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2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1678, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The social determinants of health have been widely recognised yet there remains a lack of clarity regarding what constitute the macro-economic determinants of health and what can be done to address them. An umbrella review of systematic reviews was conducted to identify the evidence for the health and health inequalities impact of population level macroeconomic factors, strategies, policies and interventions. METHODS: Nine databases were searched for systematic reviews meeting the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) criteria using a novel conceptual framework. Studies were assessed for quality using a standardised instrument and a narrative overview of the findings is presented. RESULTS: The review found a large (n = 62) but low quality systematic review-level evidence base. The results indicated that action to promote employment and improve working conditions can help improve health and reduce gender-based health inequalities. Evidence suggests that market regulation of tobacco, alcohol and food is likely to be effective at improving health and reducing inequalities in health including strong taxation, or restriction of advertising and availability. Privatisation of utilities and alcohol sectors, income inequality, and economic crises are likely to increase health inequalities. Left of centre governments and welfare state generosity may have a positive health impact, but evidence on specific welfare interventions is mixed. Trade and trade policies were found to have a mixed effect. There were no systematic reviews of the health impact of monetary policy or of large economic institutions such as central banks and regulatory organisations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide a simple yet comprehensive framework to support policy-makers and practitioners in addressing the macroeconomic determinants of health. Further research is needed in low and middle income countries and further reviews are needed to summarise evidence in key gaps identified by this review. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocol for umbrella review prospectively registered with PROSPERO CRD42017068357.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029424, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were inequalities in the sustained rise in infant mortality in England in recent years and the contribution of rising child poverty to these trends. DESIGN: This is an analysis of trends in infant mortality in local authorities grouped into five categories (quintiles) based on their level of income deprivation. Fixed-effects regression models were used to quantify the association between regional changes in child poverty and regional changes in infant mortality. SETTING: 324 English local authorities in 9 English government office regions. PARTICIPANTS: Live-born children under 1 year of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Infant mortality rate, defined as the number of deaths in children under 1 year of age per 100 000 live births in the same year. RESULTS: The sustained and unprecedented rise in infant mortality in England from 2014 to 2017 was not experienced evenly across the population. In the most deprived local authorities, the previously declining trend in infant mortality reversed and mortality rose, leading to an additional 24 infant deaths per 100 000 live births per year (95% CI 6 to 42), relative to the previous trend. There was no significant change from the pre-existing trend in the most affluent local authorities. As a result, inequalities in infant mortality increased, with the gap between the most and the least deprived local authority areas widening by 52 deaths per 100 000 births (95% CI 36 to 68). Overall from 2014 to 2017, there were a total of 572 excess infant deaths (95% CI 200 to 944) compared with what would have been expected based on historical trends. We estimated that each 1% increase in child poverty was significantly associated with an extra 5.8 infant deaths per 100 000 live births (95% CI 2.4 to 9.2). The findings suggest that about a third of the increases in infant mortality between 2014 and 2017 can be attributed to rising child poverty (172 deaths, 95% CI 74 to 266). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that the unprecedented rise in infant mortality disproportionately affected the poorest areas of the country, leaving the more affluent areas unaffected. Our analysis also linked the recent increase in infant mortality in England with rising child poverty, suggesting that about a third of the increase in infant mortality from 2014 to 2017 may be attributed to rising child poverty.

4.
Heart ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on emergency hospital admissions, length of stay and emergency re-admissions of providing a consultant-led, community-based cardiovascular diagnostic, treatment and rehabilitation service, based in a highly deprived area in the North West of England. METHODS: A longitudinal matched controlled study using difference-in-differences analysis compared the change in outcomes in the intervention population, to the change in outcomes in a matched comparison population that had not received the intervention, 5 years before and after implementation. The outcomes were emergency hospitalisations, length of inpatient stay and re-admission rates for cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS: Findings show that the intervention was associated with 66 fewer emergency CVD admissions per 100 000 population per year (95% CI 22.13 to 108.98) in the post-intervention period, relative to the control group. No significant measurable effects on length of stay or emergency re-admission rates were observed. CONCLUSION: This consultant-led, community-based cardiovascular diagnostic, treatment and rehabilitation service was associated with a lower rate of emergency hospital admissions in a highly disadvantaged population. Similar approaches could be an effective component of strategies to reduce unplanned hospital admissions.

