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1.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408073

RESUMO

The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) is an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator implicated in breast cancer etiology. It is unknown whether circulating 27-OHC is associated with colorectal neoplasia risk. Circulating 27-OHC was measured using LC/MS in fasting plasma collected at baseline from participants of the Vitamin D/Calcium Polyp Prevention Study, a completed randomized clinical trial. Participants were between 45 and 75 years old, recently diagnosed with ≥1 colorectal adenoma, and followed for new colorectal polyps during colonoscopic surveillance. Adjusted risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of new colorectal polyps were estimated for quartiles of circulating 27-OHC using log-linear regression for repeated outcomes. Polyp phenotypes included any adenomas, advanced adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps. Circulating 27-OHC was measured at baseline for 1,246 participants. Compared with participants with circulating 27-OHC below the first quartile (<138 ng/mL), those with circulating 27-OHC at or above the fourth quartile (≥201 ng/mL) had 24% higher risk of adenomas (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.47) and 89% higher risk of advanced adenomas (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.17-3.06). Stronger associations were observed among participants with advanced adenomas at baseline. Circulating 27-OHC was not associated with risk of hyperplastic polyps (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.66-1.22) or sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.50-2.07). Circulating 27-OHC may be a risk factor for colorectal adenomas but not serrated polyps. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study found that plasma concentration of 27-hydroxycholesterol, a metabolite of cholesterol that regulates lipid metabolism and acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is associated with the risk of developing precursor lesions for colorectal cancer.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 370, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that milk consumption is inversely associated with colorectal, bladder, and breast cancer risk, but positively associated with prostate cancer. However, whether the associations reflect causality remains debatable. We investigated the potential causal associations of milk consumption with the risk of colorectal, bladder, breast, and prostate cancer using a genetic variant near the LCT gene as proxy for milk consumption. METHODS: We obtained genetic association estimates for cancer from the UK Biobank (n = 367,643 women and men), FinnGen consortium (n = 135,638 women and men), Breast Cancer Association Consortium (n = 228,951 women), and Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome consortium (n = 140,254 men). Milk consumption was proxied by a genetic variant (rs4988235 or rs182549) upstream of the gene encoding lactase, which catalyzes the breakdown of lactose. RESULTS: Genetically proxied milk consumption was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The odds ratio (OR) for each additional milk intake increasing allele was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-0.99; P = 0.009). There was no overall association of genetically predicted milk consumption with bladder (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.94-1.05; P = 0.836), breast (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02; P = 0.113), and prostate cancer (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.99-1.02; P = 0.389), but a positive association with prostate cancer was observed in the FinnGen consortium (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.13; P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strengthen the evidence for a protective role of milk consumption on colorectal cancer risk. There was no or limited evidence that milk consumption affects the risk of bladder, breast, and prostate cancer.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

5.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, which according to experimental research modulate tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We employed the Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that higher plasma phospholipid AA concentrations are associated with increased risk of 10 site-specific cancers. METHODS: Two genetic variants associated with plasma phospholipid concentrations of AA (rs174547 in FADS1 [P = 3.0 × 10-971] and rs16966952 in PDXDC1 [P = 2.4 × 10-10]) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium were used as genetic instruments. The associations of those variants with cancer were taken from the UK Biobank (n = 367,643), FinnGen consortium (n = 135,638), International Lung Cancer Consortium (n = 27,209), Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome consortium (n = 140,254), Breast Cancer Association Consortium (n = 228,951), Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (n = 66,450), and BioBank Japan (n = 212,453). RESULTS: Higher genetically predicted plasma phospholipid AA concentrations were associated with increased risk of colorectal and lung cancer. Results were consistent across data sources and variants. The combined odds ratios per standard deviation increase of AA concentrations were 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11; P = 6.3 × 10-8) for colorectal cancer and 1.07 (95%CI 1.05-1.10; P = 3.5 × 10-7) for lung cancer. Genetically predicted AA concentrations had a suggestive positive association with esophageal cancer (odds ratio 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.17; P = 0.016) but were not associated with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, bladder, prostate, breast, uterus, or ovary. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that AA may be implicated in the development of colorectal and lung cancer and possibly esophageal cancer. Treatments with plasma AA-lowering properties should be evaluated for clinical benefit.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1532-1539, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether dietary supplementation with vitamin D or calcium prevents keratinocyte carcinomas, also known as nonmelanoma skin cancers. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether daily vitamin D or calcium supplementation alters the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: The Vitamin D/Calcium Polyp Prevention Study is a completed multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, partial 2 × 2 factorial, randomized clinical trial of vitamin D, calcium, or both for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. During 2004-2008, a total of 2259 men and women, 45-75 y of age, recently diagnosed with a colorectal adenoma, were randomly assigned to 1000 IU/d of vitamin D3 or placebo and 1200 mg/d of calcium carbonate or placebo for 3 or 5 y, and followed after treatment ended. Reports of incident BCC or SCC were confirmed from pathology records. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8 y, 200 (9%) participants were diagnosed with BCC and 68 (3%) participants were diagnosed with SCC. BCC incidence was unrelated to treatment with vitamin D compared with no vitamin D (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.26), calcium compared with no calcium (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.39), and both agents compared with neither (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.51). SCC incidence was unrelated to treatment with vitamin D compared with no vitamin D (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.27), but there was suggestive evidence of beneficial treatment effects for calcium compared with no calcium (HR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.01) and both agents compared with neither (HR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Calcium alone or in combination with vitamin D may reduce the risk of SCC, but not BCC. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00153816.

