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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896062

RESUMO

The chirality controlled conformational landscape of the trimer of propylene oxide (PO), a prototypical chiral molecule, was investigated using rotational spectroscopy and a range of theoretical tools for conformational searches and for evaluating vibrational contributions to effective structures. Two sets of homochiral (PO) 3 transitions were assigned and the associated conformers identified with theoretical support. One set of heterochiral (PO) 3 transitions was assigned, but no structures generated by one of the latest, advanced conformational search codes could account for them. With the aid of a Python program, the carbon atom backbone and then the heterochiral (PO) 3 structure were generated using the 13 C isotopic data measured in natural abundance. Excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental rotational constants and relative dipole moment components of all three conformers was achieved, especially by applying vibrational corrections to the rotational constants.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717136

RESUMO

Phenylmethanimine is an aromatic imine with a twofold relevance in chemistry: organic synthesis and astrochemistry. To tackle both aspects, a multidisciplinary approach has been exploited and a new, easily accessible synthetic approach to generate stable imine-intermediates in the gas phase and in solution has been introduced. The combination of this formation pathway -based on the thermal decomposition of hydrobenzamide- with a state-of-the-art computational characterization of phenylmethanimine laid the foundation for its first laboratory observation by means of rotational electric resonance spectroscopy. Both E and Z isomers have been accurately characterized, thus providing a reliable basis to guide future astronomical observations. A further characterization has been carried out by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, showing the feasibility of this synthetic approach in solution. The temperature dependence as well as possible mechanisms of the thermolysis process have been examined.

3.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(8): 5090-5104, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603107

RESUMO

The atmospheric reaction of H2S with Cl has been reinvestigated to check if, as previously suggested, only explicit dynamical computations can lead to an accurate evaluation of the reaction rate because of strong recrossing effects and the breakdown of the variational extension of transition state theory. For this reason, the corresponding potential energy surface has been thoroughly investigated, thus leading to an accurate characterization of all stationary points, whose energetics has been computed at the state of the art. To this end, coupled-cluster theory including up to quadruple excitations has been employed, together with the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and also incorporating core-valence correlation, spin-orbit, and scalar relativistic effects as well as diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. This highly accurate composite scheme has also been paralleled by less expensive yet promising computational approaches. Moving to kinetics, variational transition state theory and its variable reaction coordinate extension for barrierless steps have been exploited, thus obtaining a reaction rate constant (8.16 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 300 K and 1 atm) in remarkable agreement with the experimental counterpart. Therefore, contrary to previous claims, there is no need to invoke any failure of the transition state theory, provided that sufficiently accurate quantum-chemical computations are performed. The investigation of the puzzling case of the H2S + Cl system allowed us to present a robust approach for disclosing the thermochemistry and kinetics of reactions of atmospheric and astrophysical interest.

4.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(9): 5747-5761, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697580

RESUMO

Multiscale QM/MM approaches have become the most suitable and effective methods for the investigation of spectroscopic properties of medium- or large-size chromophores in condensed phases. On these grounds, we are developing a novel workflow aimed at improving the generality, reliability, and ease of use of the available tools. In the present paper, we report the latest developments of such an approach with specific reference to a general workplan starting with the addition of acetonitrile to the panel of solvents already available in the General Liquid Optimized Boundary (GLOB) model enforcing nonperiodic boundary conditions (NPBC). Next, the solvatochromic shifts induced by acetonitrile on both rigid (uracil and thymine) and flexible (thyrosine) chromophores have been studied introducing in our software a number of new features ranging from rigid-geometry NPBC molecular dynamics based on the quaternion formalism to a full integration of variational (ONIOM) and perturbative (perturbed matrix method (PMM)) approaches for describing different solute-solvent topologies and local fluctuations, respectively. Finally, thymine and uracil have been studied also in methanol to point out the generality of the computational strategy. While further developments are surely needed, the strengths of our integrated approach even in its present version are demonstrated by the accuracy of the results obtained by an unsupervised approach and coupled to a computational cost strongly reduced with respect to that of conventional QM/MM models without any appreciable accuracy deterioration.

