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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) after lobar intra-cerebral hemorrhage (l-ICH) currently relies on the MR-based modified Boston criteria (mBC). However, MRI has limited availability and the mBC have moderate sensitivity, with isolated l-ICH being classified as "possible CAA". A recent autopsy-based study reported potential value of finger-like projections (FLP) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on acute CT. Here we assessed these markers' performance in a cohort most of whom survived the index episode. METHODS: We included all patients from a prospective pathology database with non-traumatic l-ICH, admission CT and available tissue sample showing no alternative cause. CT was assessed by two blinded independent neuroradiologists. Interobserver reproducibility was almost perfect for SAH and substantial for FLP. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were eligible [age 65.8 ± 7.2 yrs; hematoma volume: 39(26, 71)mls; hematoma evacuation sample 15 patients; autopsy one patient]. MRI was available in 11 patients. ICH-related death affected six patients. Aß40-42 immunohistochemistry revealed CAA in seven patients (44%). SAH and FLP were present in 12/16 (75%) and 10/16 (62%) patients, respectively. SAH had 100% sensitivity for CAA but low specificity; FLP had lower performance. Using either pathology or MRI as reference standard yielded essentially similar results. All patients with possible CAA on MRI but CAA on pathology had SAH. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-size l-ICH who mostly survived the index event, SAH had perfect sensitivity and better performance than FLP. In addition, SAH appeared to add onto MRI in possible CAA, the clinically most relevant scenario. Studies in larger samples are however warranted.

2.
Neurology ; 97(7): e706-e719, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine similarities and differences in key predictors of recovery of bimanual hand use and unimanual motor impairment after stroke. METHOD: In this prospective longitudinal study, 89 patients with first-ever stroke with arm paresis were assessed at 3 weeks and 3 and 6 months after stroke onset. Bimanual activity performance was assessed with the Adult Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke (Ad-AHA), and unimanual motor impairment was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). Candidate predictors included shoulder abduction and finger extension measured by the corresponding FMA items (FMA-SAFE; range 0-4) and sensory and cognitive impairment. MRI was used to measure weighted corticospinal tract lesion load (wCST-LL) and resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). RESULTS: Initial Ad-AHA performance was poor but improved over time in all (mild-severe) impairment subgroups. Ad-AHA correlated with FMA at each time point (r > 0.88, p < 0.001), and recovery trajectories were similar. In patients with moderate to severe initial FMA, FMA-SAFE score was the strongest predictor of Ad-AHA outcome (R 2 = 0.81) and degree of recovery (R 2 = 0.64). Two-point discrimination explained additional variance in Ad-AHA outcome (R 2 = 0.05). Repeated analyses without FMA-SAFE score identified wCST-LL and cognitive impairment as additional predictors. A wCST-LL >5.5 cm3 strongly predicted low to minimal FMA/Ad-AHA recovery (≤10 and 20 points respectively, specificity = 0.91). FC explained some additional variance to FMA-SAFE score only in unimanual recovery. CONCLUSION: Although recovery of bimanual activity depends on the extent of corticospinal tract injury and initial sensory and cognitive impairments, FMA-SAFE score captures most of the variance explained by these mechanisms. FMA-SAFE score, a straightforward clinical measure, strongly predicts bimanual recovery. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02878304. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that the FMA-SAFE score predicts bimanual recovery after stroke.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
3.
Ann Neurol ; 90(3): 417-427, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is not recommended for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion (LVO) and a large volume of irreversibly injured tissue ("core"). Perfusion imaging may identify a subset of patients with large core who benefit from MT. METHODS: We compared two cohorts of LVO-related patients with large core (>50 ml on diffusion-weighted-imaging or CT-perfusion using RAPID), available perfusion imaging, and treated within 6 hours from onset by either MT + Best Medical Management (BMM) in one prospective study, or BMM alone in the pre-MT era from a prospective registry. Primary outcome was 90-day modified Rankin Scale ≤2. We searched for an interaction between treatment group and amount of penumbra as estimated by the mismatch ratio (MMRatio = critical hypoperfusion/core volume). RESULTS: Overall, 107 patients were included (56 MT + BMM and 51 BMM): Mean age was 68 ± 15 years, median core volume 99 ml (IQR: 72-131) and MMRatio 1.4 (IQR: 1.0-1.9). Baseline clinical and radiological variables were similar between the two groups, except for a higher intravenous thrombolysis rate in the BMM group. The MMRatio strongly modified the clinical outcome following MT (pinteraction < 0.001 for continuous MMRatio); MT was associated with a higher rate of good outcome in patients with, but not in those without, MMRatio>1.2 (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 6.8 [1.7-27.0] vs 0.7 [0.1-6.2], respectively). Similar findings were present for MMRatio ≥1.8 in the subgroup with core ≥70 ml. Parenchymal hemorrhage on follow-up imaging was more frequent in the MT + BMM group regardless of the MMRatio. INTERPRETATION: Perfusion imaging may help select which patients with large core should be considered for MT. Randomized studies are warranted. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:417-427.

