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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360826

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a complex post-translational modification that conveys functional diversity to glycoconjugates. Cell surface glycosylation mediates several biological activities such as induction of the intracellular signaling pathway and pathogen recognition. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane N-glycans determine blood type and influence cell lifespan. Although several proteomic studies have been carried out, the glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins has not been systematically investigated. This work aims at exploring the human RBC N-glycome by high-sensitivity MALDI-MS techniques to outline a fingerprint of RBC N-glycans. To this purpose, the MALDI-TOF spectra of healthy subjects harboring different blood groups were acquired. Results showed the predominant occurrence of neutral and sialylated complex N-glycans with bisected N-acetylglucosamine and core- and/or antennary fucosylation. In the higher mass region, these species presented with multiple N-acetyllactosamine repeating units. Amongst the detected glycoforms, the presence of glycans bearing ABO(H) antigens allowed us to define a distinctive spectrum for each blood group. For the first time, advanced glycomic techniques have been applied to a comprehensive exploration of human RBC N-glycosylation, providing a new tool for the early detection of distinct glycome changes associated with disease conditions as well as for understanding the molecular recognition of pathogens.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glicômica , Polissacarídeos/análise , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Glicosilação , Humanos , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 307, 2021 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SLC39A8, a gene located on chromosome 4q24, encodes for the manganese (Mn) transporter ZIP8 and its detrimental variants cause a type 2 congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). The common SLC39A8 missense variant A391T is associated with increased risk for multiple neurological and systemic disorders and with decreased serum Mn. Patients with SLC39A8-CDG present with different clinical and neuroradiological features linked to variable transferrin glycosylation profile. Galactose and Mn supplementation therapy results in the biochemical and clinical amelioration of treated patients. RESULTS: Here, we report clinical manifestations, neuroradiological features and glycophenotypes associated with novel SLC39A8 variants (c.1048G > A; p.Gly350Arg and c.131C > G; p.Ser44Trp) in two siblings of the same Italian family. Furthermore, we describe a third patient with overlapping clinical features harbouring the homozygous missense variant A391T. The clinical phenotype of the three patients was characterized by severe developmental disability, dystonic postural pattern and dyskinesia with a more severe progression of the disease in the two affected siblings. Neuroimaging showed a Leigh syndrome-like pattern involving the basal ganglia, thalami and white matter. In the two siblings, atrophic cerebral and cerebellum changes consistent with SLC39A8-CDG were detected as well. Serum transferrin isoelectric focusing (IEF) yielded variable results with slight increase of trisialotransferrin isoforms or even normal pattern. MALDI-MS showed the presence of hypogalactosylated transferrin N-glycans, spontaneously decreasing during the disease course, only in one affected sibling. Total serum N-glycome depicted a distinct pattern for the three patients, with increased levels of undergalactosylated and undersialylated precursors of fully sialylated biantennary glycans, including the monosialo-monogalacto-biantennary species A2G1S1. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical, MRI and glycosylation features of patients are consistent with SLC39A8-CDG. We document two novel variants associated with Leigh syndrome-like disease presentation of SLC39A8-CDG. We show, for the first time, a severe neurological phenotype overlapping with that described for SLC39A8-CDG in association with the homozygous A391T missense variant. We observed a spontaneous amelioration of transferrin N-glycome, highlighting the efficacy of MS-based serum glycomics as auxiliary tool for the diagnosis and clinical management of therapy response in patients with SLC39A8-CDG. Further studies are needed to analyse more in depth the influence of SLC39A8 variants, including the common missense variant, on the expression and function of ZIP8 protein, and their impact on clinical, biochemical and neuroradiological features.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação , Doença de Leigh , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Glicosilação , Humanos , Manganês , Polissacarídeos
3.
Mol Genet Metab ; 133(4): 397-399, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140212

RESUMO

PMM2-CDG is the most common congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) accounting for almost 65% of known CDG cases affecting N-glycosylation. Abnormalities in N-glycosylation could have a negative impact on many endocrine axes. There is very little known on the effect of impaired N-glycosylation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and whether CDG patients are at risk of secondary adrenal insufficiency and decreased adrenal cortisol production. Cortisol and ACTH concentrations were simultaneously measured between 7:44 am to 1 pm in forty-three subjects (20 female, median age 12.8 years, range 0.1 to 48.6 years) participating in an ongoing international, multi-center Natural History study for PMM2-CDG (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03173300). Of the 43 subjects, 11 (25.6%) had cortisol below 5 µg/dl and low to normal ACTH levels, suggestive of secondary adrenal insufficiency. Two of the 11 subjects have confirmed central adrenal insufficiency and are on hydrocortisone replacement and/or stress dosing during illness; 3 had normal and 1 had subnormal cortisol response to ACTH low-dose stimulation test but has not yet been started on therapy; the remaining 5 have upcoming stimulation testing planned. Our findings suggest that patients with PMM2-CDG may be at risk for adrenal insufficiency. Monitoring of morning cortisol and ACTH levels should be part of the standard care in patients with PMM2-CDG.