5.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(8): 5218-5226, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667793

RESUMO

The UPS spectra of six hydrocarbon cage compounds have been investigated by a Green-function approach in conjunction with a full harmonic treatment of vibrational modulation effects. The remarkable agreement with experimental results points out the reliability of the proposed computational approach and the strong interplay of stereoelectronic and vibrational effects in tuning the overall spectra.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543200

RESUMO

In a previous work, we have investigated the initial steps of the reaction of toluene with the hydroxyl radical using several quantum chemical approaches including density functional and composite post-Hartree-Fock models. Comparison of H-abstraction from the methyl group and additions at different positions of the phenyl ring showed that the former reaction channel is favored at room temperature. This conclusion appears at first sight incompatible with the experimental observation of a lower abundance of the product obtained from abstraction (benzaldehyde) with respect to those originating from addition (cresols). Further reactions of the intermediate radicals with oxygen, water, and additional OH radicals are explored in this paper through theoretical calculations on more than 120 species on the corresponding potential energy surface. The study of the addition reactions, to obtain the cresols through hydroxy methylcyclodienyl intermediate radicals, showed that only in the case of o-cresol the reaction proceeds by addition of O2 to the ring, internal H-transfer, and hydroperoxyl abstraction and not through direct H-abstraction. For both p- and m-cresol, instead, the reaction occurs through a higher-energy direct H-abstraction, thus explaining in part the observed larger concentration of the ortho isomer in the final products. It was also found that the benzyl radical, formed by H-abstraction from the methyl group, is able to react further if additional OH is present. Two reaction paths leading to o-cresol, two leading to p-cresol, and one leading to m-cresol were determined. Moreover, in this situation, the benzyl radical is predicted to produce benzyl alcohol, as was found in some experiments. The commonly accepted route to benzaldehyde was found to be not the energetically favored one. Instead, a route leading to the benzoyl radical (and ultimately to benzoic acid) with the participation of one water molecule was clearly more favorable, both thermodynamically and kinetically.

8.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580443

RESUMO

The gas-phase formation and spectroscopic characteristics of ethanimine have been re-investigated as a paradigmatic case illustrating the accuracy of state-of-the-art quantum-chemical (QC) methodologies in the field of astrochemistry. According to our computations, the reaction between the amidogen, NH, and ethyl, C2H5, radicals is very fast, close to the gas-kinetics limit. Although the main reaction channel under conditions typical of the interstellar medium leads to methanimine and the methyl radical, the predicted amount of the two E,Z stereoisomers of ethanimine is around 10%. State-of-the-art QC and kinetic models lead to a [E-CH3CHNH]/[Z-CH3CHNH] ratio of ca. 1.4, slightly higher than the previous computations, but still far from the value determined from astronomical observations (ca. 3). An accurate computational characterization of the molecular structure, energetics, and spectroscopic properties of the E and Z isomers of ethanimine combined with millimeter-wave measurements up to 300 GHz, allows for predicting the rotational spectrum of both isomers up to 500 GHz, thus opening the way toward new astronomical observations.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584345

RESUMO

Chemical bonding in a set of six cuprous complexes with simple nitriles (CN-, HNC, HCN, CH3NC, and CH3CN) is investigated by means of a recently devised analysis scheme framed in density-functional theory and quantitatively singling out concurrent charge flows such as σ donation and π backdonation. The results of our analysis are comparatively assessed against qualitative models for charge redistribution based on the popular concepts of octet rule and resonance structures, and the relative importance of different charge-flow channels relating to σ donation, π back-donation, polarization, and hyperconjugation is discussed on a quantitative basis.

11.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(6): 2668-2672, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271572

RESUMO

Proxima is a molecular perception library designed with a double purpose: to be used with immersive molecular viewers (thus providing any required feature not supported by third party libraries) and to be integrated in workflow managers thus providing the functionalities needed for the first steps of molecular modeling studies. It thus stands at the boundary between visualization and computation. The purpose of the present article is to provide a general introduction to the first release of Proxima, describe its most significant features, and highlight its performance by means of some case studies. The current version of Proxima is available for evaluation purposes at https://bitbucket.org/sns-smartlab/proxima/src/master/.

