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1.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 24(3): 18, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824169

RESUMO

The aim was to determine if opioid neuroimmunopharmacology pathway gene polymorphisms alter serum morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide concentration-response relationships in 506 cancer patients receiving controlled-release oral morphine. Morphine-3-glucuronide concentrations (standardised to 11 h post-dose) were higher in patients without pain control (median (interquartile range) 1.2 (0.7-2.3) versus 1.0 (0.5-1.9) µM, P = 0.006), whereas morphine concentrations were higher in patients with cognitive dysfunction (40 (20-81) versus 29 (14-60) nM, P = 0.02). TLR2 rs3804100 variant carriers had reduced odds (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.42 (0.22-0.82), P = 0.01) of opioid adverse events. IL2 rs2069762 G/G (0.20 (0.06-0.52)), BDNF rs6265 A/A (0.15 (0.02-0.63)) and IL6R rs8192284 carrier (0.55 (0.34-0.90)) genotypes had decreased, and IL6 rs10499563 C/C increased (3.3 (1.2-9.3)), odds of sickness response (P ≤ 0.02). The study has limitations in heterogeneity in doses, sampling times and diagnoses but still suggests that pharmacokinetics and immune genetics co-contribute to morphine pain control and adverse effects in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor do Câncer , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Morfina , Farmacogenética , Humanos , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Morfina/farmacocinética , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Idoso , Farmacogenética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Derivados da Morfina/farmacocinética , Derivados da Morfina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética
2.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 112(3): 720-729, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560226

RESUMO

We aimed to develop population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models that can effectively describe ketamine and norketamine PK/PD relationships for Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) following i.v., s.c., and i.m. ketamine administration in patients with treatment-refractory depression. Ketamine PK/PD data were collected from 21 treatment-refractory depressed participants who received ketamine (dose titration 0.1-0.5 mg/kg as single doses) by i.v., s.c., or i.m. administration. Model development used nonlinear mixed effect modeling. Ketamine and norketamine PK were best described using two-compartment models with first-order absorption after s.c. and i.m. administration. Estimated ketamine bioavailability after i.m. and s.c. was ~ 64% with indistinguishable first-order absorption rate constants. Allometric scaling of body weight on all clearance and volumes of distribution improved the model fit. The delay in the concentration-response relationship for MADRS scores was best described using a turnover model (turnover time ~ 42 hours), whereas for the BP and HR rates this was an immediate effect model. For all PD effects, ketamine alone was superior to models with norketamine concentration linked to an effect. No covariates were identified for PD effects. The estimated half-maximal effective concentration from the MADRS score, BP, and HR were 0.44, 468, and 7,580 ng/mL, respectively. The integrated population models were able to effectively describe the PK/PD relationships for MADRS scores, BP, and HR after i.v., s.c., and i.m. ketamine administration. These findings allow for a deeper understanding of the complex relationships between route of ketamine administration and clinical response and safety.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Ketamina , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Ketamina/efeitos adversos
3.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 276: 239-273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434749

RESUMO

Pain impacts the lives of billions of people around the world - both directly and indirectly. It is complex and transcends beyond an unpleasant sensory experience to encompass emotional experiences. To date, there are no successful treatments for sufferers of chronic pain. Although opioids do not provide any benefit to chronic pain sufferers, they are still prescribed, often resulting in more complications such as hyperalgesia and dependence. In order to develop effective and safe medications to manage, and perhaps even treat pain, it is important to evaluate novel contributors to pain pathologies. As such, in this chapter we review the role of Toll-like receptor 4, a receptor of the innate immune system, that continues to gain substantial attention in the field of pain research. Positioned in the nexus of the neuro and immune systems, TLR4 may provide one of the missing pieces in understanding the complexities of pain. Here we consider how TLR4 enables a mechanistical understanding of pain as a multidimensional biopsychosocial state from molecules to cells to systems and back again.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Crônica , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia
4.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 50(1-2): 127-140, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112584

