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1.
J Immunol Methods ; : 113165, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634317

RESUMO

Monitoring the burden and spread of infection with the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, whether within small communities or in large geographical settings, is of paramount importance for public health purposes. Serology, which detects the host antibody response to the infection, is the most appropriate tool for this task, since virus-derived markers are most reliably detected during the acute phase of infection. Here we show that our ELISA protocol, which is based on antibody binding to the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the viral Spike protein expressed as a novel fusion protein, detects antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We also show that our ELISA is accurate and versatile. It compares favorably with commercial assays widely used in clinical practice to determine exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, our protocol accommodates use of various blood- and non-blood-derived biospecimens, such as breast milk, as well as dried blood obtained with microsampling cartridges that are appropriate for remote collection. As a result, our RBD-based ELISA protocols are well suited for seroepidemiology and other large-scale studies requiring parsimonious sample collection outside of healthcare settings.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479991

RESUMO

COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
J Nutr ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate or excessive intake of micronutrients in pregnancy has potential to negatively impact maternal/offspring health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare risks of inadequate or excessive micronutrient intake in diverse females with singleton pregnancies by strata of maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and prepregnancy BMI. METHODS: Fifteen observational cohorts in the US Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Consortium assessed participant dietary intake with 24-h dietary recalls (n = 1910) or food-frequency questionnaires (n = 7891) from 1999-2019. We compared the distributions of usual intake of 19 micronutrients from food alone (15 cohorts; n = 9801) and food plus dietary supplements (10 cohorts with supplement data; n = 7082) to estimate the proportion with usual daily intakes below their age-specific daily Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), above their Adequate Intake (AI), and above their Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), overall and within sociodemographic and anthropometric subgroups. RESULTS: Risk of inadequate intake from food alone ranged from 0% to 87%, depending on the micronutrient and assessment methodology. When dietary supplements were included, some women were below the EAR for vitamin D (20-38%), vitamin E (17-22%), and magnesium (39-41%); some women were above the AI for vitamin K (63-75%), choline (7%), and potassium (37-53%); and some were above the UL for folic acid (32-51%), iron (39-40%), and zinc (19-20%). Highest risks for inadequate intakes were observed among participants with age 14-18 y (6 nutrients), non-White race or Hispanic ethnicity (10 nutrients), less than a high school education (9 nutrients), or obesity (9 nutrients). CONCLUSIONS: Improved diet quality is needed for most pregnant females. Even with dietary supplement use, >20% of participants were at risk of inadequate intake of ≥1 micronutrients, especially in some population subgroups. Pregnancy may be a window of opportunity to address disparities in micronutrient intake that could contribute to intergenerational health inequalities.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e24671, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and communication technologies, including mobile health (mHealth), can help isolated communities address environmental health challenges. The Puerto Rican island of Culebra has faced multiple sociopolitical and economic factors that have distressed the island's environment and health. Culebrenses are technologically engaged and have demonstrated a use of technology that transcends socioeconomic barriers. As a result, technological interventions could potentially help manage environmental risks on the island. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test and evaluate the potential benefits of an mHealth tool, termed ¡mZAP! (Zonas, Acción y Protección), for engaging communities with environmental risks through technology. METHODS: Participants using ¡mZAP! (N=111) were surveyed. Bivariate analyses were used to examine associations of mHealth use with sociodemographics, technology use, an adapted environmental attitudes inventory, and the multidimensional health locus of control. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between attitudes toward environmental health risks and mHealth use. RESULTS: Higher positive attitudes toward the environment were significantly associated with the use of ¡mZAP! (odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.6-17.0). Environmental attitudes were also associated with the multidimensional health locus of control powerful others subscale (P=.02), indicating that attitudes toward the environment become more negative as feelings controlled by others increase. Participants felt that the authorities would resolve the challenges (63/111, 56.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived lack of control could present barriers to collective actions to address salient environmental health challenges in communities. The ongoing dependency on government-based solutions to community problems is worrisome, especially after the hurricane experiences of 2017 (which may potentially continue to be an issue subsequent to the more recent 2020 earthquakes).

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We studied risk factors, antibody responses, and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a diverse, ambulatory population. METHODS: A prospective cohort (n=831, including 548 hospital-based healthcare workers) previously undiagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection was followed for six months with serial testing (SARS-CoV-2 PCR, specific IgG) and surveys. RESULTS: 93 participants (11.2%) tested SARS-CoV-2-positive; 14 (15.1%) were asymptomatic and 24 (25.8%), severely symptomatic. Healthcare workers were more likely to become infected (14.2% vs. 5.3%, aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3) and have severe symptoms (29.5% vs. 6.7%). IgG antibodies were detected after 79% of asymptomatic infections, 89% with mild-moderate symptoms, and 96% with severe symptoms. IgG trajectories after asymptomatic infection (slow increases) differed from symptomatic infections (early peaks within 2 months). Most participants (92%) had persistent IgG responses (median 171 days). In multivariable models, IgG titers were positively associated with symptom severity, certain comorbidities, and hospital work. Dyspnea, altered smell and taste, and other neurologic changes persisted for ≥120 days in ≥10% of affected participants. Participants with prolonged symptoms (generally more severely symptomatic) had higher antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective, ethnically diverse cohort, symptom severity correlated with the magnitude and trajectory of IgG production. Symptoms frequently persisted for many months after infection.

