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1.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705229

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a costly procedure used to irradiate disease tissue while sparing healthy tissue, ideally limiting the side effects of treatment. SRS is frequently used in the setting of lung cancer, which is associated with greater rates of BM, though its cost may lead to potentially inequitable use across patient populations. This study investigates potential disparities in the use of SRS to treat Medicare patients. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results cancer registry data for patients diagnosed between the years 2010 and 2012 were examined to identify lung cancer patients diagnosed with BM at the same time as their primary cancer (SBM). Medicare claims for SRS were identified; the odds of having SRS claims and hazards of mortality associated with those odds were examined with respect to various clinical and demographic characteristics. Of 74,142 Medicare-enrolled patients diagnosed with lung cancer, 9192 were diagnosed with SBM and 3259 of those patients received SRS. Adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics, males with SBM had 0.85 times the odds of SRS compared to females with SBM. Black patients and those of other race had significantly lower odds of evidence of SRS compared to WNH patients. SRS may not be delivered equitably among Medicare patients. Males and minority patients may have decreased odds of SRS and worse survival compared to female and WNH patients, respectively.

2.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chordomas of the spine and sacrum are a rare but debilitating cancer and require complex multidisciplinary care. Studies of other such rare cancers have demonstrated an association of high-volume and/or multidisciplinary centers with improved outcomes and survival. Such an association has been proposed for chordomas, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. The authors performed a study to investigate if treatment facility type is associated with patterns of care and survival for patients with spinal and sacral chordomas by assessing records from a US-based cancer database. METHODS: In this observational retrospective cohort study, the authors identified 1266 patients from the National Cancer Database with vertebral column or sacral chordomas diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. The primary study outcome was overall survival, and secondary outcomes included odds of receiving treatment and time to treatment, defined as radiation therapy, surgery, and/or any treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or participation in clinical trials. The results were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of education, income, and Charlson/Deyo score. RESULTS: Of the 1266 patients identified, the mean age at diagnosis was 59.70 years (SD 16.2 years), and the patients were predominantly male (n = 791 [62.50%]). Patients treated at community cancer programs demonstrated an increased risk of death (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.13-3.47, p = 0.018) when compared to patients treated at academic/research programs (ARPs). The median survival was longest for those treated at ARPs (131.45 months) compared to community cancer programs (79.34 months, 95% CI 48.99-123.17) and comprehensive community cancer programs (CCCPs) (109.34 months, 95% CI 84.76-131.45); 5-year survival rates were 76.08%, 52.71%, and 61.57%, respectively. Patients treated at community cancer programs and CCCPs were less likely to receive any treatment compared to those treated at ARPs (OR 6.05, 95% CI 2.62-13.95, p < 0.0001; OR 3.74, 95% CI 2.23-6.28, p < 0.0001, respectively). Patients treated at CCCPs and community cancer programs were less likely to receive surgery than those treated at ARPs (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.82-3.97, p = 0.010; OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.22-5.71, p = 0.014, respectively). Patients were more likely to receive any treatment (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87, p = 0.007) and surgery (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.88, p < 0.0001) within 30 days at a CCCP compared to an ARP. There were no differences in odds of receiving radiation therapy or time to radiation by facility type. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical care at an ARP is associated with increased odds of receiving treatment that is associated with improved overall survival for patients with spinal and sacral chordomas, suggesting that ARPs provide the most comprehensive specialized care for patients with this rare and devastating oncological disease.

3.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(Supplement_5): v1-v100, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675094

RESUMO

The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, is the largest population-based registry focused exclusively on primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the United States (US) and represents the entire US population. This report contains the most up-to-date population-based data on primary brain tumors available and supersedes all previous reports in terms of completeness and accuracy. All rates are age-adjusted using the 2000 US standard population and presented per 100,000 population. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate (AAAIR) of all malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 23.41 (Malignant AAAIR = 7.08, non-Malignant AAAIR = 16.33). This rate was higher in females compared to males (25.84 versus 20.82), Whites compared to Blacks (23.50 versus 23.34), and non-Hispanics compared to Hispanics (23.84 versus 21.28). The most commonly occurring malignant brain and other CNS tumor was glioblastoma (14.6% of all tumors), and the most common non-malignant tumor was meningioma (37.6% of all tumors). Glioblastoma was more common in males, and meningioma was more common in females. In children and adolescents (age 0-19 years), the incidence rate of all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 6.06. An estimated 86,010 new cases of malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2019 (25,510 malignant and 60,490 non-malignant). There were 79,718 deaths attributed to malignant brain and other CNS tumors between 2012 and 2016. This represents an average annual mortality rate of 4.42. The five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a malignant brain and other CNS tumor was 35.8%, and the five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 91.5%.

