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1.
J Affect Disord ; 263: 252-257, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a main source of disability worldwide. Identifying risk factors associated with incident and persistent episodes could inform clinical practice and hence mitigate their burden. However, previous research has focused on populations from developed countries. Thus, we evaluated sociodemographic risk factors and psychiatric comorbidities associated with incident and persistent depression in a large Brazilian occupational cohort. METHODS: We examined baseline (2008-2010, n = 15,105) and follow-up (2012-2014) data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Based on the presence of depression diagnosis at two timepoints, we diagnosed persistent and incident depression. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to explore risk factors associated with incident and persistent depression. As gender is associated with the exposure and outcome variables, analyses stratified by gender were also conducted. RESULTS: Presence of any anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and female gender were significant (p < 0.001) risk factors for depression incidence (odds ratios of 2.59, 3.6, and 1.82, respectively) and persistence (odds ratios of 6.94, 14.37, and 2.85, respectively) in multiple models, whereas having university degree decreased the odds of depression incidence (0.74) and persistence (0.45). In stratified analyses, the effects of low education were only evident in women. LIMITATIONS: Brief depressive episodes could not be measured by our assessments. CONCLUSION: In this occupational cohort, female gender, low education and psychiatric comorbidities were associated with unfavorable depression courses. Interventions targeting comorbidities could prevent depression incidence and persistence.

2.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; : appineuropsych19040088, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between cognitive performance and hemoglobin concentration has long been a topic of debate, but few data for middle-aged persons have been explored. The authors examined the association between anemia and cognitive performance at baseline assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of individuals from six Brazilian cities. METHODS: A total of 13,624 participants (mean age=51.6 years [SD=9.0]) were included in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive performance was evaluated by using standardized scores for verbal learning, late recall, word recognition, a semantic verbal fluency test, and the Trail-Making Test, Part B (TMT-B). The association between anemia and cognitive performance was examined by using linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Anemia was diagnosed in 713 (5.2%) participants. No association was found between anemia and worse cognitive performance for the main models. Global cognitive scores were similar between participants with and without anemia in adjusted models for the entire sample (ß=-0.004; 95% CI=-0.052, 0.044) or for men (ß=0.047; 95% CI=-0.053, 0.146) and women (ß=-0.015; 95% CI=-0.070, 0.040) separately. In addition, hemoglobin levels (in quintile groups) were not associated with global cognitive scores. Similarly, no significant associations with anemia or hemoglobin levels were observed when each cognitive performance test was evaluated separately. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and hemoglobin levels were not associated with worse cognitive performance in this large cohort.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e013248, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826726

RESUMO

Background Increased aortic stiffness has been associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but the results are inconsistent. This study investigated the longitudinal association of aortic stiffness and age with decreased cognitive performance in 3 cognitive tests. Methods and Results This study included 6927 participants, with a mean age of 58.8 years at baseline (2008-2010), who participated in the second wave (2012-2014) of the ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) (interval between visits ranging from 2-6 years). Cognitive performance was evaluated by Memory, Phonemic, and Semantic Verbal Fluency and Trail B Tests, applied at both cohort visits. Associations with the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and age at baseline were investigated using linear models with mixed effects after adjusting for confounders. After all the adjustments, including for systolic blood pressure, the interaction term carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity×time proved to be statistically significant for Memory and Verbal Fluency Tests, indicating that the higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at baseline was associated with a faster decline in cognitive performance in these tests between waves. The interaction term age×time was statistically significant for all cognitive tests, suggesting that increasing age at baseline was also associated with a faster decline in cognitive performance between waves. Conclusions In this relatively young cohort, and after a relatively short interval, an increased aortic stiffness at baseline was associated with a sharper decline in cognitive performances in memory and verbal fluency, regardless of systolic blood pressure levels. This study also showed that the decline in cognitive performance was faster among older individuals than among younger ones at baseline.

