Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am Psychol ; 76(2): 268-283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734794

RESUMO

Justice-involved youth experience high rates of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), placing them in great need of behavioral health treatment and risk for continued justice involvement. Policymakers, government agencies, and professionals working with justice-involved youth have called for trauma-informed juvenile justice reform. Yet, there is currently no available review of the literature on ACEs and their impact on justice-involved youths' psychological, legal, and related (e.g., academic) outcomes to rigorously guide such reform efforts. The current systematic scoping review synthesizes existing literature related to the impact of ACEs on justice-involved youth and offers recommendations for data-driven intervention along the Sequential Intercept Model, which describes five different points of justice system contact (i.e., first arrest, court diversion, detention, and community supervision) in which there is opportunity to intervene and improve youth behavioral health, legal, and associated outcomes. Eight unique studies were included in 40 articles examining ACEs among justice-involved youth; 38% were longitudinal or prospective analyses and none were intervention studies. Studies included delinquency (e.g., recidivism; n = 5), psychiatric (n = 4), substance use (n = 3), and other (n = 2; e.g., academic, pregnancy) outcomes, documenting high prevalence of ACEs and significant associations between ACEs and a variety of outcomes. Implications for clinical services (e.g., targeting youth dysregulation and aggression), agency context (e.g., training police officers in trauma-responsive practices), and system-level changes (e.g., intervening at the time of first ACE documentation such as parent's arrest) are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-17, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253043

RESUMO

Contraceptive stock-outs are a world-wide problem, yet published research on the impacts of contraceptive stock-outs have not been comprehensively reviewed and synthesised. This systematic review highlights findings about the impacts of contraceptive stock-outs on users, providers, and facilities and identifies topics that should be explored to ensure everyone can access their preferred method of contraception. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Popline, and JSTOR for studies addressing the impacts of contraceptive stock-outs. Of 435 studies, 25 publications addressed the impacts of contraceptive stock-outs. Only two articles focused solely on contraceptive stock-outs; the remaining studies examined stock-outs alongside other factors that may influence contraceptive service provision. Studies discussed how stock-outs limited individuals' ability to use their preferred contraceptive method, influenced where contraceptive methods were obtained and how much they cost, and limited providers' and facilities' abilities to provide contraceptive care. Comparing the impacts of contraceptive stock-outs across studies was challenging, as reliability of stock was sometimes not distinguished from overall method availability, and studies used variable methods to measure stock-outs. Evidence presented in this review can inform efforts to ensure that preferred contraceptive methods are consistently available and accessible to all.

3.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(4): 523-526, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013208

RESUMO

As the premier journal in health sciences librarianship, the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) continuously strives to publish high-quality work that advances research and practice and to provide irreplaceable value for readers, authors, and reviewers. This editorial reflects on the state of JMLA in 2020 by describing our editorial team and volume of submissions, highlighting recent initiatives that strengthen the journal's position in the profession, and sharing future plans to enrich JMLA's content and promote open science. Committed to ending structural racism and other inequities in the field, we also issue an ongoing call for submissions pertaining to social justice and critical perspectives on health sciences librarianship.

4.
Int Orthop ; 44(11): 2443-2448, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the nature and quality of research regarding paediatric supracondylar humerus (SCH) fractures in low and lower middle-income countries (LICs). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and African Journals Online on January 9, 2018, for studies of SCH fractures in LICs. Studies were categorized by geographic region, Gartland classification of included patients, and study design. We evaluated each study's methodology and conclusions. RESULTS: Out of 1805 results, we analyzed 105 studies, most of which included type 3 fractures only (66%). Many were conducted in South Asia (58%) and assessed treatment outcomes (78%). Most of the studies had level IV evidence (67%). Common limitations of research were small sample size (12%) and inadequate follow-up (6%). Epidemiological studies concluded that SCH fractures are more common among male children, are usually secondary to falls, and rarely present with nerve injuries. Most therapeutic studies reported outcomes of surgery (91%). Thirteen studies concluded that all-lateral versus cross-pinning techniques have similar outcomes. Seven studies reported preference for closed reduction over open reduction, when intra-operative fluoroscopy was available. Most common outcome measures were Flynn criteria (77%) and range of motion (53%). None of the papers looked at treatment costs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a predominance of small level IV studies from LICs, with few studies of higher level of evidence. Many studies examined controversies with surgical technique, similar to studies performed in high-income countries. Few studies examined non-operative treatment, which is commonly the predominant treatment available for patients in LICs. Further investigation of common treatment modalities and outcomes for SCH fractures in LICs is needed.