7.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.

8.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917645

RESUMO

Increased COX-2 and decreased 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD) expression promote prostaglandin-mediated inflammation and colorectal carcinogenesis. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin D and calcium may inhibit these pathways, but their effects on colorectal tissue COX-2 and 15-HPGD expression in humans are unknown. We tested the effects of supplemental vitamin D (1,000 IU/day) and/or calcium (1,200 mg/day) on COX-2 and 15-HPGD expression in the morphologically normal rectal mucosa from 62 paients with colorectal adenoma in a placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial. We measured biomarker expression using automated IHC and quantitative image analysis at baseline and 1-year follow-up, and assessed treatment effects using mixed linear models. The primary outcome was the COX-2/15-HPGD expression ratio, because these enzymes function as physiologic antagonists. After 1 year of treatment, the mean COX-2/15-HPGD expression ratio in full-length crypts proportionately decreased 47% in the vitamin D group (P = 0.001), 46% in the calcium group (P = 0.002), and 34% in the calcium + vitamin D group (P = 0.03), relative to the placebo group. Among individuals with the functional vitamin D-binding protein isoform DBP2 (GC rs4588*A), the COX-2/15-HPDG ratio decreased 70% (P = 0.0006), 75% (P = 0.0002), and 60% (P = 0.006) in the vitamin D, calcium, and combined supplementation groups, respectively, relative to placebo. These results show that vitamin D and calcium favorably modulate the balance of expression of COX-2 and 15-HPGD-biomarkers of inflammation that are strongly linked to colorectal carcinogenesis-in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of patients with colorectal adenoma (perhaps especially those with the DBP2 isoform). PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Supplemental calcium and vitamin D reduce indicators of cancer-promoting inflammation in normal colorectal tissue in humans, thus furthering our understanding of how they may help prevent colorectal cancer.

10.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 863-876, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655007

RESUMO

Although substantial evidence supports aspirin's efficacy in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, key molecular mechanisms are uncertain. An untargeted metabolomics approach with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to elucidate metabolic effects of aspirin treatment in human colon tissue. We measured 10,269 metabolic features in normal mucosal biopsies collected at colonoscopy after approximately 3 years of randomized treatment with placebo, 81 or 325 mg/day aspirin from 325 participants in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study. Linear regression was used to identify aspirin-associated metabolic features and network analysis was used to identify pathways and predict metabolite identities. Poisson regression was used to examine metabolic features associations with colorectal adenoma risk. We detected 471 aspirin-associated metabolic features. Aside from the carnitine shuttle, aspirin-associated metabolic pathways were largely distinct for 81 mg aspirin (e.g., pyrimidine metabolism) and 325 mg (e.g., arachidonic acid metabolism). Among aspirin-associated metabolic features, we discovered three that were associated with adenoma risk and could contribute to the chemopreventive effect of aspirin treatment, and which have also previously been associated with colorectal cancer: creatinine, glycerol 3-phosphate, and linoleate. The last two of these are in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway, which was associated with 81 mg aspirin treatment and provides precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids from arachidonic acid upstream of cyclooxygenase inhibition by aspirin. Conversely, carnitine shuttle metabolites were increased with aspirin treatment and associated with increased adenoma risk. Thus, our untargeted metabolomics approach has identified novel metabolites and pathways that may underlie the effects of aspirin during early colorectal carcinogenesis.