4.
Neuropsychology ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological tests are often used in aging studies to compare distinct groups regarding diagnosis and prognosis. Because sociodemographic characteristics can influence cognitive scores, measurement of invariance is useful to assess the tests' ability to estimate the underlying constructs equally across groups and thus prevent biased interpretation. This study aims to verify measurement invariance in a large and socioculturally diverse sample. METHOD: Middle-aged and older adults (N = 13,395) from the ELSA-Brasil study were evaluated regarding health status and cognition. Mean age was 51.5 ± 8.9 years, 54% were female, 52% were white, and 10% had lower education. Measurement invariance was analyzed using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis for a two-factor model (memory and executive function). Configural, metric, and scalar invariance were tested across age, sex, race, and education groups. RESULTS: The 2-factor model had a good fit to the entire dataset and for each group. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance confirmed that cognitive measures had the same structure and the items had similar relationships with the latent factors. Strict invariance was not achieved in most group comparison. CONCLUSIONS: The 2-factor model was appropriate for estimating cognitive performance in participants without measurement error by age, sex, race, and education. These results suggest that differences in cognitive outcomes are likely to indicate true differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Rheumatol Int ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858210

RESUMO

Information on measurement properties of translated versions of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index is still limited. This study investigated the internal consistency, test-retest reliability/agreement, construct validity, and floor and ceiling effects of Portuguese-Brazil WOMAC applied to civil servants at baseline of ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal cohort. Each measurement property was evaluated in the overall sample, in the subgroup reporting knee symptoms, and across different sociodemographic strata (except factorial analyses). Separate analyses were performed for pain, stiffness and function dimensions, considering the knee with the worst score (or right knee if same score in both knees). A total of 1740 participants were included (319 completed WOMAC on 2 occasions), mean age 56.0 (standard deviation = 8.9) years, 46.8% male, 42.1% had knee symptoms. In the overall sample, the range of results for WOMAC's dimensions were: internal consistency = cronbach alpha 0.92-0.98; test-retest reliability = intraclass correlation coefficient 0.85-0.97; standard error of measurement (SEM) = 1.38-5.86; smallest detectable change (SDC) = 3.84-16.25; lowest possible score = 38.8%-61.1% (floor effect present); highest possible score = 0.2%-0.9% (ceiling effect absent). Construct validity was confirmed by hypothesis testing and factorial analysis. Results were similar in the symptomatic group, except for higher SEM and SDC, and the absence of floor effects in pain and function dimensions. Portuguese-Brazil WOMAC showed good overall quality in a nonclinical setting. Variability in measurement properties across different strata of the population should be taken into consideration for the design of future studies using WOMAC.

6.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740697

RESUMO

The degree to which weight reduction leads to the remission of hypertension in population studies is not clear. We investigated whether the changes in adiposity measures predicted the remission of hypertension in a racially admixed population over a mean 4-year follow-up. All 4847 hypertensive individuals at baseline (2008-2010) from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) were included. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), or body mass index (BMI) (reduction or increase ≥5% from baseline values, vs stability) and remission of hypertension (SBP < 140 and DBP < 90 mmHg and no use of antihypertensive medication at follow-up visit, in 2012-2014) were investigated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Proportional attributable benefit was additionally calculated. Analyses were stratified by sex and antihypertensive medication use at baseline. Remission of hypertension was 11.3% (n = 546). Among men, after adjustments, the reduction of weight (OR = 1.52 95% CI 1.10-2.10), WC (OR = 1.56 95% CI 1.04-2.35) or BMI (OR = 1.60 95% CI 1.13-2.27) was associated with the remission of hypertension. Among those not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, after adjustments, the reduction of weight (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.18-2.27), WC (OR = 1.76 95% CI 1.18-2.61) or BMI (OR = 1.57 95% CI 1.10-2.25) was associated with the remission of hypertension. Proportional attributable benefit among those with adiposity reduction was about 30%, indicating its potential for prevention. In conclusion, our study reinforces the role of adiposity-reducing strategies (e.g., healthy diet and regular physical activity) for the treatment and prevention of hypertension, which might have potential applications for clinical practice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742882