5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(5): 834-841, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study sought to determine which patient characteristics are associated with the use of patient-facing digital health tools in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review of studies of patient-facing digital health tools that objectively evaluated use (eg, system/platform data representing frequency of use) by patient characteristics (eg, age, race or ethnicity, income, digital literacy). We included any type of patient-facing digital health tool except patient portals. We reran results using the subset of studies identified as having robust methodology to detect differences in patient characteristics. RESULTS: We included 29 studies; 13 had robust methodology. Most studies examined smartphone apps and text messaging programs for chronic disease management and evaluated only 1-3 patient characteristics, primarily age and gender. Overall, the majority of studies found no association between patient characteristics and use. Among the subset with robust methodology, white race and poor health status appeared to be associated with higher use. DISCUSSION: Given the substantial investment in digital health tools, it is surprising how little is known about the types of patients who use them. Strategies that engage diverse populations in digital health tool use appear to be needed. CONCLUSION: Few studies evaluate objective measures of digital health tool use by patient characteristics, and those that do include a narrow range of characteristics. Evidence suggests that resources and need drive use.

6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148 Suppl 1: 42-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female genital fistula is associated with significant physical, psychological, and economic consequences; however, a knowledge and practice gap exists around services adjunct to fistula surgery. OBJECTIVES: To examine rehabilitation and reintegration services provided adjunct to genital fistula surgery, map existing programming and outcomes, and identify areas for additional research. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the published and grey literature from January 2000 to June 2019. Two reviewers screened articles and extracted data using standardized methods. SELECTION CRITERIA: Research and programmatic articles describing service provision in addition to female genital fistula surgery were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Of 3047 published articles and 2623 unpublished documents identified, 26 and 55, respectively, were analyzed. MAIN RESULTS: Programming identified included combinations of health education, physical therapy, social support, psychosocial counseling, and economic empowerment, largely in sub-Saharan Africa. Improvements were noted in physical and psychosocial health. CONCLUSIONS: Existing literature supports holistic fistula care through adjunct reintegration programming. Improving the evidence base requires implementing robust study designs, increasing reporting detail, and standardizing outcomes across studies. Increased financing for holistic fistula care is critical for developing and supporting programming to ensure positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Fístula Vesicovaginal/reabilitação , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Apoio Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirurgia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859163