RESUMO

Opioids remain the major drug class for the treatment of acute, chronic and cancer pain, but have major harmful effects such as dependence and opioid-induced ventilatory impairment. Although no new typical opioids have come onto the market in the past almost 50 years, a plethora of new innovative formulations has been developed to meet the clinical need. This review is intended to shed light on new understanding of the molecular pharmacology of opioids, which has arisen largely due to the genomic revolution, and what new drugs may become available in the coming years. Atypical opioids have and are being developed which not only target the mu opioid receptor but other targets in the pain pathway. Biased mu agonists have been developed but remain 'unbiased' clinically. The contribution of drugs targeting non-mu opioid receptors either alone or as heterodimers shows potential promise but remains understudied. That gene splice variants of the mu opioid receptor produce multiple receptor isoforms in different brain regions, and may change with pain chronicity and phenotype, presents new challenges but also opportunities for precision pain medicine. Finally, that opioids also have pro-inflammatory effects not aligned with mu opioid receptor binding affinity implicates a fresh understanding of their role in chronic pain, whether cancer or non-cancer. Hopefully, a new understanding of opioid analgesic drug action may lead to new drug development and better precision medicine in acute and chronic pain relief with less patient harm.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/metabolismo , Manejo da Dor
5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2521-2531, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415664

RESUMO

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a high HIV/AIDS prevalence and very high frequency of the CYP2B6 c.516G>T (rs3745274) variant. We have conducted the first investigation of the impact of c.516G>T and patient demographics on plasma efavirenz (EFV) and 8-hydroxyefavirenz (8OH-EFV) concentrations, metabolic ratio (8OH-EFV/EFV) (MR), and their association with adverse effects, in PNG patients with HIV/AIDS. For 156 PNG patients with HIV/AIDS taking EFV 600 mg/day (for 3-156 months), plasma EFV and 8OH-EFV concentrations were quantified, CYP2B6 c.516G>T genotyped, and demographic and self-reported adverse effects data recorded. Genotype differences in EFV and 8OH-EFV concentrations, MR, and percent within therapeutic range (1000-4000 ng/ml) were examined, in addition to EFV and 8OH-EFV concentration differences between patients experiencing adverse effects. CYP2B6 c.516T allele frequency was 53%. Plasma EFV (p < 0.0001), 8OH-EFV (p < 0.01), and MR (p < 0.0001) differed significantly between genotypes, with genotype explaining 38%, 10%, and 50% of variability, respectively. Plasma EFV concentrations were significantly higher in T/T (median = 5168 ng/ml) than G/G (1036 ng/ml, post hoc p < 0.0001) and G/T (1502 ng/ml, p < 0.0001) genotypes, with all patients above therapeutic range (n = 23) being T/T genotype (p < 0.0001). EFV and 8OH-EFV concentrations were not significantly higher in patients experiencing adverse effects. In PNG HIV/AIDS population where the 516T frequency is very high, it explains a substantial portion of variability (38%) in EFV disposition; however, at least for the patients receiving EFV long term, this does not translate into significant side effects.


Assuntos
Alcinos/sangue , Benzoxazinas/sangue , Ciclopropanos/sangue , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/sangue , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/sangue , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Frequência do Gene , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alcinos/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(10): 3362-3366, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175301

RESUMO

Accurate quantification of efavirenz metabolites in patient samples is required to investigate their potential contribution to efavirenz adverse events. This study aimed to validate a LC-MS/MS method to quantify and investigate the stability of efavirenz and metabolites in human plasma. Compounds were extracted from plasma by supported liquid extraction and resolved on a C18 column. Validation was performed following FDA bioanalytical method validation guidelines. Stability under common conditions of sample pre-treatment and storage were assessed. Efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefavirenz were stable for all conditions tested. 7-Hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz were not stable in plasma at room temperature for 24 h (46%-69% loss), -20°C for 90 days (17%-50% loss), or 60°C for 1 h (90%-95% loss). Efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefavirenz concentrations in HIV/AIDS patient (n=5) plasma prepared from pre-treated (60°C for 1 h) whole blood varied from 517-8564 ng/mL and 131-813 ng/mL, respectively. 7-Hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz concentrations were below validated lower limits of quantification (0.25 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively), most likely due to sample pre-treatment. This is the first report of 7-hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz instability under conditions commonly used in preparation of samples from HIV/AIDS patients. Alternative biosafety measures to heat pre-treatment must therefore be used for accurate quantification of plasma 7-hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz.