11.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 126: 65-70, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subgroup analyses of clinical trial data can be an important tool for understanding when treatment effects differ across populations. That said, even effect estimates from prespecified subgroups in well-conducted trials may not apply to corresponding subgroups in the source population. While this divergence may simply reflect statistical imprecision, there has been less discussion of systematic or structural sources of misleading subgroup estimates. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We use directed acyclic graphs to show how selection bias caused by associations between effect measure modifiers and trial selection, whether explicit (e.g., eligibility criteria) or implicit (e.g., self-selection based on race), can result in subgroup estimates that do not correspond to subgroup effects in the source population. To demonstrate this point, we provide a hypothetical example illustrating the sorts of erroneous conclusions that can result, as well as their potential consequences. We also provide a tool for readers to explore additional cases. CONCLUSION: Treating subgroups within a trial essentially as random samples of the corresponding subgroups in the wider population can be misleading, even when analyses are conducted rigorously and all findings are internally valid. Researchers should carefully examine associations between (and consider adjusting for) variables when attempting to identify heterogeneous treatment effects.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203398, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324237

RESUMO

Importance: Histologic classification of colorectal polyps plays a critical role in screening for colorectal cancer and care of affected patients. An accurate and automated algorithm for the classification of colorectal polyps on digitized histopathologic slides could benefit practitioners and patients. Objective: To evaluate the performance and generalizability of a deep neural network for colorectal polyp classification on histopathologic slide images using a multi-institutional data set. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study used histopathologic slides collected from January 1, 2016, to June 31, 2016, from Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, with 326 slides used for training, 157 slides for an internal data set, and 25 for a validation set. For the external data set, 238 slides for 179 distinct patients were obtained from 24 institutions across 13 US states. Data analysis was performed from April 9 to November 23, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the model to classify 4 major colorectal polyp types: tubular adenoma, tubulovillous or villous adenoma, hyperplastic polyp, and sessile serrated adenoma. Performance was compared with that of local pathologists' at the point of care identified from corresponding pathology laboratories. Results: For the internal evaluation on the 157 slides with ground truth labels from 5 pathologists, the deep neural network had a mean accuracy of 93.5% (95% CI, 89.6%-97.4%) compared with local pathologists' accuracy of 91.4% (95% CI, 87.0%-95.8%). On the external test set of 238 slides with ground truth labels from 5 pathologists, the deep neural network achieved an accuracy of 87.0% (95% CI, 82.7%-91.3%), which was comparable with local pathologists' accuracy of 86.6% (95% CI, 82.3%-90.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that this model may assist pathologists by improving the diagnostic efficiency, reproducibility, and accuracy of colorectal cancer screenings.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 549-557, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reducing colorectal cancer incidence and mortality through early detection would improve efficacy if targeted. We developed a colorectal cancer risk prediction model incorporating personal, family, genetic, and environmental risk factors to enhance prevention. METHODS: A familial risk profile (FRP) was calculated to summarize individuals' risk based on detailed cancer family history (FH), family structure, probabilities of mutation in major colorectal cancer susceptibility genes, and a polygenic component. We developed risk models, including individuals' FRP or binary colorectal cancer FH, and colorectal cancer risk factors collected at enrollment using population-based colorectal cancer cases (N = 4,445) and controls (N = 3,967) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort (CCFRC). Model validation used CCFRC follow-up data for population-based (N = 12,052) and clinic-based (N = 5,584) relatives with no cancer history at recruitment to assess model calibration [expected/observed rate ratio (E/O)] and discrimination [area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC)]. RESULTS: The E/O [95% confidence interval (CI)] for FRP models for population-based relatives were 1.04 (0.74-1.45) for men and 0.86 (0.64-1.20) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 1.15 (0.87-1.58) for men and 1.04 (0.76-1.45) for women. The age-adjusted AUCs (95% CI) for FRP models for population-based relatives were 0.69 (0.60-0.78) for men and 0.70 (0.62-0.77) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 0.77 (0.69-0.84) for men and 0.68 (0.60-0.76) for women. The incremental values of AUC for FRP over FH models for population-based relatives were 0.08 (0.01-0.15) for men and 0.10 (0.04-0.16) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 0.11 (0.05-0.17) for men and 0.11 (0.06-0.17) for women. CONCLUSIONS: Both models calibrated well. The FRP-based model provided better risk stratification and risk discrimination than the FH-based model. IMPACT: Our findings suggest detailed FH may be useful for targeted risk-based screening and clinical management.