4.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(9): 1051-1053, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309641
6.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211024371, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159824

RESUMO

Machine Learning (ML) has been proposed for tissue fate prediction after acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with the aim to help treatment decision and patient management. We compared three different ML models to the clinical method based on diffusion-perfusion thresholding for the voxel-based prediction of final infarct, using a large MRI dataset obtained in a cohort of AIS patients prior to recanalization treatment. Baseline MRI (MRI0), including diffusion-weighted sequence (DWI) and Tmax maps from perfusion-weighted sequence, and 24-hr follow-up MRI (MRI24h) were retrospectively collected in consecutive 394 patients AIS patients (median age = 70 years; final infarct volume = 28mL). Manually segmented DWI24h lesion was considered the final infarct. Gradient Boosting, Random Forests and U-Net were trained using DWI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and Tmax maps on MRI0 as inputs to predict final infarct. Tissue outcome predictions were compared to final infarct using Dice score. Gradient Boosting had significantly better predictive performance (median [IQR] Dice Score as for median age, maybe you can replace the comma with an equal sign for consistency 0.53 [0.29-0.68]) than U-Net (0.48 [0.18-0.68]), Random Forests (0.51 [0.27-0.66]), and clinical thresholding method (0.45 [0.25-0.62]) (P < 0.001). In this benchmark of ML models for tissue outcome prediction in AIS, Gradient Boosting outperformed other ML models and clinical thresholding method and is thus promising for future decision-making.

7.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2794-2803, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991152

RESUMO

Despite major advances in prevention, ischaemic stroke remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. After centuries of nihilism and decades of failed neuroprotection trials, the discovery, initially in non-human primates and subsequently in man, that ischaemic brain tissue termed the ischaemic penumbra can be salvaged from infarction up to and perhaps beyond 24 h after stroke onset has underpinned the development of highly efficient reperfusion therapies, namely intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy, which have revolutionized the management of the acute stroke patient. Animal experiments have documented that how long the penumbra can survive depends not only on time elapsed since arterial occlusion ('time is brain'), but also on how severely perfusion is reduced. Novel imaging techniques allowing the penumbra and the already irreversibly damaged core in the individual subject to be mapped have documented that the time course of core growth at the expense of the penumbra widely differs from patient to patient, and hence that individual physiology should be considered in addition to time since stroke onset for decision-making. This concept has been implemented to optimize patient selection in pivotal trials of reperfusion therapies beyond 3 h after stroke onset and is now routinely applied in clinical practice, using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The notion that, in order to be both efficient and harmless, treatment should be tailored to each patient's physiological characteristics represents a radical move towards precision medicine.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Int J Stroke ; 16(5): 497-509, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818215

RESUMO

The discovery that brain tissue could potentially be salvaged from ischaemia due to stroke, has led to major advances in the development of therapies for ischemic stroke. In this review, we detail the advances in the understanding of this area termed the ischaemic penumbra, from its discovery to the evolution of imaging techniques, and finally some of the treatments developed. Evolving from animal studies from the 70s and 80s and translated to clinical practice, the field of ischemic reperfusion therapy has largely been guided by an array of imaging techniques developed to positively identify the ischemic penumbra, including positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. More recently, numerous penumbral identification imaging studies have allowed for a better understanding of the progression of the ischaemic core at the expense of the penumbra, and identification of patients than can benefit from reperfusion therapies in the acute phase. Importantly, 40 years of critical imaging research on the ischaemic penumbra have allowed for considerable extension of the treatment time window and better patient selection for reperfusion therapy. The translation of the penumbra concept into routine clinical practice has shown that "tissue is at least as important as time."