Assuntos
Alcinos/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Plasma , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Pain Med ; 22(11): 2648-2660, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pain severity and opioid requirements in the postoperative period show substantial and clinically significant inter-patient variation due mainly to factors such as age, surgery type, and duration. Genetic factors have not been adequately assessed except for the neuronal OPRM1 rs1799971 and COMT rs4680, whereas the contribution of innate immune signaling pathway genetics has seldom been investigated. SETTING: Hospital surgical ward. SUBJECTS: Women (107 Indian, 184 Malay, and 750 Han Chinese) undergoing total hysterectomy surgery. METHODS: Morphine consumption, preoperative pain, and postoperative pain were evaluated in relation to genetic variability comprising 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes involved in glial activation, inflammatory signaling, and neuronal regulation, plus OPRM1 (1 SNP) and COMT (3 SNPs). RESULTS: Pre- and postoperative pain and age were associated with increased and decreased morphine consumption, respectively. In Chinese patients, only 8% of the variability in consumption could be explained by these nongenetic and genetic (BDNF, IL1B, IL6R, CRP, OPRM1, COMT, MYD88) factors. However, in Indian patients, 41% of morphine consumption variability could be explained by age (explaining <3%) and variants in OPRM1 rs1799971, CRP rs2794521, TLR4 rs4986790, IL2 rs2069762, COMT rs4818, TGFB1 rs1800469, and IL6R rs8192284 without controlling for postoperative pain. CONCLUSIONS: This is the highest known value reported for genetic contributions (38%) to morphine use in the acute postoperative pain setting. Our findings highlight the need to incorporate both genetic and nongenetic factors and consider ethnicity-dependent and nonadditive genotypic models in the assessment of factors that contribute to variability in opioid use.


Assuntos
Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Morfina , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Histerectomia , Imunidade Inata , Malásia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(10): 3901-3909, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646566

RESUMO

AIMS: Long-term use of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus is limited by nephrotoxicity. Following renal transplantation, the risk of nephrotoxicity may be determined more by allograft than by blood tacrolimus concentrations, and thus may be affected by donor CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genetics. Little is known regarding factors that determine tacrolimus intrarenal exposure. METHODS: This study investigated the relationship between trough blood (C0Blood ) and allograft (CGraft ) tacrolimus concentrations and tacrolimus dose, haematocrit, genetics, acute nephrotoxicity, rejection status, delayed graft function, and time post-transplant. C0Blood and CGraft were quantified in 132 renal transplant recipients together with recipient and donor CYP3A5 (rs776746) and ABCB1 3435 (rs1045642) genotypes. RESULTS: C0Blood ranged from 2.6 to 52.3 ng/mL and CGraft from 33 to 828 pg/mg tissue. Adjusting for dose, recipients who were CYP3A5 expressors had lower C0Blood compared to nonexpressors, whilst delayed graft function was associated with higher C0Blood . Linear regression showed that the significant predictors of CGraft were C0Blood (point-wise P = 7 × 10-10 ), dose (P = .004) acute nephrotoxicity (P = .002) and an interaction between C0Blood and acute tacrolimus nephrotoxicity (P = .0002), with an adjusted r2  = 0.35 and no contribution from donor or recipient CYP3A5 or ABCB1 genotype. The association between CGraft and acute nephrotoxicity depended on one very high CGraft (828 pg/mg tissue). CONCLUSIONS: Recipient and donor CYP3A5 and ABCB1 3435C>T genotypes are not determinants of allograft tacrolimus exposure in kidney transplant recipients. However, tacrolimus dose and C0Blood were significant predictors of CGraft , and the relationship between C0Blood and CGraft appeared to differ in the presence or absence of acute nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Tacrolimo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Aloenxertos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Transplantados
9.
Ther Drug Monit ; 41(4): 528-532, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between trough whole blood tacrolimus concentration (TAC C0) and acute kidney rejection in recipients undergoing TAC therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, studies have not always assessed TAC C0 at the time of rejection or accounted for variability in hematocrit. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the temporal relationship between TAC C0 and acute rejection, including when accounting for variation in hematocrit. METHODS: For 38 recipients who developed biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) in the first 14 days after kidney transplantation, daily TAC C0 from TDM and hematocrit was collected from case notes. Differences in log10-transformed TAC C0 between the day of BPAR (log Cr), 1 day before BPAR (log Cr-1), and 2 days before BPAR (log Cr-2) and the combined median concentrations for the days preceding these (log Cprior) were examined by repeated-measures analysis of variance with Dunnett post hoc testing. Generalized linear mixed-effects regression (glmer) examined the ability of TAC C0 to predict acute rejection episodes with and without controlling for hematocrit. RESULTS: Log Cr-1 [mean difference (95% confidence interval) = -0.13 (-0.21 to -0.048), post hoc P = 0.002] and log Cr [-0.13 (-0.24 to -0.025), post hoc P = 0.013] were significantly lower than log Cprior. TAC C0 was a significant (P = 0.0078) predictor of rejection episodes (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.79) only in glmer models accounting for variability in hematocrit. CONCLUSIONS: In recipients who developed BPAR, there was a significant temporal relationship between TAC C0 and BPAR incidence under TAC TDM that may not be detected in cross-sectional studies, especially if variability in hematocrit is not addressed. This supports a TAC C0-rejection relationship, which differs between recipients, and may explain why some recipients do or do not experience rejection within or below the TDM range, respectively. However, studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Imunossupressores/sangue , Tacrolimo/sangue , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(9): 2163-2169, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206740