RESUMO

High salt intake is known to increase blood pressure (BP) and also to be associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). However, recent data showed a sex-specific pattern in the salt-induced rise of BP. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether the association between salt intake and arterial stiffness also has a sex-specific pattern. A total of 7755 normotensive participants with a validated 12-h overnight urine collection in which daily salt intake was estimated were included. cf-PWV, as well as clinical and anthropometric parameters, was measured. Salt intake positively correlated with cf-PWV, in which the linear regression was steeper in women than in men (0.0199 ± 0.0045 vs 0.0326 ± 0.0052 m/s per gram of salt, P < .05). cf-PWV increases over the salt quartiles in men and women. However, after adjustment for confounders, the association remained significant only for men. In the path analysis, the direct path (men: 0.048 P < .001, women: 0.029 P = .028) was higher in men while that mediated by SBP (men: 0.020 P < .001, women: 0.034 P < .001) was higher in women. We clearly demonstrated that high salt intake has a direct and independent effect increasing arterial stiffness regardless of sex. Also, the association between salt intake and arterial stiffness is more dependent on BP in normotensive women than it is in normotensive men. These results highlight the need for a sex-specific approach in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk associated with dietary habits.

8.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 21(12): 51, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748957

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) has received some interest in recent studies as an important subclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Besides that, using computed tomography (CT) scans performed with cardiac or chest protocols, ECG-gated, or non-gated, TAC can be easily evaluated with no addition in radiation dose. This review discusses the particularities of the aortic wall calcium formation, as well as the differences between the aortic segments and summarizes the current status of TAC evaluation, mainly concerning the anatomical references used in the studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies have evaluated TAC considering different anatomical references. It was identified two different study groups. In the first one, researchers have analyzed the aorta as the sum of calcium in the ascending aorta (ATAC), aortic arch (AAC), and descending thoracic aorta (DTAC). The second group has used cardiac CT scans to assess TAC; therefore, they did not include AAC; however, the aortic root calcium (ARC) was added in the analysis. So, caution is advisable when interpreting and comparing studies that used different TAC anatomical references. The broad methodological variability, in addition to the variations in the population characteristics of the studies on TAC, may be in part contributing to the differences between results of different studies. Currently TAC does not have a role in clinical decisions, so it is necessary to create a standard protocol for the aortic calcium research as well as exists for the coronary artery calcium evaluation.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with gains in weight and waist circumference, and incident overweight/obesity, in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. DESIGN: We applied FFQ at baseline and categorized energy intake by degree of processing using the NOVA classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean 3·8-year follow-up. We assessed associations, through Poisson regression with robust variance, of UPF consumption with large weight gain (1·68 kg/year) and large waist gain (2·42 cm/year), both being defined as ≥90th percentile in the cohort, and with incident overweight/obesity. SETTING: Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 11 827), aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). RESULTS: UPF provided a mean 24·6 (sd 9·6) % of ingested energy. After adjustment for smoking, physical activity, adiposity and other factors, fourth (>30·8 %) v. first (<17·8 %) quartile of UPF consumption was associated (relative risk (95 % CI)) with 27 and 33 % greater risk of large weight and waist gains (1·27 (1·07, 1·50) and 1·33 (1·12, 1·58)), respectively. Similarly, those in the fourth consumption quartile presented 20 % greater risk (1·20 (1·03, 1·40)) of incident overweight/obesity and 2 % greater risk (1·02; (0·85, 1·21)) of incident obesity. Approximately 15 % of cases of large weight and waist gains and of incident overweight/obesity could be attributed to consumption of >17·8 % of energy as UPF. CONCLUSIONS: Greater UPF consumption predicts large gains in overall and central adiposity and may contribute to the inexorable rise in obesity seen worldwide.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1655-1661, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590910