4.
Cerebellum ; 20(4): 596-605, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619652

RESUMO

We aimed to identify clinical, molecular and radiological correlates of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with cerebellar atrophy caused by PMM2 mutations (PMM2-CDG), the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation. Twenty-six PMM2-CDG patients (12 males; mean age 13 ± 11.1 years) underwent a standardized assessment to measure ADL, ataxia (brief ataxia rating scale, BARS) and phenotype severity (Nijmegen CDG rating scale, NCRS). MRI biometry of the cerebellum and the brainstem were performed in 23 patients (11 males; aged 5 months-18 years) and 19 control subjects with equal gender and age distributions. The average total ADL score was 15.3 ± 8.5 (range 3-32 out of 36 indicating severe functional disability), representing variable functional outcome in PMM2-CDG patients. Total ADL scores were significantly correlated with NCRS (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and BARS scores (r2 = 0.764; p < 0.001). Severe intellectual disability, peripheral neuropathy, and severe PMM2 variants were all significantly associated with worse functional outcome. Higher ADL scores were significantly associated with decreased diameters of cerebellar vermis (r2 = 0.347; p = 0.004), hemispheres (r2 = 0.436; p = 0.005), and brainstem, particularly the mid-pons (r2 = 0.64; p < 0.001) representing the major radiological predictor of functional disability score in multivariate regression analysis. We show that cerebellar syndrome severity, cognitive level, peripheral neuropathy, and genotype correlate with ADL used to quantify disease-related deficits in PMM2-CDG. Brainstem involvement should be regarded among functional outcome predictors in patients with cerebellar atrophy caused by PMM2-CDG.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(1): 148-163, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681750

RESUMO

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, and protein glycosylation. Previously known as GSD XIV, it was recently reclassified as a congenital disorder of glycosylation, PGM1-CDG. PGM1-CDG usually manifests as a multisystem disease. Most patients present as infants with cleft palate, liver function abnormalities and hypoglycemia, but some patients present in adulthood with isolated muscle involvement. Some patients develop life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Unlike most other CDG, PGM1-CDG has an effective treatment option, d-galactose, which has been shown to improve many of the patients' symptoms. Therefore, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for PGM1-CDG patients are crucial decisions. In this article, our group of international experts suggests diagnostic, follow-up, and management guidelines for PGM1-CDG. These guidelines are based on the best available evidence-based data and experts' opinions aiming to provide a practical resource for health care providers to facilitate successful diagnosis and optimal management of PGM1-CDG patients.

6.
Glycoconj J ; 38(2): 201-211, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915358

RESUMO

N-glycan analyses may serve uncovering disease-associated biomarkers, as well as for profiling distinctive changes supporting diagnosis of genetic disorders of glycan biosynthesis named congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) preferentially coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) - mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful analytical methods for N-glycan identification and characterization. To enhance detection sensitivity, glycans are commonly labelled with a functional tag prior to LC-MS analysis. Since most derivatization techniques are notoriously time-consuming, some commercial analytical kits have been developed to speed up N-deglycosylation and N-glycan labelling of glycoproteins of pharmaceutical and biological interest such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We exploited the analytical capabilities of RapiFluor-MS (RFMS) to perform, by a slightly modified protocol, a detailed N-glycan characterization of total serum and single serum glycoproteins from specific patients with CDG (MAN1B1-CDG, ALG12-CDG, MOGS-CDG, TMEM199-CDG). This strategy, accomplished by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC)-UPLC-ESI-MS separation of the RFMS derivatized N-glycans, allowed us to uncover structural details of patients serum released N-glycans, thus extending the current knowledge on glycan profiles in these individual glycosylation diseases. The applied methodology enabled to differentiate in some cases either structural isomers and isomers differing in the linkage type. All the here reported applications demonstrated that RFMS method, coupled to HILIC-UPLC-ESI-MS, represents a sensitive high throughput approach for serum N-glycome analysis and a valuable option for glycan detection and separation particularly for isomeric species.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(1): 219-222, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058492