RESUMO

Phenytoin drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in 3 Aboriginal Australians positive for HLA-B*56:02 has been previously reported. We report the allele frequency of HLA-B*56:02 in 2 South Australian populations, 1 Aboriginal (4.8%, 95% confidence interval 2.4-7.8%) and the other European (0%). We compared the frequency with publicly available information on HLA-B*56:02 status in other Indigenous Australian (n = 4) and European Australian cohorts (n = 1). In the Indigenous Australian cohorts, HLA-B*56:02 allele frequency ranged from 1.3 to 19%. We also describe an additional case of phenytoin DRESS (RegiSCAR DRESS score 7) in an Aboriginal Australian that was associated with HLA-B*56:02 and with CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype. In Aboriginal Australians, phenytoin DRESS appears distinctly linked to HLA-B*56:02 with an allele carriage rate substantially higher than in Europeans, but also with considerable regional variation. Investigations of human leucocyte antigen and other contributing genes and severe adverse drug reactions in understudied non-European populations are required to optimize safe medication use and inform risk mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Povos Indígenas/genética , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Variação Biológica da População , Estudos de Coortes , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2107, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765713

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the specificities of contextual modulations of the processing of facial expressions at a neuronal level. This study fills this gap by employing an original paradigm, based on a version of the filmic "Kuleshov effect". High-density EEG was recorded while participants watched film sequences consisting of three shots: the close-up of a target person's neutral face (Face_1), the scene that the target person was looking at (happy, fearful, or neutral), and another close-up of the same target person's neutral face (Face_2). The participants' task was to rate both valence and arousal, and subsequently to categorize the target person's emotional state. The results indicate that despite a significant behavioural 'context' effect, the electrophysiological indexes still indicate that the face is evaluated as neutral. Specifically, Face_2 elicited a high amplitude N170 when preceded by neutral contexts, and a high amplitude Late Positive Potential (LPP) when preceded by emotional contexts, thus showing sensitivity to the evaluative congruence (N170) and incongruence (LPP) between context and Face_2. The LPP activity was mainly underpinned by brain regions involved in facial expressions and emotion recognition processing. Our results shed new light on temporal and neural correlates of context-sensitivity in the interpretation of facial expressions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Felicidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1686, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innate immunity contributes to acute rejection after kidney transplantation. Genetic polymorphisms affecting innate immunity may therefore influence patients' risk of rejection. IL2 -330T > G, IL10 -1082G > A, -819C > T, and -592C > A, and TNF -308G > A are not associated with acute rejection incidence in Caucasian kidney transplant recipients receiving a calcineurin inhibitor, ciclosporin or tacrolimus (TAC). However, other important innate immune genetic polymorphisms have not yet been extensively studied in recipients and donors. In addition, innate immunogenetics have not been investigated in kidney transplant cohorts receiving only TAC as the calcineurin inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of recipient and donor CASP1, CRP, IL1B, IL2, IL6, IL6R, IL10, MYD88, TGFB, TLR2, TLR4, and TNF genetics on acute kidney rejection in the first 2 weeks post-transplant in TAC-treated kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: This study included 154 kidney transplant recipients and 81 donors successfully genotyped for 17 polymorphisms in these genes. All recipients were under triple immunosuppressant therapy of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Recipient and donor genotype differences in acute rejection incidence within the first 2 weeks post-transplantation were assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for induction therapy, human leukocyte antigen mismatches, kidney transplant