline were associated with a higher risk for incident UI at 2-year follow-up among adults aged ≥50 years in Ireland. Considering the effects of different medications on UI and improving sleep quality and disability among people aged ≥50 years with multimorbidity may reduce the incidence of UI.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Incontinência Urinária , Envelhecimento , Força da Mão , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
16.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

17.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272511

RESUMO

Globally, 2.2 billion people live with some form of vision impairment and/or eye disease. To date, most systematic reviews examining associations have focused on a single eye disease and there is no systematic evaluation of the relationships between eye diseases and diverse physical and mental health outcomes. Moreover, the strength and reliability of the literature is unclear. We performed an umbrella review of observational studies with meta analyses for any physical and/or mental comorbidities associated with eye disease. For each association, random-effects summary effect size, heterogeneity, small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals were calculated, and used to grade significant evidence from convincing to weak. 34 studies were included covering 58 outcomes. No outcomes yielded convincing evidence, six outcomes yielded highly suggestive results (cataract positively associated with type 2 diabetes, open-angled glaucoma positively associated with myopia and diabetes, diabetic retinopathy positively associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality, and retinopathy of prematurity positively associated with chorioamnionitis), eight outcomes yielded suggestive results (diabetic retinopathy positively associated with all-cause mortality and depression, diabetic macular oedema positively associated with dyslipidaemia, cataract positively associated with gout, nuclear sclerosis positively associated with all-cause mortality, open angled glaucoma positively associated with migraine and hypertension, and age-related macular degeneration positively associated with diabetes), and 18 outcomes yielded weak evidence. Results show highly suggestive or suggestive evidence for associations between several types of eye diseases with several comorbid outcomes. Practitioners and public health policies should note these findings when developing healthcare policies.

18.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206140

RESUMO

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are generally known for their recyclable antioxidative properties making them an appealing biomaterial for protecting against physiological and pathological age-related changes that are caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cataract is one such pathology that has been associated with oxidation and glycation of the lens proteins (crystallins) leading to aggregation and opacification. A novel coated nanoceria formulation has been previously shown to enter the human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and protect them from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this work, the mechanism of nanoceria uptake in HLECs is studied and multiple anti-cataractogenic properties are assessed in vitro. Our results show that the nanoceria provide multiple beneficial actions to delay cataract progression by (1) acting as a catalase mimetic in cells with inhibited catalase, (2) improving reduced to oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in HLECs, and (3) inhibiting the non-enzymatic glucose-induced glycation of the chaperone lens protein α-crystallin. Given the multifactorial nature of cataract progression, the varied actions of nanoceria render them promising candidates for potential non-surgical therapeutic treatment.

19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 96: 104438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between food insecurity and fall-related injury among older adults from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the extent to which this association is mediated by mental health. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Fall-related injury referred to those that occurred in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Data on 14,585 adults aged ≥65 years [mean (SD) age 72.5 (11.5) years; 54.9% females] were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, severe food insecurity (versus no food insecurity) was associated with 1.95 (95%CI = 1.11-3.41) times higher odds for fall-related injury. Moderate food insecurity was not significantly associated with fall-related injury (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 0.81-2.25). The mediation analysis showed that 37.3%, 21.8%, 17.7%, and 14.0% of the association between severe food insecurity and fall-related injury was explained by anxiety, sleep problems, depression, and cognition, respectively. CONCLUSION: Severe food insecurity was associated with higher odds for injurious falls among older adults in LMICs, and a large proportion of this association may be explained by mental health complications. Interventions to improve mental health among those who are food insecure and a strong focus on societal and government efforts to reduce food insecurity may contribute to a decrease in injurious falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072669

RESUMO

Limited literature has investigated the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥65 years in six LMICs. Community-based cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. In the past, 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The final sample consisted of 14,585 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.5) years; 55.0% females). The prevalence of sarcopenia among those with no food insecurity was 13.0% but this increased to 24.4% among those with severe food insecurity. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to no food insecurity, severe food insecurity was associated with 2.05 (95%CI = 1.12-3.73) times higher odds for sarcopenia. In this large representative sample of older adults from multiple LMICs, it was found that severe food insecurity is associated with higher odds for sarcopenia. Addressing food insecurity in such settings may be an effective strategy to curb the high prevalence of sarcopenia in LMICs.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
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