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. However, risk factors associated with arterial calcium may vary across vascular beds. We verified whether TAC is associated with the same risk factors as is CAC in adults without established CVD. Cross-sectional analysis including 2,433 participants (aged 38 to 78 years) of ELSA-Brasil cohort in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nonenhanced ECG-gated multislice computed tomography were performed to detect calcium in the thoracic aorta and the coronaries (2015 to 2016). Multivariate logistic regression evaluated the associations of both TAC and CAC with CVD risk factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, family history of CVD, low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HbA1c, blood pressure, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid lowering medications). Overall prevalence of TAC and CAC were 69% and 43%, respectively. CAC prevalence was lower among women (31%) than men (56%) (Adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 0.24 to 0.38). After adjustments, black individuals were less likely to have any CAC as compared with whites (OR 0.63; 0.47 to 0.86). Neither sex, nor race/skin color were statistically associated with TAC. Use of antidiabetic medications remained associated with CAC (OR 1.80; 1.23 to 2.631.01), but not with TAC. All other risk factors, except education, alcohol, physical activity and HbA1c, persisted statistically associated with both TAC and CAC in the final analysis, with small differences in the magnitudes of the ORs. In conclusion, the only disagreements seen in the risk factors associated with CAC and TAC were sex, race/skin color, and use of antidiabetic medications.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of selected food groups and beverages and serum uric acid (UA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using the baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with 114 items. Linear and logistic regressions investigated the associations between the daily intake of each food group (servings/d) and UA (mg/dl) and hyperuricemia (UA ≥ 6·8 mg/dl), respectively. All the analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, energy intake and all food groups. SETTING: Teaching and research institutions from six Brazilians states. SUBJECTS: The participants were 14 320 active and retired civil servants, aged 35-74 years. RESULTS: Higher intake of dairy products was associated with lower serum UA levels in both sexes, with a statistical dose-response gradient. High meat intake was associated with high UA only in women, and high intake of organ meats, in men. Intake of fish and fruits, vegetables and legumes were not associated with serum UA. In men, moderate and high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer and spirits, but not wine, increased UA. In women, only high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer, was associated with increased serum UA. Similar associations were seen for hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a potential beneficial role of dairy products consumption on UA levels. The association between alcohol intake and UA differed according to type of beverage and between sexes. Results reinforce the need to consider the whole diet in the analysis and to conduct sex stratified analysis.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e012701, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597505

RESUMO

Background There are few data about the association between work-related stress and the American Heart Association ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics. We studied the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and ideal CVH scores in the ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) baseline study. Methods and Results We analyzed data of active workers (5424 men and 5967 women), aged 35 to 74 years, from 2008 to 2010. Ideal CVH scores were calculated based on the lifestyle and health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association, using data from questionnaires and clinical and laboratory examinations from the ELSA-Brasil study baseline. The WFC questionnaire was based on the Frone model, validated for Brazilian Portuguese. WFC domains (time and strain-based work interference with family, family interference with work, and lack of time for personal care and leisure) and frequency (never to rarely, sometimes, or frequently) were self-reported. Main models were adjusted for age, sex, race, educational level, income, and study site. Positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate higher predicted scores. We found lower lifestyle ideal CVH scores among men (rPSD, -5.7%; P=0.002) and women (rPSD, -10.2%; P<0.001) with frequent lack of time for personal care and leisure. We found lower lifestyle ideal CVH scores among women with frequent strain-based work interference with family (rPSD, -5.1%; P=0.002), and family interference with work (rPSD, -8.6%; P=0.001). We found higher health ideal CVH scores among men with frequent WFC, which may be attributable to reverse causation. Conclusions We found significant associations between WFC and ideal CVH scores. These associations were heterogeneous according to sex.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e026800, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the neighbourhood social environment, including social cohesion, perceived neighbourhood safety, perceived neighbourhood violence, and obesity in Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 6 state capitals in Brazil (Salvador, Vitoria, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) PARTICIPANTS: Current or former employees of five federal universities and one research centre in each of the six Brazilian state capitals who were participants of the baseline wave (2008-2010) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (n=11 456; 56% women; 56% White, 28% Brown, and 16% Black). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Obesity, based on measured weight and height, and defined as having a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. RESULTS: No associations were found between the neighbourhood social environment and obesity among men. In multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, skin colour, state of residence, and individual-level social cohesion and perceived violence scores, respectively, women living in the least socially cohesive neighbourhoods and in those perceived as most violent had higher odds of obesity compared with their counterparts (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.02-1.53; OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.04-1.56, respectively). When stratified by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES)-defined based on number of people per household, proportion of children 0-4 years, median income and per cent of white residents at the neighbourhood level-results for social cohesion and for violence remained only for women residing in high SES and low SES neighbourhoods, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this civil-servant sample in six large cities in Brazil, the neighbourhood social environment was associated with obesity among women, but not men. Neighbourhood-level interventions to increase social cohesion and reduce violence may help in the prevention of obesity among women in Brazil.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438554