5.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise the lower-grade gliomas [LGG] (WHO grades II and III), present a therapeutic challenge to physicians due to the heterogeneity of their clinical behavior. Nomograms are useful tools for individualized estimation of survival. This study aimed to develop and independently validate a survival nomogram for patients with newly diagnosed LGG. METHODS: Data were obtained for newly diagnosed LGG patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Ohio Brain Tumor Study (OBTS) with the following variables: tumor grade (II or III), age at diagnosis, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), and molecular subtype (IDH mutant with 1p/19q codeletion [IDHmut-codel], IDH mutant without 1p/19q codeletion [IDHmut-non-codel], IDH wild-type [IDHwt]). Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, random survival forests, and recursive partitioning analysis, with adjustment for known prognostic factors. The models were developed using TCGA data and independently validated using the OBTS data. Models were internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation and externally validated with calibration curves. RESULTS: A final nomogram was validated for newly diagnosed LGG. Factors that increased the probability of survival included grade II tumor, younger age at diagnosis, having a high KPS, and the IDHmut-codel molecular subtype. CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram that calculates individualized survival probabilities for patients with newly diagnosed LGG could be useful to healthcare providers for counseling patients regarding treatment decisions and optimizing therapeutic approaches. Free online software for implementing this nomogram is provided: https://hgittleman.shinyapps.io/LGG_Nomogram_H_Gittleman/.

6.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiological basis of glioma is poorly understood. We have used genetic markers in a Mendelian Randomisation (MR) framework to examine if lifestyle, cardiometabolic and inflammatory factors influence the risk of glioma. This methodology reduces bias from confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS: We identified genetic instruments for 37 potentially modifiable risk factors and evaluated their association with glioma risk using data from a genome-wide association study of 12,488 glioma patients and 18,169 controls. We used the estimated odds ratio of glioma associated with each of the genetically defined traits to infer evidence for a causal relationship with the following exposures: lifestyle and dietary factors (height, plasma IGF-1, blood carnitine, blood methionine, blood selenium, blood zinc, circulating adiponectin, circulating carotenoids, iron status, serum calcium, vitamin [A1, B12, B6, E and 25-hydroxyvitamin D], fatty acids levels [mono-unsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6] and circulating fetuin-A); cardiometabolic factors (birth weight, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, basal metabolic rate, body fat percentage, body mass index, fasting glucose, fasting proinsulin, HbA1C levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio) were included; inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma IL-6 sRa and serum IgE). RESULTS: After correction for the testing of multiple potential risk factors and excluding associations driven by one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) no significant association with glioma risk was observed (i.e. PCorrected > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence supporting any of the 37 factors examined as having a significant influence on glioma risk.

7.
Cancer ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination and trust are known barriers to accessing health care. Despite well-documented racial disparities in the ovarian cancer care continuum, the role of these barriers has not been examined. This study evaluated the association of everyday discrimination and trust in physicians with a prolonged interval between symptom onset and ovarian cancer diagnosis (hereafter referred to as prolonged symptom duration). METHODS: Subjects included cases enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, a multisite case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer among black women. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of everyday discrimination and trust in physicians with a prolonged symptom duration (1 or more symptoms lasting longer than the median symptom-specific duration), and it controlled for access-to-care covariates and potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the 486 cases in this analysis, 302 women had prolonged symptom duration. In the fully adjusted model, a 1-unit increase in the frequency of everyday discrimination increased the odds of prolonged symptom duration 74% (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49), but trust in physicians was not associated with prolonged symptom duration (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.66-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived everyday discrimination was associated with prolonged symptom duration, whereas more commonly evaluated determinants of access to care and trust in physicians were not. These results suggest that more research on the effects of interpersonal barriers affecting ovarian cancer care is warranted.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