RESUMO

Self-managed abortion, when a person performs their own abortion without clinical supervision, is a model of abortion care used across a range of settings. To provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available literature on self-managed abortion, we conducted a systematic search for peer-reviewed research in April 2019 in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Popline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Scielo, and Redalyc. We included studies that had a research question focused on self-managed abortion; and were published in English or Spanish. The combined search returned 7167 studies; after screening, 99 studies were included in the analysis. Included studies reported on methods, procurement, characteristics of those who self-managed, effectiveness, safety, reasons for self-managed abortion, and emotional and physical experiences. Numerous abortion methods were reported, most frequently abortion with pills and herbs. Studies reporting on self-managed medication abortion reported high-levels of effectiveness. We identify gaps in the research, and make recommendations to address those gaps.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/métodos , Autogestão , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde da Mulher
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e027991, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female genital fistula is a debilitating traumatic injury, largely birth-associated, globally affecting up to 2 million women, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Fistula has significant physical, psychological and economic consequences. Women often face challenges in reintegrating and resuming prior roles despite successful surgery. Synthesising the evidence on services adjunct to fistula surgery and their outcomes is important for developing the evidence base for best practices and identifying research priorities. This scoping review seeks to examine the range of rehabilitation and reintegration services provided as adjunct to genital fistula surgery, map the existing programming and outcomes, and identify areas for additional research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our scoping review is informed by existing methodological frameworks and will be conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-ScR guidelines. The search strategy will be applied to nine biomedical, public health and social science databases. The initial search was completed on 27 September 2018. Grey literature will be identified through targeted Google searches and from organisational websites identified as relevant by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Campaign to End Fistula. We will iteratively build our search strategy through term harvesting and review, and search reference lists of reports and articles to identify additional studies. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, followed by full-text screening of all potentially relevant articles and standardised data extraction. Articles eligible for inclusion will discuss research or programmatic efforts around service provision in adjunct to surgery among females with genital fistula. Data will be presented in summary tables accompanied by narrative description. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for a scoping review. Our results can be used to inform policy, serve as support for funding and development of reintegration programmes and highlight areas for subsequent research. Results will be disseminated at relevant conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Fístula Vaginal/reabilitação , Fístula Vaginal/cirurgia , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Dor/etiologia , Dor/psicologia , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estigma Social , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia
9.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 158, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collective intelligence, facilitated by information technology or manual techniques, refers to the collective insight of groups working on a task and has the potential to generate more accurate information or decisions than individuals can make alone. This concept is gaining traction in healthcare and has potential in enhancing diagnostic accuracy. We aim to characterize the current state of research with respect to collective intelligence in medical decision-making and describe a framework for diverse studies in this topic. METHODS: For this systematic scoping review, we conducted a systematic search for published literature using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL on August 8, 2017. We included studies that combined the insights of two or more medical experts to make decisions related to patient care. Studies that examined medical decisions such as diagnosis, treatment, and management in the context of an actual or theoretical patient case were included. We include studies of complex medical decision-making rather than identification of a visual finding, as in radiology or pathology. We differentiate between medical decisions, in which synthesis of multiple types of information is required over time, and studies of radiological scans or pathological specimens, in which objective identification of a visual finding is performed. Two reviewers performed article screening, data extraction, and final inclusion for analysis. RESULTS: Of 3303 original articles, 15 were included. Each study examined the medical decisions of two or more individuals; however, studies were heterogeneous in their methods and outcomes. We present a framework to characterize these diverse studies, and future investigations, based on how they operationalize collective intelligence for medical decision-making: 1) how the initial decision task was completed (group vs. individual), 2) how opinions were synthesized (information technology vs. manual vs. in-person), and 3) the availability of collective intelligence to participants. DISCUSSION: Collective intelligence in medical decision-making is gaining popularity to advance medical decision-making and holds promise to improve patient outcomes. However, heterogeneous methods and outcomes make it difficult to assess the utility of collective intelligence approaches across settings and studies. A better understanding of collective intelligence and its applications to medicine may improve medical decision-making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Assistência à Saúde , Processos Grupais , Inteligência , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Radiologia
10.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288992

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Evidence-based guidelines for active surveillance (AS), a treatment option for men with low-risk prostate cancer, recommend regular follow-up at periodic intervals to monitor disease progression. However, gaps in monitoring can lead to delayed detection of cancer progression, leading to a missed window of curability. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the extent to which real-world observational studies reported adherence to monitoring protocols among prostate cancer patients on AS. When reported, we sought to characterize definitions of adherence. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We systematically reviewed observational studies assessing outcomes of prostate cancer patients on AS, published before March 22, 2019 in PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL. Adherence definitions were considered time bound if they included prespecified time and binary if adherence was assessed but did not specify a time interval. We assessed study quality using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Forty-five studies met our inclusion criteria. Eleven studies did not report any data on adherence to AS protocols. Twenty-five studies did not explicitly measure adherence, but provided relevant data (eg, number of patients who received a repeat biopsy). Six studies reported adherence using a time-bound definition, while three studies used a binary definition. Twenty-three studies provided information on patients lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Most studies reporting outcomes of patients on AS did not measure or report adherence. When reported, adherence was often not time specific. As some AS patients will benefit from maintaining a window of curability, clinical practices and future studies should track and report adherence and associated factors. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed real-world observational studies examining outcomes of prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. Most studies did not clearly define or report adherence to monitoring protocols, which is important to consider for appropriate disease management.