12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(5): 3294-3306, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250614

RESUMO

This paper deals with the development and first validation of a composite approach for the simulation of chiroptical spectra in solution aimed to strongly reduce the number of full QM computations without any significant accuracy loss. The approach starts from the quantum mechanical computation of reference spectra including vibrational averaging effects and taking average solvent effects into account by means of the polarizable continuum model. Next, the snapshots of classical molecular dynamics computations are clusterized and one reference configuration from each cluster is used to compute a reference spectrum. Local fluctuation effects within each cluster are then taken into account by means of the perturbed matrix model. The performance of the proposed approach is tested on the challenging case of the optical and chiroptical spectra of camphorquinone in methanol solution. Although further validations are surely needed, the results of this first study are quite promising also taking into account that agreement with experimental data is reached by just a couple of full quantum mechanical geometry optimizations and frequency computations.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163090

RESUMO

While it is now well demonstrated that the interstellar medium (ISM) is characterized by a diverse and complex chemistry, a significant number of features in radioastronomical spectra are still unassigned and call for new laboratory efforts, which are increasingly based on integrated experimental and computational strategies. In parallel, the identification of an increasing number of molecules containing more than five atoms and at least one carbon atom (the so-called "interstellar" complex organic molecules), which can play a relevant role in the chemistry of life, raises the additional issue of how these species can be produced in the typical harsh conditions of the ISM. On these grounds, this perspective aims to present an integrated rotational spectroscopy - quantum chemistry approach for supporting radioastronomical observations and a computational strategy for contributing to the elucidation of chemical reactivity in the interstellar space.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(14): 7340-7347, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211621

RESUMO

Here we present a computational approach based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to study the dependence of the protein hydration-shell density on the size of the protein molecule. The hydration-shell density of eighteen different proteins, differing in size, shape and function (eight of them are antifreeze proteins), is calculated. The results obtained show that an increase in the hydration-shell density, relative to that of the bulk, is observed (in the range of 4-14%) for all studied proteins and that this increment strongly correlates with the protein size. In particular, a decrease in the density increment is observed for decreasing protein size. A simple model is proposed in which the basic idea is to approximate the protein molecule as an effective ellipsoid and to partition the relevant parameters, i.e. the solvent-accessible volume and the corresponding solvent density, into two regions: inside and outside the effective protein ellipsoid. It is found that, within the model developed here, almost all of the hydration-density increase is located inside the protein ellipsoid, basically corresponding to pockets within, or at the surface of the protein molecule. The observed decrease in the density increment is caused by the protein size only and no difference is found between antifreeze and non-antifreeze proteins.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas/química , Água/química , Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Conformação Proteica
15.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(34): 343002, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203942

RESUMO

In the past decade, many gas-phase spectroscopic investigations have focused on the understanding of the nature of weak interactions in model systems. Despite the fact that non-covalent interactions play a key role in several biological and technological processes, their characterization and interpretation are still far from being satisfactory. In this connection, integrated experimental and computational investigations can play an invaluable role. Indeed, a number of different issues relevant to unraveling the properties of bulk or solvated systems can be addressed from experimental investigations on molecular complexes. Focusing on the interaction of biological model systems with solvent molecules (e.g., water), since the hydration of the biomolecules controls their structure and mechanism of action, the study of the molecular properties of hydrated systems containing a limited number of water molecules (microsolvation) is the basis for understanding the solvation process and how structure and reactivity vary from gas phase to solution. Although hydrogen bonding is probably the most widespread interaction in nature, other emerging classes, such as halogen, chalcogen and pnicogen interactions, have attracted much attention because of the role they play in different fields. Their understanding requires, first of all, the characterization of the directionality, strength, and nature of such interactions as well as a comprehensive analysis of their competition with other non-covalent bonds. In this review, it is shown how state-of-the-art quantum-chemical computations combined with rotational spectroscopy allow for fully characterizing intermolecular interactions taking place in molecular complexes from both structural and energetic points of view. The transition from bi-molecular complex to microsolvation and then to condensed phase is shortly addressed.

16.
J Comput Chem ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058615

RESUMO

The virtual-reality framework AVATAR (Advanced Virtual Approach to Topological Analysis of Reactivity) for the immersive exploration of potential-energy landscapes is presented. AVATAR is based on modern consumer-grade virtual-reality technology and builds on two key concepts: (a) the reduction of the dimensionality of the potential-energy surface to two process-tailored, physically meaningful generalized coordinates, and (b) the analogy between the evolution of a chemical process and a pathway through valleys (potential wells) and mountain passes (saddle points) of the associated potential energy landscape. Examples including the discovery of competitive reaction paths in simple A + BC collisional systems and the interconversion between conformers in ring-puckering motions of flexible rings highlight the innovation potential that augmented and virtual reality convey for teaching, training, and supporting research in chemistry.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(9): 5024-5032, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073087