5.
Health Expect ; 22(4): 643-649, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engaging with the public is a key element of health research; however, little work has examined experiences of public involvement in research dissemination. The aim of this paper was to assess the extent of public involvement, experiences of public advisers and resulting changes in the dissemination of the North West Coast Household Health Survey (HHS). METHODS: Three writing groups allowed public advisers to contribute to the dissemination of the HHS. A public workshop was set up to aid the co-production of the research evidence and discuss the experiences of public advisers involved with the survey in March 2018. A focus group with public advisers was conducted in August 2018 to understand their experiences of involvement. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and coded by two researchers. Writing groups are still on-going. RESULTS: Fourteen public advisers contributed via three face-to-face writing groups, by actively interpreting findings and helping in the write-up of research articles and by presenting talks at the public workshop. At the workshop, seven public advisors contributed to setting priorities for data analysis from the HHS. Five public advisers took part in the focus group, which highlighted that whilst public advisers were generally satisfied with their involvement, they would like to be involved in more activities. CONCLUSIONS: Members of the public shaped the dissemination of evidence and provided guidance for future steps. Public advisers were mostly positive about their involvement in the dissemination of the HHS, but highlighted the need for more transparency and support from researchers.

6.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(8): 717-722, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Denmark and Sweden have implemented reforms that narrowed disability benefit eligibility criteria. Such reforms in combination with increasing work demands create a pincer movement where in particular those with moderate health problems might be unable to comply with work demands, but still not qualify for permanent disability benefits, ending up with temporary means-tested or no benefits. This paper examines whether this actually happened before and after the reforms. METHODS: The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) study waves 1-2 and 4-6 in Denmark and Sweden for the age group 50-59 years (N=5384) was used to analyse changes in employment rates and benefits among people with different levels of health before, during and after disability benefit reforms. Interaction between time and health in relation to employment versus permanent or temporary benefits was used as a criterion for whether our hypotheses was confirmed. RESULTS: Overall, employment rates have increased in the age group, but only among the healthy. The OR for receiving temporary or no benefits increased from 1.25 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.90) before to 1.73 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.61) after policy reforms for the 29% with moderate health problems and from 2.89 (95% CI: 1.66 to 5.03) to 6.71 (95% CI: 3.94 to 11.42) among the 11% with severe health problems. The interaction between time and health was statistically significant (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: People with impaired health and workability are forced into a life with temporary means-tested or no benefits when pressed by rising work demands and stricter disability benefit eligibility criteria.

8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(6): 564-568, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The English health inequalities strategy (1999-2010) aimed to reduce health inequalities between the most deprived local authorities and the rest of England. The multifaceted strategy included increased investment in healthcare, the early years, education and neighbourhood renewal. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the strategy was associated with a reduction in geographical inequalities in the infant mortality rate (IMR). METHODS: We used segmented regression analysis to measure inequalities in the IMR between the most deprived local authorities and the rest of England before, during and after the health inequalities strategy period. RESULTS: Before the strategy was implemented (1983-1998), absolute inequalities in the IMR increased between the most deprived local authorities and the rest of England at a rate of 0.034 annually (95% CI 0.001 to 0.067). Once the strategy had been implemented (1999-2010), absolute inequalities decreased at a rate of -0.116 annually (95% CI -0.178 to -0.053). After the strategy period ended (2011-2017), absolute inequalities increased at a rate of 0.042 annually (95% CI -0.042 to 0.125). Relative inequalities also marginally decreased during the strategy period. CONCLUSION: The English health inequalities strategy period was associated with a decline in geographical inequalities in the IMR. This research adds to the evidence base suggesting that the English health inequalities strategy was at least partially effective in reducing health inequalities, and that current austerity policies may undermine these gains.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e022820, 2019 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the most important determinants of accident and emergency (A&E) attendance in disadvantaged areas. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3510 residents from 20 disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the North West Coast area in England completed a comprehensive public health survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were asked to complete general background information, as well as information about their physical health, mental health, lifestyle, social issues, housing and environment, work and finances, and healthcare service usage. Only one resident per household could take part in the survey. Poisson regression analysis was employed to assess the predictors of A&E attendance frequency in the previous 12 months. RESULTS: 31.6% of the sample reported having attended A&E in the previous 12 months, ranging from 1 to 95 visits. Controlling for demographic and health factors, not being in employment and living in poor quality housing increased the likelihood of attending an A&E service. Service access was also found to be predictive of A&E attendance insofar as there were an additional 18 fewer A&E attendances per 100 population for each kilometre closer a person lived to a general practitioner (GP) practice, and 3 fewer attendances per 100 population for each kilometre further a person lived from an A&E department. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first surveys to explore a comprehensive set of socio-economic factors as well as proximity to both GP and A&E services as predictors of A&E attendance in disadvantaged areas. Findings from this study suggest the need to address both socioeconomic issues, such as employment and housing quality, as well as structural issues, such as public transport and access to primary care, to reduce the current burden on A&E departments.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(2): 162-167, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health investment in England post-2010 has increased at lower rates than previously, with proportionally less being allocated to deprived areas. This study seeks to explore the impact of this on inequalities in amenable mortality between local areas. METHODS: We undertook a time-series analysis across 324 lower-tier local authorities in England, evaluating the impact of changes in funding allocations to health commissioners from 2007 to 2014 on spatial inequalities in age-standardised under-75 mortality rates for conditions amenable to healthcare for men and women, adjusting for trends in household income, unemployment and time-trends. RESULTS: More deprived areas received proportionally more funding between 2007 and 2014, though the reorganisation of commissioning in 2012 stalled this. Funding increases to more deprived local areas accounted for a statistically significant reduction in inequalities in male amenable mortality between local areas of 13 deaths per 100 000 (95% CI 2.5 to 25.9). Funding changes were associated with a reduction in inequalities in female amenable mortality of 7.0 per 100,000, though this finding did not reach significance (p=0.09). CONCLUSION: Current National Health Service (NHS) resource allocation policy in England appears to be contributing to a convergence in health outcomes between affluent and deprived areas. However, careful surveillance is needed to evaluate whether diminished allocations to more deprived areas in recent years and reduced NHS investment as a whole is impacting adversely on inequalities between groups.