6.
Environ Res ; 203: 111811, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339697

RESUMO

Human exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Most existing studies on health effects of glyphosate have focused on occupational settings and cancer outcomes and few have examined this common exposure in relation to the health of pregnant women and newborns in the general population. We investigated associations between prenatal glyphosate exposure and length of gestation in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES), a multi-center US pregnancy cohort. Glyphosate and its primary degradation product [aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)] were measured in urine samples collected during the second trimester from 163 pregnant women: 69 preterm births (<37 weeks) and 94 term births, the latter randomly selected as a subset of TIDES term births. We examined the relationship between exposure and length of gestation using multivariable logistic regression models (dichotomous outcome; term versus preterm) and with weighted time-to-event Cox proportional hazards models (gestational age in days). We conducted these analyses in the overall sample and secondarily, restricted to women with spontaneous deliveries (n = 90). Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in most urine samples (>94 %). A shortened gestational length was associated with maternal glyphosate (hazard ratio (HR): 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.71) and AMPA (HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.00-1.73) only among spontaneous deliveries using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In binary analysis, glyphosate and AMPA were not associated with preterm birth risk (<37 weeks). Our results indicate widespread exposure to glyphosate in the general population which may impact reproductive health by shortening length of gestation. Given the increasing exposure to GBHs and the public health burden of preterm delivery, larger confirmatory studies are needed, especially in vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns.

7.
Environ Res ; 203: 111863, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Building upon our earlier findings of significant associations between hair dye and relaxer use with increased breast cancer risk, we evaluated associations of select characteristics of use with breast tumor clinicopathology. METHODS: Using multivariable-adjusted models we examined the associations of interest in a case-only study of 2998 women with breast cancer, overall and stratified by race and estrogen receptor (ER) status, addressing multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Compared to salon application of permanent hair dye, home kit and combination application (both salon and home kit application) were associated with increased odds of poorly differentiated tumors in the overall sample. This association was consistent among Black (home kit: OR 2.22, 95 % CI: 1.21-5.00; combination: OR 2.46, 95 % CI: 1.21-5.00), but not White women, and among ER+ (home kit: OR 1.47, 95 % CI: 0.82-2.63; combination: OR 2.98, 95 % CI: 1.62-5.49) but not ER-cases. Combination application of relaxers was associated with increased odds of tumors >2.0 cm vs. <1.0 cm (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI: 1.23-2.69). Longer duration and earlier use of relaxers and combination application of permanent hair dyes and relaxers were associated with breast tumor features including higher tumor grade and larger tumor size, which often denote more aggressive phenotypes, although the findings did not maintain significance with Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: These novel data support reported associations between hair dye and relaxer use with breast cancer, showing for the first time, associations with breast tumor clinicopathologic features. Improved hair product exposure measurement is essential for fully understanding the impact of these environmental exposure with breast cancer and to guide risk reduction strategies in the future.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117074, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264327

RESUMO

Importance: Black and Latinx communities have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, yet little work has sought to understand their perspectives. Objective: To explore the experiences of Black and Latinx communities during the pandemic to better understand their perspectives on COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (eg, mask wearing), testing, and vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this community-engaged qualitative study conducted with 18 community-based organizations and 4 health care organizations between November 19, 2020, and February 5, 2021, in New Jersey counties severely affected by the pandemic, group and individual interviews were used to purposively sample 111 Black and Latinx individuals. A total of 13 group interviews were organized by race/ethnicity and language: 4 English-speaking groups with Black participants (n = 34), 3 Spanish-speaking groups with Latinx participants (n = 24), and 4 English-speaking groups with Black and Latinx participants (n = 36). To understand the views of health care workers from these communities, 2 additional groups (n = 9) were convened and supplemented with individual interviews. Main Outcomes and Measures: Description of Black and Latinx participants' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their perspectives on mitigation behaviors, testing, and vaccines. Results: The study included 111 participants (87 women [78.4%]; median age, 43 years [range, 18-93 years]). Participants described the devastating effects of the pandemic on themselves, loved ones, and their community. Their experiences were marked by fear, illness, loss, and separation. These experiences motivated intense information seeking, mitigation behaviors, and testing. Nevertheless, vaccine skepticism was high across all groups. Participants did not trust the vaccine development process and wanted clearer information. Black participants expressed that they did not want to be subjects of experiments. Conclusions and Relevance: The remaining unknowns about new vaccines need to be acknowledged and described for Black and Latinx communities to make informed decisions. Ultimately, scientists and public officials need to work transparently to address unanswered questions and work collaboratively with trusted community leaders and health professionals to foster partnered approaches, rather than focusing on marketing campaigns, to eliminate vaccine skepticism.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Atitude/etnologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Hispano-Americanos , Pandemias , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
9.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 49(8): 629-637, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074729