RESUMO

Several gas-phase spectroscopic investigations have focused on a better understanding of the nature of weak, non-covalent interactions in model systems. However, their characterization and interpretation are still far from being satisfactory. A promising route to fill this gap is offered by strategies in which high-resolution rotational spectroscopy is deeply integrated with state-of-the-art quantum-chemical methodology to accurately determine intermolecular parameters and interaction energies, with the latter interpreted by means of powerful energy decomposition analyses (EDAs). As a proof of concept of this approach, we have selected the adducts formed by n-propylamine (PA) and iso-propylamine (IPA) with water. Among the stable structures computationally predicted, four (out of five) isomers of the PA-water complex and two isomers (trans and gauche) of the IPA-water adduct have been characterized with supersonic jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Starting from the experimental rotational constants for different isotopic species, computation of the corresponding vibrational corrections allowed a semi-experimental determination of the intermolecular parameters. Different EDAs point out that in all cases a strong O-HN hydrogen bond is the primary interaction. Accurate computations indicate that the length and ramification of the alkyl chain do not significantly affect the water-amine interactions, which - on the contrary - modify the stability order of PA conformers with respect to the isolated systems.

18.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(5): 1011-1024, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922423

RESUMO

The infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 2,3-butanediol and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol from 900 to 7500 cm-1 (including mid-IR, fundamental CH and OH stretchings, and near-infrared regions) have been investigated by a combined experimental and computational strategy. The computational approach is rooted in density functional theory (DFT) computations of harmonic and leading anharmonic mechanical, electrical, and magnetic contributions, followed by a generalized second-order perturbative (GVPT2) evaluation of frequencies and intensities for all the above regions without introducing any ad hoc scaling factor. After proper characterization of large-amplitude motions, all resonances plaguing frequencies and intensities are taken into proper account. Comparison of experimental and simulated spectra allows unbiased assignment and interpretation of the most interesting features. The reliability of the GVPT2 approach for OH stretching fundamentals and overtones is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with a local mode model purposely tailored for the latter two regions. Together with the specific interest of the studied molecules, our results confirm that an unbiased assignment and interpretation of vibrational spectra for flexible medium-size molecules can be achieved by means of a nearly unsupervised reliable, robust, and user-friendly DFT/GVPT2 model.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985228

RESUMO

The conformational isomerism of isopropylamine and n-propylamine has been investigated by means of an integrated strategy combining high-level quantum-chemical calculations and high-resolution rotational spectroscopy. The equilibrium structures (and thus equilibrium rotational constants) as well as relative energies of all conformers have been computed using the so-called "cheap" composite scheme, which combines the coupled-cluster methodology with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for extrapolation to the complete basis set. Methods rooted in the density functional theory have been instead employed for computing spectroscopic parameters and for accounting for vibrational effects. Guided by quantum-chemical predictions, the rotational spectra of isopropylamine and n-propylamine have been investigated between 2 and 400 GHz with Fourier transform microwave and frequency-modulation millimeter/submillimeter spectrometers. Spectral assignments confirmed the presence of several conformers with comparable stability and pointed out possible Coriolis resonance effects between some of them.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 3008-3016, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957772

RESUMO

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is commonly utilized for the investigation of protein structures and protein-mediated processes. While the amide I band provides information on protein secondary structures, amino acid side chains are used as IR probes for the investigation of protein reactions, such as proton pumping in rhodopsins. In this work, we calculate the IR spectra of the solvated aspartic acid, with both zwitterionic and protonated backbones, and of a capped form, i.e. mimicking the aspartic acid residue in proteins, by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the perturbed matrix method (PMM). This methodology has already proved its good modeling capabilities for the amide I mode and is here extended to the treatment of protein side chains. The computed side chain vibrational signal is in very good agreement with the experimental one, well reproducing both the peak frequency position and the bandwidth. In addition, the MD-PMM approach proposed here is able to reproduce the small frequency shift (5-10 cm-1) experimentally observed between the protonated and zwitterionic forms, showing that such a shift depends on the excitonic coupling between the modes localized on the side chain and on the backbone in the protonated form. The spectrum of the capped form, in which the amide I band is also calculated, agrees well with the corresponding experimental spectrum. The reliable calculation of the vibrational bands of carboxyl-containing side chains provides a useful tool for the interpretation of experimental spectra.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Ácido Aspártico/química , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Teoria Quântica
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