11.
Health Place ; 54: 11-19, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216748

RESUMO

Health geographers have been long concerned with understanding how the accessibility of individuals to certain environmental features may influence health and wellbeing. Such insights are increasingly being adopted by policy makers for designing healthy neighbourhoods. To support and inform decision making, there is a need for small area national level data. This paper details the creation of a suite of open access health indicators, including a novel multidimensional index summarising 14 health-related features of neighbourhoods for Great Britain. We find no association of our overall index with physical health measures, but a significant association to mental wellbeing.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Geografia , Humanos , Reino Unido
12.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(3): 252-258, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are large inequalities in levels of physical activity in the UK, and this is an important determinant of health inequalities. Little is known about the effectiveness of community-wide interventions to increase physical activity and whether effects differ by socioeconomic group. METHODS: We conducted interrupted time series and difference-in-differences analyses using local administrative data and a large national survey to investigate the impact of an intervention providing universal free access to leisure facilities alongside outreach and marketing activities in a deprived local authority area in the northwest of England. Outcomes included attendances at swimming and gym sessions, self-reported participation in gym and swim activity and any physical activity. RESULTS: The intervention was associated with a 64% increase in attendances at swimming and gym sessions (relative risk 1.64, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.89, P<0.001), an additional 3.9% of the population participating in at least 30 min of moderate-intensity gym or swim sessions during the previous four weeks (95% CI 3.6 to 4.1) and an additional 1.9% of the population participating in any sport or active recreation of at least moderate intensity for at least 30 min on at least 12 days out of the last four weeks (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1). The effect on gym and swim activity and overall levels of participation in physical activity was significantly greater for the more disadvantaged socioeconomic group. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that removing user charges from leisure facilities in combination with outreach and marketing activities can increase overall population levels of physical activity while reducing inequalities.


Assuntos
Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Atividades de Lazer , Adolescente , Adulto , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Schizophr Bull ; 44(3): 681-690, 2018 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981888

RESUMO

Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge. Here, we examined the relationship between social identity and mental health (paranoia, auditory verbal hallucinations [AVHs], and depression), and tested the mediating role of self-esteem. In study 1, we analyzed data collected from 4319 UK residents as part of the NIHR CLAHRC NWC Household Health Survey. Study 2 comprised data collected from 1167 students attending a large UK university. The studies provided convergent evidence that social identification reduces symptoms of paranoia and depression by furnishing people with self-esteem. There was no consistent effect of social identification on AVHs. People developing mental health assessments, treatments, and policies are encouraged to consider the notion that joining and identifying with social groups may reduce people's risk of paranoia and depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Alucinações/psicologia , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 2(3): e141-e148, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether or not relative measures of income poverty effectively reflect children's life chances has been the focus of policy debates in the UK. Although poverty is associated with poor child and maternal mental health, few studies have assessed the effect of moving into poverty on mental health. To inform policy, we explore the association between transitions into poverty and subsequent mental health among children and their mothers. METHODS: In this longtitudinal analysis, we used data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative cohort of children born in the UK between Sept 1, 2000, and Jan 11, 2002, who participated in five survey waves as they progressed from 9 months of age to 11 years of age. Our analysis included all children and mothers who were free from mental health problems and not in poverty when the children were aged 3 years. We only included singletons (ie, not twins or other multiple pregnancies) and children for whom the mother was the main respondent to the study. The main outcomes were child socioemotional behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 5 years, 7 years, and 11 years and maternal psychological distress (Kessler 6 scale). Using discrete time-hazard models, we followed up families without mental health problems at baseline and estimated odds ratios for subsequent onset of maternal and child mental health problems associated with first transition into poverty, while adjusting for confounders, including employment transitions. We further assessed whether or not change in maternal mental health explained any effect on child mental health. FINDINGS: Of the 6063 families in the UK Millennium Cohort study at 3 years who met our inclusion criteria, 844 (14%) had a new transition into poverty compared with 5219 (86%) who remained out of poverty. After adjustment for confounders, transition into poverty increased the odds of socioemotional behavioural problems in children (odds ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·02-1·93]; p=0·04) and maternal psychological distress (1·44 [1·21-1·71]; p<0·0001). Controlling for maternal psychological distress reduced the effect of transition into poverty on socioemotional behavioural problems in children (1·30 [0·94-1·79]; p=0·11). INTERPRETATION: In a contemporary UK cohort, first transition into income poverty during early childhood was associated with an increase in the risk of child and maternal mental health problems. These effects were independent of changes in employment status. Transitions to income poverty do appear to affect children's life chances and actions that directly reduce income poverty of children are likely to improve child and maternal mental health. FUNDING: The Wellcome Trust and The Farr Institute for Health Informatics Research (Medical Research Council).