number, living donor, and peak panel-reactive antibody scores. RESULTS: A trend (Cochran-Armitage P = 0.031) of increasing acute rejection incidence was observed from recipient IL6 -6331 T/T (18%) to T/C (25%) to C/C (46%) genotype [C/C versus T/T odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 6.6 (1.7 to 25.8) (point-wise P = 0.017)]. However, no genotype differences were significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not detect any statistically significant effects of recipient or donor innate immune genetics on acute rejection incidence in the first 2 weeks post-transplantation. However, the sample size was small, and future larger studies or meta-analyses are required to demonstrate conclusively if innate immune genetics such as IL6 influence the risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation.

13.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 29(1): 9-17, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CYP3A4/5 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) affect tacrolimus (TAC) exposure in T cells and kidney cells. Genetic variability of these genes has been widely studied for effects on acute rejection and kidney function after transplantation, but findings remain contradictory. In addition, cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is important for CYP3A4/5 activity, and the pregnane X receptor (NR1I2) regulates CYP3A4/5 and P-gp expression. However, the relationship between POR and NR1I2 genetics and acute rejection and kidney function has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ABCB1 (61A>G, 1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>T, 3435C>T), CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, NR1I2 (8055C>T, 63396C>T) and POR*28 genotypes/haplotypes on acute rejection and kidney function in the first 3 months after transplant. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The study included 165 kidney transplant recipients, who received TAC, mycophenolate and prednisolone, and 129 donors. TAC dose was adjusted to target trough blood concentrations of 8-15 ng/ml by therapeutic drug monitoring. Recipient and donor genotype/haplotype differences in acute rejection incidence within the first 2 weeks after transplant were assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for induction therapy, human leucocyte antigen mismatches, kidney transplant number, peak panel-reactive antibodies and donor type. Recipient and donor genotype/haplotype differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate in the first 3 months after transplant were assessed by linear mixed effects analysis, adjusting for acute rejection, delayed graft function and donor type. RESULTS: No genetic factors significantly affected acute rejection or estimated glomerular filtration rate after correction for multiple comparisons (P>0.004). CONCLUSION: Recipient and donor dispositional genetics had no significant effect on short-term clinical outcomes in kidney transplant patients receiving TAC therapeutic drug monitoring.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Rejeição de Enxerto/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Doadores de Tecidos
14.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 28(6): 153-164, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768302

RESUMO

Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than anywhere worldwide. For example, CYP2B6*6 is over 50%, and CYP2C19*2 and *3 are over 40 and 25%, respectively. Conversely, CYP2A6*9, 2B6*2, *3, *4 and *18, and 2C8*3 appear to be much lower than in Whites. CYP2D6 known variants are unclear, and for phase II enzymes, only UGT2B7 and UGT1A9 data are available, with variant frequencies either slightly lower than or similar to Whites. Although almost all PNG people tested are rapid acetylators, but which variant(s) define this phenotype is not known. For HLA-B*13:01, HLA-B*35:05 and HLA-C*04:01, the frequencies show some regioselectivity, but the clinical implications with respect to adverse drug reactions are not known. There are minimal phenotype data for the CYPs and nothing is known about drug transporter or receptor genetics. Determination of genetic variants that are rare in Whites or Asians but common in PNG people is a topic of both scientific and clinical importance, and further research needs to be carried out. Optimizing the safety and efficacy of infectious disease drug therapy through pharmacogenetic studies that have translation potential is a priority.