RESUMO

Congenital glycosylation disorders (CDG) are inherited metabolic diseases due to defective glycoprotein and glycolipid glycan assembly and attachment. MOGS-CDG is a rare disorder with seven patients from five families reported worldwide. We report on a 19-year-old girl with MOGS-CDG. At birth she presented facial dysmorphism, marked hypotonia, and drug-resistant tonic seizures. In the following months, her motility was strongly limited by dystonia, with forced posture of the head and of both hands. She showed a peculiar hyperkinetic movement disorder with a rhythmic and repetitive pattern repeatedly documented on EEG-polygraphy recordings. Brain MRI showed progressive cortical and subcortical atrophy. Epileptic spasms appeared in first months and ceased by the age of 7 years, while tonic seizures were still present at last assessment (19 years). We report the oldest-known MOGS-CDG patient and broaden the neurological phenotype of this CDG.

8.
Brain Sci ; 10(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147879

RESUMO

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are etiologically related neurodevelopmental disorders with an onset age before 18 years and a reported comorbidity of 2.9-20%. The aim of the present study was to identify the incidence of ASD in a large clinical sample of individuals affected by GTS and to compare our results with previously reported incidences. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data (n = 1200) from January 2010 to March 2019 obtained from the outpatient Catania Tourette Clinic, part of the Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry of the Medical and Experimental Department of Catania University. We used internationally validated evaluation tools. The neuropsychological evaluation was carried out by an expert and a certificated team of child and adolescent neurologists, supervised by two expert child neurologists (R.R. and M.G.). We investigated 975 GTS-affected individuals of various socioeconomic levels aged 5-18 years, and 8.9% (n = 87) were affected by ASD. The incidence of GTS with ASD was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in children than in adolescents. No statistically significant differences were found in the sex distribution and age of onset of tics between individuals with GTS alone and those with GTS and ASD. The incidence of GTS and ASD comorbidity in this study was high, and this has several implications in terms of treatment and prognosis.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120900

RESUMO

Pediatric cancer survivors are at increased risk for psychological distress. We sought to understand the severity and symptoms' co-occurrence among pediatric survivors compared to controls by rating both self- and parent-reported symptomatology. Forty survivors (22 males; mean age at study time: 12.9 years) participated in the study. Most survivors (85%) had a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Seventy-nine healthy controls with the same age and gender distribution as the patients were included. A standardized assessment of psychological functioning was conducted by self- and parent-reported symptoms evaluations. The self-reported anxious symptom severity was significantly higher in survivors. A significantly higher proportion of survivors compared to controls had clinically significant anxiety, depression, and combined anxiety symptoms (i.e., social anxiety, separation anxiety, or physical symptoms). In both study groups, the self-reported emotional and somatic symptoms were significantly associated. The multi-informant assessments of the psychological symptoms revealed distinct associations between the child- and parent-reported symptoms in the survivors' group: the survivors' self-reports of depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment were significantly correlated with the parent reports of child behavioral concerns, somatic complaints, and functional impairment, respectively. Conclusion: Self-reported symptoms showed similar comorbidity profiles in survivors and control peers. The multi-informant assessments detected differences in the association of self- and parent-reported symptoms between the survivor and control groups. The present study showed that multi-informant assessment is critical to understanding symptom profiles and to informing intervention with particular regard to parental participation and support.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867322