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ ; 358: j3310, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747304

RESUMO

Objective To investigate whether the English health inequalities strategy was associated with a decline in geographical health inequalities, compared with trends before and after the strategy.Design Time trend analysis.Setting Two groups of lower tier local authorities in England. The most deprived, bottom fifth and the rest of England.Intervention The English health inequalities strategy-a cross government strategy implemented between 1997 and 2010 to reduce health inequalities in England. Trends in geographical health inequalities were assessed before (1983-2003), during (2004-12), and after (2013-15) the strategy using segmented linear regression.Main outcome measure Geographical health inequalities measured as the relative and absolute differences in male and female life expectancy at birth between the most deprived local authorities in England and the rest of the country.Results Before the strategy the gap in male and female life expectancy between the most deprived local authorities in England and the rest of the country increased at a rate of 0.57 months each year (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.74 months) and 0.30 months each year (0.12 to 0.48 months). During the strategy period this trend reversed and the gap in life expectancy for men reduced by 0.91 months each year (0.54 to 1.27 months) and for women by 0.50 months each year (0.15 to 0.86 months). Since the end of the strategy period the inequality gap has increased again at a rate of 0.68 months each year (-0.20 to 1.56 months) for men and 0.31 months each year (-0.26 to 0.88) for women. By 2012 the gap in male life expectancy was 1.2 years smaller (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 1.5 years smaller) and the gap in female life expectancy was 0.6 years smaller (0.3 to 1.0 years smaller) than it would have been if the trends in inequalities before the strategy had continued.Conclusion The English health inequalities strategy was associated with a decline in geographical inequalities in life expectancy, reversing a previously increasing trend. Since the strategy ended, inequalities have started to increase again. The strategy may have reduced geographical health inequalities in life expectancy, and future approaches should learn from this experience. The concerns are that current policies are reversing the achievements of the strategy.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais/métodos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Adolescente , Inglaterra , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0178633, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the socio-economic gradient in early smoking initiation at age 11 years and the extent to which any inequality was explained after accounting for longitudinal exposure to adult smoking. METHODS: Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, based on 9, 609 children from ages 9 months to 11 years. The outcome was smoking initiation by age 11. Odds ratios (ORs) for smoking initiation were estimated using logistic regression, according to maternal education, whilst adjusting for baseline demographic factors. Longitudinal exposure to a regular smoker in the same room was assessed as potential mediator of the association between maternal education and early smoking, along with other socially patterned risk factors for early smoking initiation, such as parental separation and mental health. RESULTS: Overall 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3-3.1) of children had tried a cigarette by age eleven. Children of mothers with no qualifications were more than six times as likely to have tried a cigarette than children of mothers with degree level qualifications or higher (OR 6.0 [95%CI 3.5-10.1]), with clear social gradient. Controlling for potentially mediating variables, particularly exposure to a regular adult smoker reduced the OR smoking initiation in children of mothers with no qualifications by 63% (aOR 2.9 [95%CI 1.7 to 5.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking initiation is more common in disadvantaged children, and this is largely explained by regular exposure to an adult smoker in the same room. Reducing adult smoking in front of children may reduce inequalities in smoking initiation in children by over a half.


Assuntos
Pais , Fumar , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ ; 355: i6638, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27986650
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