RESUMO

A growing burden of mental illness, and in particular depression, among workers is a concern of occupational public health. Scientific evidence has revealed consistent associations of work-related stress, as measured by theoretical models, with depression, but mostly so in developed countries. This contribution explores these associations in a developing Latin American country, Brazil, by applying an internationally established work stress model, the effort-reward imbalance (ERI). This model focuses on the work contract where unjust exchange between high efforts spent and low rewards received in turn contributes to stress-related disorders. The model's extrinsic ('effort', 'reward') and intrinsic components ('over-commitment'), as well as their combination, are hypothesized to be related to a higher risk of depressive episodes (DE). Using cross-sectional data from the ELSA-Brasil study, including 10,034 workers from the public sector, we observed increased prevalence ratio (PR) of DE according to ERI scales. The quartiles of highest 'effort' (PR = 1.85; 1.44-2.37), highest 'over-commitment' (PR = 3.62; 2.80-4.70) and lowest 'reward' (PR = 3.44; 2.55-4.64) were associated with DE, on adjusted models, as well was the E-R ratio (PR = 2.47; 1.92-3.17). An additive interaction was identified between the E-R ratio and 'over-commitment'. The results support the use of ERI as a screening tool for work stress in the Brazilian context and will offer guidance for worksite health promotion programs.

15.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(2): 169-176, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There may be a direct association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, under the assumption that the high glycemic index of these food products could stimulate the entire chronic inflammation cascade, along with an indirect association mediated by obesity. The types of food consumed, including ultra-processed products, strongly influence obesity, and are also associated with higher serum CRP levels. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether the caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods to diet is associated with CRP levels, independent of body mass index (BMI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analysis on the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline cohort (2008-2010). METHODS: Dietary information, obtained through a food frequency questionnaire, was used to estimate the percentage of energy contribution from ultra-processed food to individuals' total caloric intake. CRP levels were the response variable. Sex-specific associations were estimated using generalized linear models with gamma distribution and log-link function. RESULTS: Ultra-processed food accounted for 20% of total energy intake. Among men, after adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no association between ultra-processed food intake and CRP levels. Among women, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking and physical activity, the highest tercile of ultra-processed food intake was associated with mean CRP levels that were 14% higher (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.24) than those of the lowest tercile. However, after considering BMI, this association lost statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the positive association of ultra-processed food consumption with CRP levels among women seems to be mediated by the presence of adiposity.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216653, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095585