RESUMO

Recent evidence has demonstrated that salivary molecules, as well as bacterial populations, can be perturbed by several pathological conditions, including neuro-psychiatric diseases. This relationship between brain functionality and saliva composition could be exploited to unveil new pathological mechanisms of elusive diseases, such as Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We performed a combined approach of miRNA expression profiling by NanoString technology, followed by validation experiments in qPCR, and 16S rRNA microbiome analysis on saliva from 53 ASD and 27 neurologically unaffected control (NUC) children. MiR-29a-3p and miR-141-3p were upregulated, while miR-16-5p, let-7b-5p, and miR-451a were downregulated in ASD compared to NUCs. Microbiome analysis on the same subjects revealed that Rothia, Filifactor, Actinobacillus, Weeksellaceae, Ralstonia, Pasteurellaceae, and Aggregatibacter increased their abundance in ASD patients, while Tannerella, Moryella and TM7-3 decreased. Variations of both miRNAs and microbes were statistically associated to different neuropsychological scores related to anomalies in social interaction and communication. Among miRNA/bacteria associations, the most relevant was the negative correlation between salivary miR-141-3p expression and Tannerella abundance. MiRNA and microbiome dysregulations found in the saliva of ASD children are potentially associated with cognitive impairments of the subjects. Furthermore, a potential cross-talking between circulating miRNAs and resident bacteria could occur in saliva of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bactérias/classificação , MicroRNAs/genética , Saliva/química , Saliva/microbiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/economia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are rare, chronic, progressive multisystem diseases implying severe medical issues and psychological burden. Some of these disorders are susceptible to a treatment, which is administered weekly or every other week, in a hospital. During the COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) pandemic lockdown, patients with LSDs on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) missed their scheduled access to the Day Hospital to get their treatment. METHODS: Based on the feeling that our patients were experiencing profound distress, we designed a structured telephone interview with the aim to evaluate how, and to which extent, the pandemic outbreak was changing their behavior and feelings about their chronic disease, the impact on therapies, and future expectations. The same interview was administered to an age-matched control group. RESULTS: All interviewed people experienced an increase of anxiety, worries, and uncertainty fostered by incessant media updates. Moreover, a striking similarity emerged between the groups regarding forced home reclusion and the profound feeling to be excluded by normal life, well-known to those affected by a chronic rare disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although no statistically significant difference was found compared to controls, we felt that the reactions were qualitatively different, underlining the fragility and isolation of such patients.

12.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(1): 165-171, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776892

RESUMO

Objectives: Congenital disorders of N-glycosylation (CDG) are a large group of rare metabolic disorders caused by defects in the most common post-translational modification of proteins. CDGs are often difficult to diagnose as they are manifested with non-specific symptoms and signs. Analysis of serum transferrin (TRF) isoforms, as the classical procedure used to identify a CDG patient, enables to predict pathological steps in the N-linked glycosylation process. Methods: We devised a new strategy based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the analysis of TRF isoforms by combining a simple and fast sample preparation with a specific chromatographic cleanup/separation step followed by mass-spectrometric measurement. Single TRF isoform masses were obtained through reconstruction of multiply charged electrospray data collected by quadrupole-MS technology. Hereby, we report the first analyzed serum samples obtained from 20 CDG patients and 100 controls. Results: The ratio of desialylated isoforms to total TRF was calculated for patients and controls. CDG-Type I patients showed higher amounts of bi-sialo isoform (range: 6.7-29.6%) compared to controls (<5.5%, mean percentage 3.9%). CDG-Type II pattern showed an increased peak of tri-sialo isoforms. The mean percentage of tri-sialo-TRF was 9.3% (range: 2.9-12.9%) in controls, which was lower than that obtained from two patients with COG5-CDG and MAN1B1-CDG (18.5 and 24.5%). Intraday and between-day imprecisions were less than 9 and 16%, respectively, for bi-sialo- and less than 3 and 6% for tri-sialo-TRF. Conclusions: This LC-MS-based approach provides a simple, sensitive and fast analytical tool for characterizing CDG disorders in a routine clinical biochemistry while improving diagnostic accuracy and speeding clinical decision-making.

13.
Brain Sci ; 10(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443587

RESUMO

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two neurodevelopmental disorders with male predominance, frequently comorbid, that share clinical and behavioral features. The incidence of ASD in patients affected by GTS was reported to be between 2.9% and 22.8%. We hypothesized that higher ASD rates among children affected by GTS previously reported may be due to difficulty in discriminating GTS sub-phenotypes from ASD, and the higher scores in the restrictive and repetitive behaviors in particular may represent at least a "false comorbidity". We studied a large population of 720 children and adolescents affected by GTS (n = 400) and ASD (n = 320), recruited from a single center. Patients were all assessed with The Yale Global Tic Severity Rating Scale (YGTSS), The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), The Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R), The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), and The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale for autism spectrum disorder (CY-BOCS ASD). Our results showed statistically significant differences in ADOS scores for social aspects between GTS with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sub-phenotypes and ASD. No differences were present when we compared GTS with comorbid ASD sub-phenotype to ASD, while repetitive and restrictive behavior scores in ASD did not present statistical differences in the comparison with GTS and comorbid OCD and ASD sub-phenotypes. We also showed that CY-BOCS ASD could be a useful instrument to correctly identify OCD from ASD symptoms.