Assuntos
População Negra/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , População Negra/etnologia , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Humanos , Papua Nova Guiné/etnologia , UDP-Glucuronosiltransferase 1A
15.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 123(3): 320-326, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603629

RESUMO

Tacrolimus (TAC) is a first-line immunosuppressant used to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation. There is large inter-individual variability in its pharmacokinetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding TAC metabolizing enzymes cytochromes P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5), P-glycoprotein efflux transporter (ABCB1), their expression regulator pregnane X receptor (NR1I2) and CYP3A co-factor cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) have been studied for their effects on tacrolimus disposition. However, except for CYP3A5*3, controversies remain about their roles in predicting dose-adjusted trough blood TAC concentrations (C0 /D). This study aimed to investigate the effects of ABCB1 (61A>G, 1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>T and 3435C>T), CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, NR1I2 (8055C>T, 63396C>T and -25385C>T) and POR*28 SNPs on TAC C0 /D. In total, 165 kidney transplant recipients were included in this study. SNPs were genotyped by probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between log-transformed whole blood TAC C0 /D (measured at 1 and 3 months post-transplant) and genotypes/haplotypes were assessed by linear mixed effects analysis, controlling for age, sex and haematocrit. It was observed that CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*1 + *1/*3) (p = 5.5 × 10-16 ) and ABCB1 61G allele carriers (p = 0.001) had lower log-transformed TAC C0 /D (56% and 26% lower geometric mean TAC C0 /D, respectively) and accounted for approximately 30% and 4%, respectively, of log-transformed TAC C0 /D variability in the first 3 months post-transplant. In conclusion, CYP3A5*3 is a major, and ABCB1 61A>G is a novel, although minor, genetic factor affecting TAC C0 /D in kidney transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403490

RESUMO

Corticosterone (CORT), a critical mediator of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in rodents, is a stress hormone that is classically viewed as possessing immune-suppressive properties. CORT is now appreciated to also mediate the neuroimmune-priming effect of stress to innate-immune stimulation, and hence serves as a mechanistic link to the neuroimmune involvement in stress-related disorders. However, these dichotomous actions of CORT remain poorly defined. This study investigated the conditions and concentration dependency of CORT's actions required to prime the innate-immune system. Here, we measured the effect of CORT pretreatment on the downstream pro-inflammatory responses of BV2 mouse microglia-like cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We quantified the concentration-dependent CORT-mediated attenuation and enhancement of LPS-stimulated inflammatory response. A high physiological concentration (500 nM) of CORT attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory IL-1ß cytokine production in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner. However, a low concentration (50 nM) of CORT increased expression and release of IL-1ß in a mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, with accompanied increases in NF-κB translocation and changes to related gene transcription. These results suggest that a mild elevation in CORT may cause selective adaptations in microglia-like cells to overrespond to a second immune challenge in a non-classical manner, thus partially explaining both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of CORT reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo
17.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1684, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046652

RESUMO

Facial expressions are of major importance in understanding the mental and emotional states of others. So far, most studies on the perception and comprehension of emotions have used isolated facial expressions as stimuli; for example, photographs of actors displaying facial expressions corresponding to one of the so called 'basic emotions.' However, our real experience during social interactions is different: facial expressions of emotion are mostly perceived in a wider context, constituted by body language, the surrounding environment, and our beliefs and expectations. Already in the early twentieth century, the Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov argued that such context, established by intermediate shots of strong emotional content, could significantly change our interpretation of facial expressions in film. Prior experiments have shown behavioral effects pointing in this direction, but have only used static images as stimuli. Our study used a more ecological design with participants watching film sequences of neutral faces, crosscut with scenes of strong emotional content (evoking happiness or fear, plus neutral stimuli as a baseline condition). The task was to rate the emotion displayed by a target person's face in terms of valence, arousal, and category. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of a significant effect in terms of both valence and arousal in the fear condition only. Moreover, participants tended to categorize the target person's neutral facial expression choosing the emotion category congruent with the preceding context. Our results highlight the context-sensitivity of emotions and the importance of studying them under ecologically valid conditions.