10.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211008003, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with isolated cervical carotid artery occlusion not eligible to recanalization therapies but with compromised intracranial hemodynamics may be at risk of further clinical events. Apart from lying flat until spontaneous recanalization or adjustment of the collateral circulation hopefully occurs, no specific treatment is currently implemented. Improving collateral flow is an attractive option in this setting. Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) is known to result in rapid venous blood shift from the lower to the upper body part, in turn improving cardiac preload and output, and is routinely used in acute hemorrhagic shock. We report here cerebral blood flow velocities measured during LBPP in this patient population. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the clinical, physiological, and transcranial Doppler monitoring data collected during and 15 min after LBPP in 21 consecutive patients (10 females, median age: 54 years) with recently symptomatic isolated carotid occlusion/tight stenosis (unilateral in 18) mostly due to atherosclerosis or dissection. LBPP was applied for 90 min at a median 5 days after symptom onset. RESULTS: At baseline, middle-cerebral artery velocities were markedly lower on the symptomatic, as compared to asymptomatic, side. LBPP significantly improved blood flow velocities in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic middle-cerebral artery as well as the basilar artery, which persisted 15 min after discontinuing the procedure. LBPP also resulted in mild but significant increases in mean arterial blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: LBPP improved intracranial hemodynamics downstream recently symptomatic carotid occlusion/tight stenosis as well as in the contralateral and posterior circulations, which persisted after LBPP deflation. Randomized trials should determine if this easy-to-use, noninvasive, nonpharmacologic approach has long-lasting benefits on the intracranial circulation and improves functional outcome.

11.
Stroke ; 52(4): 1478-1482, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The in vivo diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is currently based on the Boston criteria, which largely rely on hemorrhagic features on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Adding to these criteria 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, a widely available imaging modality, might improve their accuracy. Here we tested the hypothesis that FDG uptake is reduced in posterior cortical areas, particularly the primary occipital cortex, which pathologically bear the brunt of vascular Aß deposition. METHODS: From a large memory clinic database, we retrospectively included all patients in whom both brain magnetic resonance imaging and FDG positron emission tomography had been obtained as part of routine clinical care and who fulfilled the Boston criteria for probable CAA. None had a history of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. FDG data processing involved (1) spatial normalization to the Montreal Neurology Institute/International Consortium for Brain Mapping 152 space and (2) generation of standardized FDG uptake (relative standardized uptake value; relative to the pons). The relative standardized uptake value data obtained in 13 regions of interest sampling key cortical areas and the cerebellum were compared between the CAA and age-matched control groups using 2 separate healthy subject databases and image-processing pipelines. The presence of significant hypometabolism (2-tailed P<0.05) was assessed for the bilaterally averaged regions-of-interest relative standardized uptake values. RESULTS: Fourteen patients fulfilling the Boston criteria for probable CAA (≥2 exclusively lobar microbleeds) were identified. Significant hypometabolism (P range, 0.047 to <0.0001) consistently affected the posterior cortical areas, including the superior and inferior parietal, primary visual, lateral occipital, lateral temporal, precuneus, and posterior cingulate regions of interest. The anterior cortical areas were marginally or not significantly hypometabolic, and the cerebellum was spared. CONCLUSIONS: Supporting our hypothesis, significant glucose hypometabolism predominantly affected posterior cortical regions, including the visual cortex. These findings from a small sample may have diagnostic implications but require replication in larger prospective studies. In addition, whether they generalize to CAA-related symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage warrants specific studies.