14.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 80(4): 276-286, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159884

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with various molecular mechanisms including copy number variants (CNVs). We investigated possible associations between CNVs and ASD clinical correlates. We evaluated pertinent physical characteristics and phenotypic measures such as cognitive level, severity of ASD symptoms and comorbid conditions in ASD patients consecutively recruited over the study period. Children with causative (C-CNVs), non-causative (NC-CNVs) and without CNVs (W-CNVs) were compared. Out of 109 patients, 31 imbalances (16 duplications and 15 deletions) were detected in 25 subjects. Seven (6.4%) had C-CNVs and 18 (16.5%) had NC-CNVs. Paired post hoc comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment showed that dysmorphisms and microcephaly were significantly more frequent in the C-CNVs group. Patients with C-CNVs had more severe autistic core symptoms, while comorbid internalizing behavioral symptoms were more represented among participants with NC-CNVs. No significant differences were observed for distribution of macrocephaly, intellectual disability, epilepsy, isolated electroencephalogram abnormalities and studied neuroimaging characteristics among groups. Recurrent and rare C-CNVs highlighting genes relevant to neurodevelopment had a statistically higher occurrence in children with more severe ASD symptoms and further developmental abnormalities. This study documents the importance of measuring the physical and neurobehavioural correlates of ASD phenotypes to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms in patient subgroups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Causalidade , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Comorbidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenótipo
15.
Genet Med ; 22(6): 1102-1107, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103184

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied galactose supplementation in SLC35A2-congenital disorder of glycosylation (SLC35A2-CDG), caused by monoallelic pathogenic variants in SLC35A2 (Xp11.23), encoding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi UDP-galactose transporter. Patients present with epileptic encephalopathy, developmental disability, growth deficiency, and dysmorphism. METHODS: Ten patients with SLC35A2-CDG were supplemented with oral D-galactose for 18 weeks in escalating doses up to 1.5 g/kg/day. Outcome was assessed using the Nijmegen Pediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS, ten patients) and by glycomics (eight patients). RESULTS: SLC35A2-CDG patients demonstrated improvements in overall Nijmegen Pediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS) score (P = 0.008), the current clinical assessment (P = 0.007), and the system specific involvement (P = 0.042) domains. Improvements were primarily in growth and development with five patients resuming developmental progress, which included postural control, response to stimuli, and chewing and swallowing amelioration. Additionally, there were improvements in gastrointestinal symptoms and epilepsy. One patient in our study did not show any clinical improvement. Galactose supplementation improved patients' glycosylation with decreased ratios of incompletely formed to fully formed glycans (M-gal/disialo, P = 0.012 and monosialo/disialo, P = 0.017) and increased levels of a fully galactosylated N-glycan (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Oral D-galactose supplementation results in clinical and biochemical improvement in SLC35A2-CDG. Galactose supplementation may partially overcome the Golgi UDP-galactose deficiency and improves galactosylation. Oral galactose is well tolerated and shows promise as dietary therapy.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação , Epilepsia , Criança , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/tratamento farmacológico , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Galactose , Glicosilação , Humanos
16.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 57: 126409, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder with heterogeneous etiology and wide clinical severity which supports the needs of recognizing biological and clinical features in patient subsets. The present study aimed to understand possible associations between the hair levels of metals and essential elements and some specific features of ASD measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) that represents the gold-standard instrument to objectively confirm ASD diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in the province of Catania (Sicily, South Italy). Forty-eight subjects with ASD (70.8% male), aged from 2 to 17 years were studied. Metals (Li, Be, Al, Ni, As, Mo, Cd, Hg, U, Pb) and essential trace elements (Cr, Co, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se) were quantified in hair by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Participants were characterized by measuring the severity of autism symptoms and cognitive levels. RESULTS: A significant and positive correlation was found between hair metal burden (lead, aluminum, arsenic and cadmium levels) and severity of ASD symptoms (social communication deficits and repetitive, restrictive behaviors). Hair zinc level were inversely related with age while there was a negative, significant association between hair zinc level and severity of autistic symptoms (defective functional play and creativity and increase of stereotyped behavior). Lead, molybdenum and manganese hair levels were inversely correlated with cognitive level (full intelligence quotient) in ASD individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the importance to combine metallomics analysis with pertinent disease features in ASD to identify potential environmental risk factors on an individual level possibly in the early developmental period.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Oligoelementos/análise , Adolescente , Arsênio/análise , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Cádmio/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Manganês/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais , Molibdênio/análise , Selênio/análise
17.
Glycoconj J ; 36(6): 461-472, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529350