14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(7): 1483-1492.e2, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is chronic and recurs if treatment is discontinued. We aimed to determine rates of recurrence, and whether initial treatment with oral viscous budesonide (OVB) resulted in less recurrence than fluticasone from a multidose inhaler (MDI). METHODS: This was the observation phase of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial comparing OVB with MDI for initial EoE treatment. Subjects with a histologic response (<15 eosinophils/high-power field) in the trial entered an observation phase in which treatment was discontinued and symptoms were monitored. Patients underwent an endoscopy or a biopsy when symptoms recurred or at 1 year. We analyzed time to symptom recurrence and assessed endoscopic severity and histologic relapse (≥15 eosinophils/high-power field) at follow-up endoscopy. RESULTS: Thirty-three of the 58 subjects (57%) had symptom recurrence before 1 year. The overall median time to symptom recurrence was 244 days. There was no difference in the rate of symptom recurrence for subjects treated with OVB vs MDI (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.52-2.08). At symptom recurrence, 78% of patients had histologic relapse. The patients had significant increases in mean Dysphagia Symptom Questionnaire score (3.8 vs 8.7; P < .001), and the EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (1.3 vs 4.6; P < .001) compared with end of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EoE disease activity recurred rapidly after initial histologic response to topical steroids (either OVB or MDI). Because most subjects had recurrent endoscopic and histologic signs not reliably detected by symptoms, maintenance therapy should be recommended in EoE patients achieving histologic response to topical steroids. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02019758.

15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 704, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well-known that methylation changes occur as humans age, however, understanding how age-related changes in DNA methylation vary by sex is lacking. In this study, we characterize the effect of age on DNA methylation in a sex-specific manner and determine if these effects vary by genomic context. We used the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K array and DNA derived from whole blood for 400 adult participants (189 males and 211 females) from Bangladesh to identify age-associated CpG sites and regions and characterize the location of these age-associated sites with respect to CpG islands (vs. shore, shelf, or open sea) and gene regions (vs. intergenic). We conducted a genome-wide search for age-associated CpG sites (among 423,604 sites) using a reference-free approach to adjust for cell type composition (the R package RefFreeEWAS) and performed an independent replication analysis of age-associated CpGs. RESULTS: The number of age-associated CpGs (p < 5 x 10- 8) were 986 among men and 3479 among women of which 2027(63.8%) and 572 (64.1%) replicated (using Bonferroni adjusted p < 1.2 × 10- 5). For both sexes, age-associated CpG sites were more likely to be hyper-methylated with increasing age (compared to hypo-methylated) and were enriched in CpG islands and promoter regions compared with other locations and all CpGs on the array. Although we observed strong correlation between chronological age and previously-developed epigenetic age models (r ≈ 0.8), among our top (based on lowest p-value) age-associated CpG sites only 12 for males and 44 for females are included in these prediction models, and the median chronological age compared to predicted age was 44 vs. 51.7 in males and 45 vs. 52.1 in females. CONCLUSIONS: Our results describe genome-wide features of age-related changes in DNA methylation. The observed associations between age and methylation were generally consistent for both sexes, although the associations tended to be stronger among women. Our population may have unique age-related methylation changes that are not captured in the established methylation-based age prediction model we used, which was developed to be non-tissue-specific.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Sangue/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(8): 1030-1045, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502714