9.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 54(5): 310-318, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416081

RESUMO

OBJECT: Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) allows rapid, simultaneous mapping of T1 and T2 relaxation times and may be an important diagnostic tool to measure tissue characteristics in pediatric brain tumors. We examined children and young adults with primary brain tumors to determine whether MRF can discriminate tumor from normal-appearing white matter and distinguish tumor grade. METHODS: MRF was performed in 23 patients (14 children and 9 young adults) with brain tumors (19 low-grade glioma, 4 high-grade tumors). T1 and T2 values were recorded in regions of solid tumor (ST), peritumoral white matter (PWM), and contralateral white matter (CWM). Nonparametric tests were used for comparison between groups and regions. RESULTS: Median scan time for MRF and a sequence for tumor localization was 11 min. MRF-derived T1 and T2 values distinguished ST from CWM (T1: 1,444 ± 254 ms vs. 938 ± 96 ms, p = 0.0002; T2: 61 ± 22 ms vs. 38 ± 9 ms, p = 0.0003) and separated high-grade tumors from low-grade tumors (T1: 1,863 ± 70 ms vs. 1,355 ± 187 ms, p = 0.007; T2: 90 ± 13 ms vs. 56 ± 19 ms, p = 0.013). PWM was distinct from CWM (T1: 1,261 ± 359 ms vs. 933 ± 104 ms, p = 0.0008; T2: 65 ± 51 ms vs. 38 ± 8 ms, p = 0.008), as well as from tumor (T1: 1,261 ± 371 ms vs. 1,462 ± 248 ms, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: MRF is a fast sequence that can rapidly distinguish important tissue components in pediatric brain tumor patients. MRF-derived T1 and T2 distinguished tumor from normal-appearing white matter, differentiated tumor grade, and found abnormalities in peritumoral regions. MRF may be useful for rapid quantitative measurement of tissue characteristics and distinguish tumor grade in children and young adults with brain tumors.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 129: e749-e753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report baseline demographics and examine for differences in survival for patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and III spinal meningioma. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with WHO grade II or grade III spinal meningioma between 2004 and 2015. Cases with histopathological confirmation were included. Descriptive statistics were calculated and stratified by tumor type. Facility type, 30-day readmission, and 90-day mortality were also examined. Crude and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate for differences in survival. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients with WHO grade II or grade III spinal meningioma (white, n = 237; black, n = 32; Asian and Pacific Islander, n = 11; unknown race, n = 7) were identified. The mean patient age was 56.4 years, and the majority were female (70%; n = 201). Almost one-half of the patients were treated in an academic/research program (45.3%; n = 130,). Those with WHO grade III lesions received the earliest treatment, at a mean of 10.8 days following diagnosis. The proportion of patients with unplanned 30-day readmission following surgery was 4.2% (n = 12). Two patients died within 90 days of surgery. Multivariable analysis demonstrated no differences in survival for patients with WHO grade II or grade III lesions (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-4.52; P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: No difference in overall survival was identified between patients with WHO grade II or III spinal meningioma, although a trend was seen toward worse survival for patients with WHO grade III lesions.

11.
Cancer ; 125(19): 3390-3400, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have reported higher rates of glioma in areas with higher socioeconomic status (SES) but to the authors' knowledge have not stratified by other factors, including race/ethnicity or urban versus rural location. METHODS: The authors identified the average annual age-adjusted incidence rates and calculated hazard ratios for death for gliomas of various subtypes, stratified by a county-level index for SES, race/ethnicity, US region, and rural versus urban status. RESULTS: Rates of glioma were highest in counties with higher SES (rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.15-1.22 comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles [P < .001]). Stratified by race/ethnicity, higher rates in high SES counties persisted for white non-Hispanic individuals. Stratified by rural versus urban status, differences in incidence by SES were more pronounced among urban counties. Survival was higher for residents of high SES counties after adjustment for age and extent of surgical resection (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.87 comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of SES [P < .001]). Survival was higher among white Hispanic, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander individuals compared with white non-Hispanic individuals, after adjustment for age, SES, and extent of surgical resection, and when restricted to those individuals with glioblastoma who received radiation and chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of glioma was higher in US counties of high compared with low SES. These differences were most pronounced among white non-Hispanic individuals and white Hispanic individuals residing in urban areas. Better survival was observed in high SES counties, even when adjusting for extent of surgical resection, and when restricted to those who received radiation and chemotherapy for glioblastoma. Differences in incidence and survival were associated with SES and race, rather than rural versus urban status.