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases characterized by deficient synthesis (CDG type I) and/or abnormal processing (CDG type II) of glycan moieties linked to protein and lipids. The impact of the molecular defects on protein glycosylation and in turn on the clinical phenotypes of patients with CDG is not yet understood. ALG12-CDG is due to deficiency of ALG12 α1,6-mannosyltransferase that adds the eighth mannose residue on the dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum. ALG12-CDG is a severe multisystem disease associated with low to deficient serum immunoglobulins and recurrent infections. We thoroughly investigated the glycophenotype in a patient with novel ALG12 variants and immunodeficiency. We analyzed serum native transferrin, as first line test for CDG and we profiled serum IgG and total serum N-glycans by a combination of consolidated (N-glycan analysis by MALDI MS) and innovative mass spectrometry-based protocols, such as GlycoWorks RapiFluor N-glycan analysis coupled with LC-ESI MS. Intact serum transferrin showed, as expected for a CDG type I defect, underoccupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Surprisingly, total serum proteins and IgG N-glycans showed some specific changes, consisting in accumulating amounts of definite high-mannose and hybrid structures. As a whole, ALG12-CDG behaves as a dual CDG (CDG-I and II defects) and it is associated with distinct, abnormal glycosylation of total serum and IgG N-glycans. Glycan profiling of target glycoproteins may endorse the molecular defect unraveling the complex clinical phenotype of CDG patients.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Deficiência de IgG/genética , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Manosiltransferases/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/sangue , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Glicosilação , Humanos , Deficiência de IgG/sangue , Deficiência de IgG/metabolismo , Deficiência de IgG/patologia , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/deficiência , Lactente , Masculino , Manosiltransferases/sangue , Oligossacarídeos/genética , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Transferrina/genética , Transferrina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Brain Sci ; 9(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical myelopathy (CM) is a common cause of morbidity and disability in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and, therefore, early detection is crucial for the best surgical intervention and follow-up. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) non-invasively evaluates the conduction through the cortico-spinal tract, also allowing preclinical diagnosis and monitoring. METHODS: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were recorded in a group of eight patients with MPS-related CM. Responses were obtained during mild tonic muscular activation by means of a circular coil held on the "hot spot" of the first dorsal interosseous and tibialis anterior muscles, bilaterally. The motor latency by cervical or lumbar magnetic stimulation was subtracted from the MEP cortical latency to obtain the central motor conduction time. The MEP amplitude from peak to peak to cortical stimulation and the interside difference of each measure were also calculated. RESULTS: TMS revealed abnormal findings from both upper and lower limbs compatible with axonal damage and demyelination in six of them. Notably, a subclinical cervical spinal disease was detected before the occurrence of an overt CM in two patients, whereas TMS signs compatible with a CM of variable degree persisted despite surgery in all treated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: TMS can be viewed as an adjunct diagnostic test pending further rigorous investigations.

19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2044: 255-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432418

RESUMO

CSF diagnostics has proved to be a formidable testing ground for N-glycoproteomic analysis of neurological diseases. To characterize specific N-glycan profiles of CSF in early and advanced phases of Alzheimer's disease, as well as in lysosomal storage disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, we set up in our lab a robust and feasible protocol by coupling bioanalytical methods and mass spectrometry analysis.Starting from a few microliters of CSF, after protein denaturation, reduction, and alkylation, N-glycans are released from glycoproteins using the peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and purified. The analysis of permethylated N-glycans by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and MALDI-TOF MS/MS allowed us to identify specific glyco-structures and also to distinguish between isobaric N-glycans.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicoproteínas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicoproteínas/química , Polissacarídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Doença de Tay-Sachs/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso , Gangliosídeo G(M2)/metabolismo , Humanos , Íons/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995737

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by defective social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive behavior with a complex, multifactorial etiology. Despite an increasing worldwide prevalence of ASD, there is currently no pharmacological cure to treat core symptoms of ASD. Clinical evidence and molecular data support the role of impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in ASD. The recognition of defects in energy metabolism in ASD may be important for better understanding ASD and developing therapeutic intervention. The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α, δ, and γ are ligand-activated receptors with distinct physiological functions in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as inflammatory response. PPAR activation allows a coordinated up-regulation of numerous FAO enzymes, resulting in significant PPAR-driven increases in mitochondrial FAO flux. Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic compound which exhibits metabolic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing to possible applications in ASD therapeutics. In this study, we review the evidence for the existing links between ASD and impaired mitochondrial FAO and review the potential implications for regulation of mitochondrial FAO in ASD by PPAR activators, including RSV.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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