11.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(3): 323-332, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258438

RESUMO

Objective: Impostor phenomenon, also known as impostor syndrome, is the inability to internalize accomplishments while experiencing the fear of being exposed as a fraud. Previous work has examined impostor phenomenon among academic college and research librarians, but health sciences librarians, who are often asked to be experts in medical subject areas with minimal training or education in these areas, have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to measure impostor phenomenon among health sciences librarians. Methods: A survey of 2,125 eligible Medical Library Association (MLA) members was taken from October to December 2017. The online survey featuring the Harvey Impostor Phenomenon scale, a validated measure of impostor phenomenon, was administered, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relationships between impostor phenomenon scores and demographic variables. Results: A total of 703 participants completed the survey (33% response rate), and 14.5% of participants scored ≥42 on the Harvey scale, indicating possible impostor feelings. Gender, race, and library setting showed no associations, but having an educational background in the health sciences was associated with lower impostor scores. Age and years of experience were inversely correlated with impostor phenomenon, with younger and newer librarians demonstrating higher scores. Conclusions: One out of seven health sciences librarians in this study experienced impostor phenomenon, similar to previous findings for academic librarians. Librarians, managers, and MLA can work to recognize and address this issue by raising awareness, using early prevention methods, and supporting librarians who are younger and/or new to the profession.


Assuntos
Fraude/psicologia , Bibliotecários/psicologia , Bibliotecários/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliotecas Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0209991, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on women's experiences traveling for abortion and assess how this concept has been explored and operationalized, with a focus on travel distance, cost, delays, and other barriers to receiving services. BACKGROUND: Increasing limitations on abortion providers and access to care have increased the necessity of travel for abortion services around the world. No systematic examination of women's experiences traveling for abortion has been conducted; this mixed-methods review provides a summary of the qualitative and quantitative literature on this topic. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Popline, and Google Scholar in July 2016 and updated in March 2017 (PROSPERO registration # CRD42016046007). We included original research studies that described women's experiences traveling for abortion. Two reviewers independently performed article screening, data extraction and determination of final inclusion for analysis. Critical appraisal was conducted using CASP, STROBE, and MMAT checklists. RESULTS: We included 59 publications: 46 quantitative studies, 12 qualitative studies, and 1 mixed-methods study. Most studies were published in the last five years, relied on data from the US, and discussed travel as a secondary outcome of interest. In quantitative studies, travel was primarily conceptualized and measured as road or straight-line distance to abortion provider, though some studies also incorporated measures of burdens related to travel, such as financial cost, childcare needs, and unwanted disclosure of their abortion status to others. Qualitative studies explored regional disparities in access to abortion care, with a focus on the burdens related to travel, the impact of travel on abortion method choice, and women's reasons for travel. Studies generally were of high quality, though many studies lacked information on participant recruitment or consideration of potential biases. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized measurements of travel, including burdens associated with travel and more nuanced considerations of travel costs, should be implemented in order to facilitate comparison across studies. More research is needed to explore and accurately capture different dimensions of the burden of travel for abortion services on women's lives.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Turismo Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Turismo Médico/economia , Gravidez , Viagem/economia
13.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(2): 258-264, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019396

RESUMO

The Medical Library Association recently announced its commitment to diversity and inclusion. While this is a positive start, critical librarianship takes the crucial concepts of diversity and inclusion one step further by advocating for social justice action and the dismantling of oppressive institutional structures, including white supremacy, patriarchy, and capitalism. Critical librarianship takes many forms, but, at its root, is focused on interrogating and disrupting inequitable systems, including changing racist cataloging rules, creating student-driven information literacy instruction, supporting inclusive and ethical publishing models, and rejecting the notion of libraries as neutral spaces. This article presents examples of the application of critical practice in libraries as well as ideas for applying critical librarianship to the health sciences.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Biblioteconomia , Arquivos , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Humanos , Biblioteconomia/métodos , Biblioteconomia/organização & administração , Serviços de Biblioteca , Serviços Técnicos de Biblioteca
14.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 16(1): 37-47, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734906

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses recent advances in research on the intersection of HIV prevention and substance use among youth involved with the justice system. We discuss current themes of recent findings and provide guidance for researchers, policymakers, and clinicians on the next steps in advancing work in this nascent area. RECENT FINDINGS: Of the 46 studies that measured HIV risk and substance use among justice-involved youth, 56% were cross-sectional designs, 22% were intervention trials, and 22% were longitudinal designs. Cross-sectional studies suggested that substance use is highly associated with HIV risk behaviors. Longitudinal analyses underscored the importance of understanding contextual risk factors, such as trauma and violence. Intervention trials demonstrated improved scientific rigor of behavioral approaches. Despite recent advances, research in this field remains limited. Future directions include longer follow-up periods, consideration of biomedical HIV-prevention interventions, and a focus on dissemination and implementation science of efficacious interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 37(11): 1813-1820, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395509