12.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(6): e00053, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) arises from adenomas. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the duodenal adenoma-carcinoma pathway have been identified in murine FAP models, but similar data in patients with FAP are limited. Identifying such changes may have significance in understanding duodenal polyposis therapies and identifying cancer biomarkers. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis to describe the duodenal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and determine changes distinguishing patients with FAP with and without duodenal cancer. METHODS: Transcriptional profiling was performed with the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 on duodenal biopsies from 12 FAP patients with duodenal cancer (FAP cases) and 12 FAP patients without cancer (FAP controls). DEGs were compared between cancer-normal, adenoma-normal, and cancer-adenoma in FAP cases and between adenomas from FAP cases and FAP controls. Significant results at P < 0.05 were filtered using fold change > 2. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-four DEGs were identified at an absolute fold change > 2. In adenoma-normal, downregulation of DEGs involved in metabolism of brush border proteins (LCT), lipids (APOB/A4), reactive oxygen species (GSTA2), and retinol (RBP2) was observed. In the cancer-adenoma comparison, upregulation of DEGs involved in cell invasion/migration (POSTN, SPP1) and downregulation of DEGs involved in Paneth differentiation (DEFA5/6) were observed. In the adenoma-adenoma comparison, downregulation of several DEGs (CLCA1, ADH1C, ANXA10) in FAP case adenomas was observed. DEGs with therapeutic potential include SPP1, which is involved in both cyclooxygenase and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways targeted by the sulindac/erlotinib combination for duodenal polyposis. DISCUSSION: We describe DEGs in the human duodenal adenoma-carcinoma sequence in FAP, which may have prognostic and therapeutic significance. Validation studies are needed to confirm these findings.

13.
J Neurooncol ; 144(1): 53-63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209773

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Population-based cancer statistics, including histology-specific incidence, prevalence, and survival are essential to evaluating the total burden due to disease in a population. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Comprehensive Oncology Network Evaluating Rare CNS Tumors (NCI-CONNECT) was developed to better understand tumor biology and patient outcomes for 12 selected brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumor histologies that are rare in adults to improve approaches to care and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, prevalence, and survival of these selected rare histologies. METHODS: Data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) from 2000 to 2014 were used to calculate average annual age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) per 100,000 population overall and by sex, race, ethnicity, and age. NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data were used to calculate relative survival (RS) estimates. Point prevalence for 2014 was estimated using annual age-specific incidence and survival from CBTRUS and SEER, respectively. RESULTS: Overall AAIR was 1.47 per 100,000 for all 12 rare histologies combined, with the highest histology-specific incidence in oligodendrogliomas (AAIR = 0.40/100,000). Overall, most histologies were more common in males, adults (age 40 + ), Whites, and non-Hispanics. Ependymomas were the most prevalent histology at 4.11 per 100,000; followed by oligodendrogliomas at 3.68 per 100,000. Relative survival at 1-, 5-, and 10-years was 82.3%, 64.0%, and 55.4%, respectively for all 12 selected brain and other CNS tumor types combined. Ependymomas had the highest RS (1-year = 94.2%, 5-year = 83.9%, 10-year = 78.6%) and gliosarcomas had the lowest relative survival rate (1-year = 42.5%, 5-year = 5.6%, 10-year = 2.9%) at all three time points. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence and prevalence of these rare brain and other CNS tumor histologies have not been previously reported. Along with survival, these data provide a statistical foundation to understand the impact of these cancers and provide important disease-specific data for the design of prospective clinical trials.