RESUMO

Ethnic-racial classification criteria are widely recognized to vary according to historical, cultural and political contexts. In Brazil, the strong influence of individual socio-economic factors on race/colour self-classification is well known. With the expansion of genomic technologies, the use of genomic ancestry has been suggested as a substitute for classification procedures such as self-declaring race, as if they represented the same concept. We investigated the association between genomic ancestry, the racial composition of census tracts and individual socioeconomic factors and self-declared race/colour in a cohort of 15,105 Brazilians. Results show that the probability of self-declaring as black or brown increases according to the proportion of African ancestry and varies widely among cities. In Porto Alegre, where most of the population is white, with every 10% increase in the proportion of African ancestry, the odds of self-declaring as black increased 14 times (95%CI 6.08-32.81). In Salvador, where most of the population is black or brown, that increase was of 3.98 times (95%CI 2.96-5.35). The racial composition of the area of residence was also associated with the probability of self-declaring as black or brown. Every 10% increase in the proportion of black and brown inhabitants in the residential census tract increased the odds of self-declaring as black by 1.33 times (95%CI 1.24-1.42). Ancestry alone does not explain self-declared race/colour. An emphasis on multiple situational contexts (both individual and collective) provides a more comprehensive framework for the study of the predictors of self-declared race/colour, a highly relevant construct in many different scenarios, such as public policy, sociology and medicine.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 84: 121-126, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Myelopathy is a well-established long-term clinical manifestation of HTLV-1 infection. Besides motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment may be another consequence of HTLV-1 infection. Moreover, inflammatory markers may be associated with cognitive impairment in these patients. The present study compared the cognitive performance of HAM/TSP patients with healthy controls and investigated the associations between cognitive performance, proviral load and blood inflammatory markers. METHODS: Eighty-three patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for HAM/TSP were submitted to a comprehensive clinical, cognitive and functional evaluation, brain magnetic resonance imaging and determination of levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, immunoglobulins and HTLV-1 proviral load in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The control group was composed of 88 cognitively healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and educational level. RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects, HAM/TSP patients displayed significant global cognitive impairment and executive function deficits. HAM/TSP cognitive impairment was significantly associated with altered levels of IgM, IgG, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood. There was no association between HAM/TSP cognitive impairment and HTLV-1 proviral load. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests cognitive impairment may be a long-term clinical manifestation of HTLV-1 infection, which seems to be linked to the persistent inflammatory activity that is found in the disease.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Inflamação/complicações , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/complicações , Provírus/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/imunologia
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 34: 45-51, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between social and nutritional adversities in childhood and increased arterial stiffness in adulthood, according to race/skin color. METHODS: We used baseline data (2008-2010) from 13,365 adults (aged 34-75 years) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Childhood social and nutritional adversities were assessed by maternal education and birth weight. Race/skin color was self-reported. RESULTS: The lower the maternal education, the higher the cfPWV in adulthood in Whites, Browns, and Blacks. This association was no longer significant after adjusting for the participant's education level in Whites, but it persisted after full adjustment among Browns (low vs. high maternal education: ß = 0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.01; 0.34) and Blacks (low vs. high maternal education: ß = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.18; 0.70). On the other hand, the association between low birth weight and higher cfPWV was found only among Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings regarding the association between maternal education and arterial stiffness are consistent with the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in Blacks and Browns. The fact that the association between birth weight and arterial stiffness was only present in Whites may have reflected a survival bias.

20.
Psychosom Med ; 81(6): 536-544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that exposure to psychosocial stress at work can inhibit vagal tonus, influencing the capacity to respond to environmental stimuli. We investigated whether job strain and low control and high demand at work, as separate measures, are associated with a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 9658 active workers at the baseline (2008-2010) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). HRV was estimated using electrocardiographic recordings for 10 minutes, at rest, examining the following indices were used: root mean square of successive difference, standard deviation of normal to normal, percentage of adjacent R-R intervals with a difference lasting more than 50 ms, low frequency (LF), and high frequency. Job strain was defined based on the demand-control model. Independent associations between job strain and HRV indices were verified using generalized linear models and the magnitude of the association was estimated by evaluating the ratios of arithmetic means. RESULTS: Neither the unfavorable demand-control relation nor job demand dimension separately was associated with HRV. However, the increase of one unit in the control dimension was associated with an increment of 2.2% (95% confidence interval = 1.014-1.029) in the LF mean. After adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics, assessment site, health-related behaviors, and depression, this association remained statistically significant (ratio of arithmetic means = 1.008; 95% confidence interval = 1.0002-1.017). CONCLUSIONS: Job control was associated with HRV in a large cohort of civil servants. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that only the LF index remained associated with low job control. Further studies are needed to develop a greater understanding of the relationship of psychosocial aspects and autonomic balance.

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