12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(5): 1511-1519, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a frequent cause of both intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and cognitive impairment in the elderly. Diagnosis relies on the Boston criteria, which use magnetic resonance imaging markers including ≥2 exclusively lobar cerebral microbleeds (lCMBs). Although amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) may provide molecular diagnosis, its specificity relative to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is limited due to the prevalence of positive amyloid PET in cognitively normal elderly. Using early-phase 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B as surrogate for tissue perfusion, a significantly lower occipital/posterior cingulate (O/PC) tracer uptake ratio in probable CAA relative to AD was recently reported, consistent with histopathological lesion distribution. We tested whether this finding could be reproduced using [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, a widely available modality that correlates well with early-phase amyloid PET in both healthy subjects and AD. METHODS: From a large memory clinic database, we retrospectively included 14 patients with probable CAA (Boston criteria) and 21 patients with no lCMB fulfilling AD criteria including cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. In all, [18 F]FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) was available as part of routine care. No subject had a clinical history of ICH. Regional standardized [18 F]FDG uptake values normalized to the pons (standard uptake value ratio [SUVr]) were obtained, and the O/PC ratio was calculated. RESULTS: The SUVr O/PC ratio was significantly lower in CAA versus AD (1.02 ± 0.14 vs. 1.19 ± 0.18, respectively; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small sample, our findings are consistent with the previous early-phase amyloid PET study. Thus, [18 F]FDG-PET may help differentiate CAA from AD, particularly in cases of amyloid PET positivity. Larger prospective studies, including in CAA-related ICH, are however warranted.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Compostos de Anilina , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Stroke ; 52(2): 699-702, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whether bridging therapy (intravenous thrombolysis [IVT] followed by mechanical thrombectomy) is superior to IVT alone in minor stroke with basilar artery occlusion remains uncertain. METHODS: Multicentric retrospective observational study of consecutive minor stroke patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤5) with basilar artery occlusion intended for IVT alone or bridging therapy. Propensity-score weighting was used to reduce baseline between-groups differences, and residual imbalance was addressed through adjusted logistic regression, with excellent outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included (28 and 29 in the bridging therapy and IVT alone groups, respectively). Following propensity-score weighting, the distribution of baseline clinical and radiological variables was similar across the 2 patient groups, except age, posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, history of hypertension and smoking, and onset-to-IVT time. Compared with IVT alone, bridging therapy was associated with excellent outcome (adjusted odds ratio=3.37 [95% CI, 1.13-10.03]; P=0.03). No patient experienced symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that bridging therapy may be superior to IVT alone in minor stroke with basilar artery occlusion.

14.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(3): 321-328, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427887

RESUMO

Importance: The best reperfusion strategy in patients with acute minor stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown. Accurately predicting early neurological deterioration of presumed ischemic origin (ENDi) following intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in this population may help to select candidates for immediate transfer for additional thrombectomy. Objective: To develop and validate an easily applicable predictive score of ENDi following IVT in patients with minor stroke and LVO. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicentric retrospective cohort included 729 consecutive patients with minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of 5 or less) and LVO (basilar artery, internal carotid artery, first [M1] or second [M2] segment of middle cerebral artery) intended for IVT alone in 45 French stroke centers, ie, including those who eventually received rescue thrombectomy because of ENDi. For external validation, another cohort of 347 patients with similar inclusion criteria was collected from 9 additional centers. Data were collected from January 2018 to September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: ENDi, defined as 4 or more points' deterioration on NIHSS score within the first 24 hours without parenchymal hemorrhage on follow-up imaging or another identified cause. Results: Of the 729 patients in the derivation cohort, 335 (46.0%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 70 (15) years; of the 347 patients in the validation cohort, 190 (54.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 69 (15) years. In the derivation cohort, the median (interquartile range) NIHSS score was 3 (1-4), and the occlusion site was the internal carotid artery in 97 patients (13.3%), M1 in 207 (28.4%), M2 in 395 (54.2%), and basilar artery in 30 (4.1%). ENDi occurred in 88 patients (12.1%; 95% CI, 9.7-14.4) and was strongly associated with poorer 3-month outcomes, even in patients who underwent rescue thrombectomy. In multivariable analysis, a more proximal occlusion site and a longer thrombus were independently associated with ENDi. A 4-point score derived from these variables-1 point for thrombus length and 3 points for occlusion site-showed good discriminative power for ENDi (C statistic = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70-0.82) and was successfully validated in the validation cohort (ENDi rate, 11.0% [38 of 347]; C statistic = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.86). In both cohorts, ENDi probability was approximately 3%, 7%, 20%, and 35% for scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 to 4, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: The substantial ENDi rates observed in these cohorts highlights the current debate regarding whether to directly transfer patients with IVT-treated minor stroke and LVO for additional thrombectomy. Based on the strong associations observed, an easily applicable score for ENDi risk prediction that may assist decision-making was derived and externally validated.

16.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 41(2): 253-266, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960688

RESUMO

Despite early thrombectomy, a sizeable fraction of acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion have poor outcome. The no-reflow phenomenon, i.e. impaired microvascular reperfusion despite complete recanalization, may contribute to such "futile recanalizations". Although well reported in animal models, no-reflow is still poorly characterized in man. From a large prospective thrombectomy database, we included all patients with intracranial proximal occlusion, complete recanalization (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2c-3), and availability of both baseline and 24 h follow-up MRI including arterial spin labeling perfusion mapping. No-reflow was operationally defined as i) hypoperfusion ≥40% relative to contralateral homologous region, assessed with both visual (two independent investigators) and automatic image analysis, and ii) infarction on follow-up MRI. Thirty-three patients were eligible (median age: 70 years, NIHSS: 18, and stroke onset-to-recanalization delay: 208 min). The operational criteria were met in one patient only, consistently with the visual and automatic analyses. This patient recanalized 160 min after stroke onset and had excellent functional outcome. In our cohort of patients with complete and stable recanalization following thrombectomy for intracranial proximal occlusion, severe ipsilateral hypoperfusion on follow-up imaging associated with newly developed infarction was a rare occurrence. Thus, no-reflow may be infrequent in human stroke and may not substantially contribute to futile recanalizations.