14.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1606-1616, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with ovarian carcinogenesis; yet, the impact of inflammatory-related exposures on outcomes has been understudied. OBJECTIVE: Given the poor survival of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, especially African-Americans, we examined whether diet-associated inflammation, a modifiable source of chronic systemic inflammation measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), was associated with all-cause mortality among African-American women with ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: Data were available from 490 ovarian carcinoma patients enrolled in a population-based case-control study of African-American women with ovarian cancer, the African-American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated based on prediagnostic dietary intake of foods alone or foods and supplements, which was self-reported using the 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate risk of mortality overall and for the most common histotype, high-grade serous carcinoma. Additionally, we assessed interaction by age at diagnosis and smoking status. RESULTS: Women included in this study had a median age of 57 y, and the majority of women were obese (58%), had late-stage disease (Stage III or IV, 66%), and had high-grade serous carcinoma (64%). Greater E-DII scores including supplements (indicating greater inflammatory potential) were associated with an increased risk of mortality among women with high-grade serous carcinoma (HR1-unit change: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.17). Similar associations were observed for the E-DII excluding supplements, although not statistically significant (HR1-unit change: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.17). There was an interaction by smoking status, where the positive association with mortality was present only among ever smokers (HRQuartile 4/Quartile 1: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.21, 4.60) but not among never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Greater inflammatory potential of prediagnostic diet may adversely impact prognosis among African-American women with high-grade serous carcinoma, and specifically among ever smokers.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091655

RESUMO

An integrated approach has been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for diagnosing brain tumors. This approach relies on the molecular characterization of biopsied tissue in conjunction with standard histology. Diffuse gliomas (grade II to grade IV malignant brain tumors) have a wide range in overall survival, from months for the worst cases of glioblastoma (GBM) to years for lower grade astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. We previously identified a change in the cell adhesion molecule PTPmu in brain tumors that results in the generation of proteolytic fragments. We developed agents to detect this cell surface-associated biomarker of the tumor microenvironment. In the current study, we evaluated the PTPmu biomarker in tissue microarrays and individual tumor samples of adolescent and young adult (n = 25) and adult (n = 69) glioma populations using a fluorescent histochemical reagent, SBK4-TR, that recognizes the PTPmu biomarker. We correlated staining with clinical data and found that high levels of the PTPmu biomarker correlate with increased survival of glioma patients, including those with GBM. Patients with high PTPmu live for 48 months on average, whereas PTPmu low patients live only 22 months. PTPmu high staining indicates a doubling of patient survival. Use of the agent to detect the PTPmu biomarker would allow differentiation of glioma patients with distinct survival outcomes and would complement current molecular approaches used in glioma prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 917-925, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program recently released data on brain metastases (BM) diagnosed during primary cancer staging workup ("synchronous" BM, or SBM); this study examines the incidence of SBM compared with that of lifetime BM (LBM) identified using Medicare claims for patients diagnosed with lung cancer, breast cancer, or melanoma. METHODS: Incidence proportions (IP) and age-adjusted rates for each of SEER SBM and Medicare LBM are presented along with measures of concordance between the two sources of data, where Medicare LBM were defined by several combinations of diagnosis and putative diagnostic imaging procedure codes. RESULTS: The SBM IP in lung, breast, and melanoma cancers were 9.6%, 0.3%, and 1.1%, respectively; the corresponding LBM IP were 13.5%, 1.8%, and 3.6%. The greatest SBM IP among patients with lung cancer was 13.4% for non-small cell lung cancer, and among patients with breast cancer was 0.7% for triple-negative breast cancer. The greatest LBM IP among lung cancers was 23.1% in small-cell lung cancer, and among breast cancers was 4.2% for cases of the triple negative subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large dataset that is representative of the elderly population in the United States, these analyses estimate synchronous and lifetime incidence of BM in lung cancers, breast cancers, and melanomas. IMPACT: These and other population-based estimates may be used to guide development of BM screening policy and evaluation of real-world data sources.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963577