18.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 56(8): 977-985, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27995529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the effects of the CYP2C8*3 and *4 polymorphisms on imatinib metabolism and plasma imatinib concentrations in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. METHODS: We genotyped 210 CML patients from the TIDELII trial receiving imatinib 400-800 mg/day for CYP2C8*3 (rs11572080, rs10509681) and *4 (rs1058930). Steady-state trough total plasma N-desmethyl imatinib (major metabolite):imatinib concentration ratios (metabolic ratios) and trough total plasma imatinib concentrations were compared between genotypes (one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc). RESULTS: CYP2C8*3 (n = 34) and *4 (n = 15) carriers had significantly higher (P < 0.01) and lower (P < 0.01) metabolic ratios, respectively, than CYP2C8*1/*1 (n = 147) patients (median ± standard deviation: 0.28 ± 0.08, 0.18 ± 0.06 and 0.22 ± 0.08, respectively). Plasma imatinib concentrations were consequently > 50% higher for CYP2C8*1/*4 than for CYP2C8*1/*1 and CYP2C8*3 carriers (2.18 ± 0.66 vs. 1.45 ± 0.74 [P < 0.05] and 1.36 ± 0.98 µg/mL [P < 0.05], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CYP2C8 genotype significantly alters imatinib metabolism in patients through gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/genética , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacocinética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/sangue , Mesilato de Imatinib/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/sangue , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética
19.
Pain ; 157(11): 2458-2466, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649267

RESUMO

Although several genetic factors have been associated with postsurgical morphine requirements, those involving the innate immune system and cytokines have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variability in innate immune signalling pathways to variability in morphine dosage after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in 133 Indian, 230 Malay, and 598 Han Chinese women previously studied. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes involved in glial activation (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, MD2), inflammatory signalling (IL2, IL6, IL10, IL1B, IL6R, TNFA, TGFB1, CRP, CASP1), and neuronal regulation (BDNF) were newly investigated, in addition to OPRM1, COMT, and ABCB1 genetic variability identified previously. Postsurgical patient-controlled analgesia morphine use (mg/24 hours) was binned into 6 normally distributed groups and scored 0 to 5 to facilitate step-down multiple linear regression analysis of genetic predictors, controlling for ethnicity and nongenetic variables. Ethnicity, OPRM1 rs1799971 (increased), TLR2 rs3804100 (decreased), and an interaction between ethnicity and IL1B rs1143634 (increased), predicted 9.8% of variability in morphine use scores in the entire cohort. In the Indian cohort, 14.5% of the variance in morphine use score was explained by IL1B rs1143634 (increased) and TGFB1 rs1800469 (decreased). In Chinese patients, the incidence of postsurgical pain was significantly higher in variant COMT rs4680 genotypes (P = 0.0007) but not in the Malay or Indian cohorts. Innate immune genetics may contribute to variability in postsurgical opioid requirements in an ethnicity-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória , Adolescente , Adulto , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etnologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Singapura/etnologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Perception ; 45(8): 847-874, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056181

RESUMO

According to film mythology, the Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov conducted an experiment in which he combined a close-up of an actor's neutral face with three different emotional contexts: happiness, sadness, and hunger. The viewers of the three film sequences reportedly perceived the actor's face as expressing an emotion congruent with the given context. It is not clear, however, whether or not the so-called "Kuleshov effect" really exists. The original film footage is lost and recent attempts at replication have produced either conflicting or unreliable results. The current paper describes an attempt to replicate Kuleshov's original experiment using an improved experimental design. In a behavioral and eye tracking study, 36 participants were each presented with 24 film sequences of neutral faces across six emotional conditions. For each film sequence, the participants were asked to evaluate the emotion of the target person in terms of valence, arousal, and category. The participants' eye movements were recorded throughout. The results suggest that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For each emotional condition, the participants tended to choose the appropriate category more frequently than the alternative options, while the answers to the valence and arousal questions also went in the expected directions. The eye tracking data showed how the participants attended to different regions of the target person's face (in light of the intermediate context), but did not reveal the expected differences between the emotional conditions.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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