RESUMO

Patients and caregivers play a central role in health care safety in the hospital, ambulatory care setting, and community. Despite this, interventions to promote patient engagement in safety are still underexplored. We conducted an overview of review articles on patient engagement interventions in safety to examine the current state of the evidence. Of the 2,795 references we evaluated, 52 articles met our full-text inclusion criteria for synthesis in 2018. We identified robust evidence supporting patients' self-management of anticoagulation medications and mixed-quality evidence supporting patient engagement in medication and chronic disease self-management, adverse event reporting, and medical record accuracy. Promising modes of patient engagement in safety, such as anticoagulation management and patient portal access, are not widely implemented. We discuss major implementation priorities and propose directions for future research and policy to enhance patient partnership within safety efforts.


Assuntos
Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial , Hospitais , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
16.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 106(4): 483-489, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271290

RESUMO

Background: Hospital libraries must often demonstrate value to users who are not aware of their services. Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (ZSFG) Library aimed to increase patient and staff awareness using innovative outreach methods through our involvement in a Summerfest health fair and a National Medical Librarians Month event. Case Presentation: At 2 hospital events, ZSFG Library staff and volunteers used a game show-style approach involving active learning to teach attendees about library resources and services. Across events, there were 300 attendees and 167 in-depth discussions of library resources with the librarian, including 54 demonstrations. After implementing these new outreach efforts, the number of attendees increased by over 240% and meaningful interactions increased by 1,300% from the previous year's event. Our value analysis indicates an overall positive effect with 14 minutes of total library staff time spent per meaningful interaction. Conclusions: The use of a spinnable wheel for asking participants library-related questions and a television monitor to demonstrate library resources greatly increased the number of attendees and fostered new staff connections, resulting in several in-service trainings and search requests. Future recommendations for outreach events include enlisting the help of volunteers to record attendance data, creating materials in multiple languages, and integrating library involvement into existing hospital events. These recommendations may decrease the amount of library staff time spent in return for each meaningful interaction, creating increased value for less time.


Assuntos
Serviços de Informação/provisão & distribução , Bibliotecas Hospitalares/organização & administração , Acervo de Biblioteca/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Biblioteca/provisão & distribução , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , São Francisco
17.
AIDS Care ; 30(12): 1477-1487, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037312

RESUMO

Many gaps in care exist for provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Differentiated HIV care tailors provision of ART for patients based on their level of acuity, providing alternatives for where, by whom, and how often care occurs. We conducted a scoping review to assess novel differentiated care models for ART provision for stable HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and how these models can be used to guide differentiated care implementation in Kenya. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Popline, Cochrane Library, and African Index Medicus between January 2006 and January 2017. Grey literature searches and handsearching were also used. We included articles that quantitatively assessed the health, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of differentiated HIV care. Two reviewers independently performed article screening, data extraction and determination of inclusion for analysis. We included 40 publications involving over 240,000 participants spanning nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa - 54.4% evaluated clinical outcomes, 23.5% evaluated acceptability outcomes, and 22.1% evaluated cost outcomes. Differentiated care models included: facility fast-track drug refills and appointment spacing, facility or community-based ART groups, community ART distribution points or home-based care, and task-shifting or decentralization of care. Studies suggest that these approaches had similar outcomes in viral load suppression and retention in care and were acceptable alternatives to standard HIV care. No clear results could be inferred for studies investigating task shifting and those reporting cost-effectiveness outcomes. Kenya has started to scale up differentiated care models, but further evaluation, quality improvement and research studies should be performed as different models are rolled out.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 20(5): e186, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion is a common medical procedure, yet its availability has become more limited across the United States over the past decade. Women who do not know where to go for abortion care may use the internet to find abortion facility information, and there appears to be more online searches for abortion in states with more restrictive abortion laws. While previous studies have examined the distances women must travel to reach an abortion provider, to our knowledge no studies have used a systematic online search to document the geographic locations and services of abortion facilities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to describe abortion facilities and services available in the United States from the perspective of a potential patient searching online and to identify US cities where people must travel the farthest to obtain abortion care. METHODS: In early 2017, we conducted a systematic online search for abortion facilities in every state and the largest cities in each state. We recorded facility locations, types of abortion services available, and facility gestational limits. We then summarized the frequencies by region and state. If the online information was incomplete or unclear, we called the facility using a mystery shopper method, which simulates the perspective of patients calling for services. We also calculated distance to the closest abortion facility from all US cities with populations of 50,000 or more. RESULTS: We identified 780 facilities through our online search, with the fewest in the Midwest and South. Over 30% (236/780, 30.3%) of all facilities advertised the provision of medication abortion services only; this proportion was close to 40% in the Northeast (89/233, 38.2%) and West (104/262, 39.7%). The lowest gestational limit at which services were provided was 12 weeks in Wyoming; the highest was 28 weeks in New Mexico. People in 27 US cities must travel over 100 miles (160 km) to reach an abortion facility; the state with the largest number of such cities is Texas (n=10). CONCLUSIONS: Online searches can provide detailed information about the location of abortion facilities and the types of services they provide. However, these facilities are not evenly distributed geographically, and many large US cities do not have an abortion facility. Long distances can push women to seek abortion in later gestations when care is even more limited.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/métodos , Internet/instrumentação , Adulto , Cidades , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
19.
Neuropharmacology ; 134(Pt A): 121-132, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042317