RESUMO

Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, and to date, glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have only included European ancestry (EA) populations. African Americans and Hispanics in the US have varying proportions of EA, African (AA) and Native American ancestries (NAA). It is unknown if identified GWAS loci or increased EA is associated with increased glioma risk. We assessed whether EA was associated with glioma in African Americans and Hispanics. Data were obtained for 832 cases and 675 controls from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and GliomaSE Case-Control Study previously estimated to have <80% EA, or self-identify as non-White. We estimated global and local ancestry using fastStructure and RFMix, respectively, using 1,000 genomes project reference populations. Within groups with ≥40% AA (AFR≥0.4 ), and ≥15% NAA (AMR≥0.15 ), genome-wide association between local EA and glioma was evaluated using logistic regression conditioned on global EA for all gliomas. We identified two regions (7q21.11, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ; 11p11.12, p = 7.0 × 10-4 ) associated with increased EA, and one associated with decreased EA (20p12.13, p = 0.0026) in AFR≥0.4 . In addition, we identified a peak at rs1620291 (p = 4.36 × 10-6 ) in 7q21.3. Among AMR≥0.15 , we found an association between increased EA in one region (12q24.21, p = 8.38 × 10-4 ), and decreased EA in two regions (8q24.21, p = 0. 0010; 20q13.33, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ). No other significant associations were identified. This analysis identified an association between glioma and two regions previously identified in EA populations (8q24.21, 20q13.33) and four novel regions (7q21.11, 11p11.12, 12q24.21 and 20p12.13). The identifications of novel association with EA suggest regions to target for future genetic association studies.

19.
J Neurooncol ; 143(2): 349-357, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989622

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gliosarcoma is characterized by the World Health Organization as a Grade IV malignant neoplasm and a variant of glioblastoma. The association of race and ethnicity with survival has been established for numerous CNS malignancies, however, no epidemiological studies have reported these findings for patients with gliosarcoma. The aim of this study was to examine differences by race and ethnicity in overall survival, 30-day mortality, 90-day mortality, and 30-day readmission. METHODS: Data were obtained by query of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) for years 2004-2014. Patients with gliosarcoma were identified by International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition (ICD-O-3)-Oncology morphologic code 9442/3 and topographical codes C71.0-C71.9. Differences in survival by race/ethnicity were examined using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Readmission and mortality outcomes were examined with univariable and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1988 patients diagnosed with gliosarcoma were identified (White Non-Hispanic n = 1,682, Black Non-Hispanic n = 165, Asian n = 40, Hispanic n = 101). There were no differences in overall survival, 30- and 90-day mortality, or 30-day readmission between the races and ethnicities examined. Median survival was 10.4 months for White Non-Hispanics (95% CI 9.8, 11.2), 10.2 months for Black Non-Hispanics (95% CI 8.6, 13.1), 9.0 months for Asian Non-Hispanics (95% CI 5.1, 18.2), and 10.6 months for Hispanics (95% CI 8.3,16.2). 7.3% of all patients examined had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. CONCLUSION: Race/ethnicity are not associated with differences in overall survival, 30-day mortality, 90-day mortality, or 30-day readmission following surgical intervention for gliosarcoma.

20.
J Neurooncol ; 143(2): 251-260, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors (GCT) in the central nervous system (CNS) are rare tumors that occur with highest frequency in males, Asian populations, and children less than age 20 years. Due to the rarity of these tumors, their patterns of incidence are not well-described. The aim of this study is to provide the most up-to-date data on incidence and survival patterns for CNS GCT by sex, race, and age at diagnosis. METHODS: The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) is the largest aggregation of population-based incidence data on primary brain and other CNS tumors in the United States, containing incidence data from 51 central cancer registries and representing 100% of the US population. The current study used the CBTRUS analytic file to examine incidence (IR) of CNS GCT from 2006 to 2015, as well as registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program to examine survival. RESULTS: Males had greater IR than females in all CNS GCT histologies examined. Asian and Pacific Islanders had a significantly greater IR of CNS GCT than the other race categories. We confirmed that CNS GCT IR was greatest for those age 10-14 years and male. Overall survival rates were high for malignant CNS GCT, germinoma, mixed GCT, and malignant teratoma. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variation in CNS GCT incidence by sex, race, and age at diagnosis. Ascertaining accurate incidence and survival rates of CNS GCT provides vital information usable in real time for clinicians, public health planners, patients, and their families.

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