RESUMO

Experimental, observational, and clinical trials support a critical role of folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this report, we focus on understanding the relationship between common genetic variants and metabolites of FOCM. We conducted a genome-wide association study of FOCM biomarkers among 1,788 unaffected (without CRC) individuals of European ancestry from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Twelve metabolites, including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, vitamin B2 (flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin), vitamin B6 (4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), total homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, cystathionine, and creatinine were measured from plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS. For each individual biomarker, we estimated genotype array-specific associations followed by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified the variant rs35976024 (at 2p11.2 and intronic of ATOH8) associated with total homocysteine (p = 4.9 × 10-8 ). We found a group of six highly correlated variants on chromosome 15q14 associated with cystathionine (all p < 5 × 10-8 ), with the most significant variant rs28391580 (p = 2.8 × 10-8 ). Two variants (rs139435405 and rs149119426) on chromosome 14q13 showed significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations with S-adenosylhomocysteine. These three biomarkers with significant associations are closely involved in homocysteine metabolism. Furthermore, when assessing the principal components (PCs) derived from seven individual biomarkers, we identified the variant rs12665366 (at 6p25.3 and intronic of EXOC2) associated with the first PC (p = 2.3 × 10-8 ). Our data suggest that common genetic variants may play an important role in FOCM, particularly in homocysteine metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 903-911, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study previously found folic acid increased risk of advanced and multiple colorectal adenomas during a surveillance colonoscopy interval starting about 3 y after randomization. OBJECTIVE: We conducted secondary analyses to evaluate folic acid effects with additional follow-up after treatment was stopped. METHODS: In total, 1021 participants recently diagnosed with colorectal adenomas were randomly assigned to 1 mg/d of folic acid (n = 516) or placebo (n = 505), with or without aspirin, beginning 6 July 1994. The original 3-y treatment period was extended into a subsequent colonoscopy interval, but eventually stopped prematurely on 1 October 2004. With additional post-treatment follow-up, a total of 663 participants who extended treatment completed a second colonoscopic surveillance interval after the initial 3-y follow-up. In addition, 490 participants provided information regarding a subsequent surveillance colonoscopy occurring before completion of follow-up on 31 May 2012, including 325 who had agreed to extended treatment. Study endpoints included conventional adenomas, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), or colorectal cancer, and RRs with 95% CIs were adjusted for baseline characteristics associated with availability of follow-up. RESULTS: Among those who extended treatment, any colorectal neoplasia was found in 118 (36%) participants assigned to placebo and 146 (43%) assigned to folic acid during the second surveillance interval (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.47; P = 0.06). Increased risk of SSA/P with extended folic acid supplementation was statistically significant during the second surveillance interval (RR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.68; P = 0.04). There was no evidence of post-treatment effects for any colorectal neoplasia (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28; P = 0.94), and the post-treatment effect for SSA/P was no longer statistically significant (RR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.59, 3.19; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed treatment effects were not observed, but folic acid may increase SSA/P risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272324.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/farmacologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1262-1265, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral adiposity is a risk factor for colorectal adenomas, and aspirin is an established chemopreventive agent. Evidence from clinical trials suggests the effectiveness of aspirin at preventing cardiovascular disease and cancer may require higher doses for higher body weight. METHODS: Body mass index, body surface area, fat-free mass, and fat mass were calculated from baseline height and weight in 1,121 participants of the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3 × 2 factorial randomized clinical trial of low-dose (81 mg/day) or high-dose (325 mg/day) aspirin and/or 1 mg/day folic acid to prevent metachronous colorectal adenomas. Participants were treated during a surveillance colonoscopy interval of approximately 3 years. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for any colorectal neoplasia and high-risk adenoma (HRA, advanced or ≥3 adenomas) were estimated from log-linear regression. RESULTS: We did not find evidence to suggest aspirin dose-response differed by body composition measurements, including weight alone. Among those weighing ≥ 80 kg, treatment effects for low-dose aspirin (RR for colorectal neoplasia, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.94; RR for HRA, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86) and high-dose aspirin (RR for colorectal neoplasia, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.72-1.08; RR for HRA, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43-1.09) were not meaningfully different than for those weighing 70-79 kg or <70 kg. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of body composition calculated from height and weight did not modify aspirin treatment effects for colorectal adenoma prevention. IMPACT: Aspirin dosing strategies accounting for body weight suggested in previous trials of colorectal cancer may not apply to adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Aspirina/farmacologia , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(7): 1279-1290, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938860

RESUMO

The physical gut barrier, comprised of a thick mucus layer and the epithelium, plays an important role in defense against microbes and foreign antigens. Calcium and vitamin D may be involved in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, the dysfunction of which may lead to endotoxemia and inflammation, and contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated supplemental calcium (1200 mg, daily) and/or vitamin D3 (1000 IU daily) effects on intestinal barrier function-related biomarkers in a subset of 105 participants from a large colorectal adenoma recurrence chemoprevention clinical trial. We assessed expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1), occludin (OCLD), and mucin-12 (MUC12) in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa using standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Following 1 year of treatment, in the calcium relative to the no calcium group, the CLDN1, OCLD, and MUC12 expression increased by 14% (P = 0.17), 23% (P = 0.11), and 22% (P = 0.07), respectively. In secondary analyses, the estimated calcium treatment effects were greater among participants with baseline serum 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations below the median value of 22.69 ng/mL (CLDN1: 29%, P = 0.04; OCLD: 36%, P = 0.06; MUC12: 35%, P = 0.05). There were no biomarker expression changes in the vitamin D3 alone group; however, modest increases were found in the combined calcium/vitamin D3 group. At baseline, obesity, history of a sessile-serrated adenoma, colorectal MIB-1/Ki-67 expression, and a family history of colorectal cancer were associated with CLDN1, OCLD, and MUC12 expression. Our study supports continued investigation of factors that could affect intestinal mucosal barrier integrity relevant to colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Cálcio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Mucinas/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia
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