17.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 160-169, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether bridging therapy (intravenous thrombolysis [IVT] followed by endovascular treatment) is superior to IVT alone in minor stroke with large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown. METHODS: Multicentric retrospective observational study including, in intention-to-treat, consecutive IVT-treated minor strokes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤ 5) with LVO, with or without additional mechanical thrombectomy. Propensity-score (inverse probability of treatment weighting) was used to reduce baseline between-groups differences. The primary outcome was excellent outcome, that is, modified Rankin score 0 to 1 at 3 months follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 598 patients were included (214 and 384 in the bridging therapy and IVT groups, respectively). Following propensity-score weighting, the distribution of baseline clinical and radiological variables was similar across the two patient groups. Compared with IVT alone, bridging therapy was not associated with excellent outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-1.24; p = 0.76), but was associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.77-5.11; p < 0.0001). Occlusion site was a strong modifier of the effect of bridging therapy on outcome (pinteraction < 0.0001), with bridging therapy associated with higher odds of excellent outcome in proximal M1 (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.67-6.35; p = 0.0006) and distal M1 (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.01-2.82; p = 0.04) occlusions, but with lower odds of excellent outcome for M2 (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.38-0.75; p = 0.0003) occlusions. Bridging therapy was associated with higher rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in M2 occlusions only (OR = 4.40; 95% CI = 2.20-8.83; p < 0.0001). INTERPRETATION: Although overall outcomes were similar in intended bridging therapy as compared to intended IVT alone in minor strokes with LVO, our results suggest that intended bridging therapy may be beneficial in M1 occlusions, whereas the benefit-risk profile may favor IVT alone in M2 occlusions. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:160-169.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
20.
Stroke ; 51(3): 838-845, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948355

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In randomized trials of symptomatic carotid endarterectomy, only modest benefit occurred in patients with moderate stenosis and important subgroups experienced no benefit. Carotid plaque 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography, reflecting inflammation, independently predicts recurrent stroke. We investigated if a risk score combining stenosis and plaque 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose would improve the identification of early recurrent stroke. Methods- We derived the score in a prospective cohort study of recent (<30 days) non-severe (modified Rankin Scale score ≤3) stroke/transient ischemic attack. We derived the SCAIL (symptomatic carotid atheroma inflammation lumen-stenosis) score (range, 0-5) including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose standardized uptake values (SUVmax <2 g/mL, 0 points; SUVmax 2-2.99 g/mL, 1 point; SUVmax 3-3.99 g/mL, 2 points; SUVmax ≥4 g/mL, 3 points) and stenosis (<50%, 0 points; 50%-69%, 1 point; ≥70%, 2 points). We validated the score in an independent pooled cohort of 2 studies. In the pooled cohorts, we investigated the SCAIL score to discriminate recurrent stroke after the index stroke/transient ischemic attack, after positron emission tomography-imaging, and in mild or moderate stenosis. Results- In the derivation cohort (109 patients), recurrent stroke risk increased with increasing SCAIL score (P=0.002, C statistic 0.71 [95% CI, 0.56-0.86]). The adjusted (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, antiplatelets, and statins) hazard ratio per 1-point SCAIL increase was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.2-4.5, P=0.01). Findings were confirmed in the validation cohort (87 patients, adjusted hazard ratio, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.9-5], P<0.001; C statistic 0.77 [95% CI, 0.67-0.87]). The SCAIL score independently predicted recurrent stroke after positron emission tomography-imaging (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.52 [95% CI, 1.58-12.93], P=0.005). Compared with stenosis severity (C statistic, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.46-0.80]), prediction of post-positron emission tomography stroke recurrence was improved with the SCAIL score (C statistic, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.66-0.97], P=0.04). Findings were confirmed in mild or moderate stenosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.39-5.39], P=0.004). Conclusions- The SCAIL score improved the identification of early recurrent stroke. Randomized trials are needed to test if a combined stenosis-inflammation strategy improves selection for carotid revascularization where benefit is currently uncertain.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Placa Aterosclerótica , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
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