RESUMO

Deaths from opioid use are increasing in the US, with a growing proportion due to synthetic opioids. Until 2013, sporadic outbreaks of fentanyl and fentanyl analogs contaminating the heroin supply caused some deaths in heroin users. Since then, fentanyl has caused deaths in every state and fentanyl and its analogs have completely infiltrated the North American heroin supply. In 2014, the first illicit pills containing fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and other novel synthetic opioids such as U-47700 were detected. These pills, which look like known opioids or benzodiazepines, have introduced synthetic opioids to more unsuspecting customers. As soon as these drugs are regulated by various countries, new compounds quickly appear on the market, making detection difficult and the number of cases likely underreported. Standard targeted analytical techniques such as GC-MS (gas chromatography mass spectrometry) and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) can detect these drugs, but novel compound identification is aided by nontargeted testing with LC-HRMS (liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry). Fentanyl, fentanyl analogs and other novel synthetic opioids are all full agonists of varying potencies at the µ-opioid receptor, leading to typical clinical effects of miosis and respiratory and central nervous system depression. Due to their high affinity for µ-opioid receptors, larger doses of naloxone are required to reverse the effects than are commonly used. Synthetic opioids are an increasingly major public health threat requiring vigilance from multiple fields including law enforcement, government agencies, clinical chemists, pharmacists, and physicians, to name a few, in order to stem its tide. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Designer Drugs and Legal Highs.'


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Drogas Desenhadas/envenenamento , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Fentanila/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacologia , Humanos , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 105(1): 69-79, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28096749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed public health workers' evidence-based information needs, based on a review of the literature using a systematic search strategy. This study is based on a thesis project conducted as part of the author's master's in public health coursework and is considered a systematized review. METHODS: Four databases were searched for English-language articles published between 2005 and 2015: PubMed, Web of Science, Library Literature & Information Science Index, and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA). Studies were excluded if there was no primary data collection, the population in the study was not identified as public health workers, "information" was not defined according to specific criteria, or evidence-based information and public health workers were not the major focus. Studies included in the final analysis underwent data extraction, critical appraisal using CASP and STROBE checklists, and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three research studies were identified in the search, including twenty-one using quantitative methods and twelve using qualitative methods. Critical appraisal revealed many potential biases, particularly in the validity of research. Thematic analysis revealed five common themes: (1) definition of information needs, (2) current information-seeking behavior and use, (3) definition of evidence-based information, (4) barriers to information needs, and (5) public health-specific issues. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are given for how librarians can increase the use of evidence-based information in public health research, practice, and policy making. Further research using rigorous methodologies and transparent reporting practices in a wider variety of settings is needed to further evaluate public health workers' information needs.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Prática de Saúde Pública , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...