RESUMO

Exposure to the environmental pollutant cadmium is ubiquitous, as it is present in cigarette smoke and the food supply. Over time, cadmium enters and accumulates in the kidneys, where it causes tubular injury. The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ATP-Binding Cassette G2 ABCG2) is an efflux transporter that mediates the urinary secretion of pharmaceuticals and toxins. The ABCG2 genetic variant Q141K exhibits altered membrane trafficking that results in reduced efflux of BCRP substrates. Here, we sought to 1) evaluate the in vitro and in vivo ability of BCRP to transport cadmium and protect kidney cells from toxicity and 2) determine whether this protection is impaired by the Q141K variant. Cadmium concentrations, cellular stress, and toxicity were quantified in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing an empty vector (EV), BCRP wild-type (WT), or variant (Q141K) gene. Treatment with CdCl2 resulted in greater accumulation of cadmium and apoptosis in EV cells relative to WT cells. Exposure to CdCl2 induced expression of stress-related genes and proteins including MT-1A/MT-2A, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, and heme oxygenase-1 to a higher extent in EV cells compared with WT cells. Notably, the Q141K variant protected against CdCl2-induced activation of stress genes and cytotoxicity, but this protection was to a lesser magnitude than observed with WT BCRP. Lastly, concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Bcrp knockout mice were 40% higher than in WT mice, confirming that cadmium is an in vivo substrate of BCRP. In conclusion, BCRP prevents the accumulation of cadmium and protects against toxicity, a response that is impaired by the Q141K variant. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The breast cancer resistance protein transporter lowers cellular accumulation of the toxic heavy metal cadmium. This protective function is partially attenuated by the Q141K genetic variant in the ABCG2 gene.

10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073731

RESUMO

Contamination of the world's food supply and animal feed with mycotoxins is a growing concern as global temperatures rise and promote the growth of fungus. Zearalenone (ZEN), an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi, is a common contaminant of cereal grains and has also been detected at lower levels in meat, milk, and spices. ZEN's synthetic derivative, zeranol, is used as a growth promoter in United States (US) and Canadian beef production. Experimental research suggests that ZEN and zeranol disrupt the endocrine and reproductive systems, leading to infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome-like phenotypes, pregnancy loss, and low birth weight. With widespread human dietary exposure and growing experimental evidence of endocrine-disrupting properties, a comprehensive review of the impact of ZEN, zeranol, and their metabolites on the female reproductive system is warranted. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological literature and evaluate the potential impact of ZEN, zeranol, and their metabolites (commonly referred to as mycoestrogens) on female reproductive outcomes. We conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO registration CRD42020166469) of the literature (2000-2020) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The data sources were primary literature published in English obtained from searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. The ToxR tool was applied to assess risk of bias. In vitro and in vivo studies (n = 104) were identified and, overall, evidence consistently supported adverse effects of mycoestrogens on physiological processes, organs, and tissues associated with female reproduction. In non-pregnant animals, mycoestrogens alter follicular profiles in the ovary, disrupt estrus cycling, and increase myometrium thickness. Furthermore, during pregnancy, mycoestrogen exposure contributes to placental hemorrhage, stillbirth, and impaired fetal growth. No epidemiological studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified.


Assuntos
Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Zeranol/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/patologia
11.
Res Nurs Health ; 44(4): 608-619, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993510

RESUMO

Multiple physiological changes occur in pregnancy as a woman's body adapts to support the growing fetus. These pregnancy-induced changes are essential for fetal growth, but the extent to which they reverse after pregnancy remains in question. For some women, physiological changes persist after pregnancy and may increase long-term cardiometabolic disease risk. The National Institutes of Health-funded study described in this protocol addresses a scientific gap by characterizing weight and biological changes during pregnancy and an extended postpartum period in relation to cardiometabolic risk. We use a longitudinal repeated measures design to prospectively examine maternal health from early pregnancy until 3 years postpartum. The aims are: (1) identify maternal weight profiles in the pregnancy-postpartum period that predict adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles three years postpartum; (2) describe immune, endocrine, and metabolic biomarker profiles in the pregnancy-postpartum period, and determine their associations with cardiometabolic risk; and (3) determine how modifiable postpartum health behaviors (diet, physical activity, breastfeeding, sleep, stress) (a) predict weight and cardiometabolic risk in the postpartum period; and (b) moderate associations between postpartum weight retention and downstream cardiometabolic risk. The proposed sample is 250 women. This study of mothers is conducted in conjunction with the Understanding Pregnancy Signals and Infant Development study, which examines child health outcomes. Biological and behavioral data are collected in each trimester and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postpartum. Findings will inform targeted health strategies that promote health and reduce cardiometabolic risk in childbearing women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Exercício Físico , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e044798, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extensive research suggests that maternal prenatal distress is reliably related to perinatal and child health outcomes-which may persist into adulthood. However, basic questions remain regarding mechanisms involved. To better understand these mechanisms, we developed the Understanding Pregnancy Signals and Infant Development (UPSIDE) cohort study, which has several distinguishing features, including repeated assessments across trimesters, analysis of multiple biological pathways of interest, and incorporation of placental structure and function as mediators of child health outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Women with normal risk pregnancies were recruited at <14 weeks gestation. Study visits occurred in each trimester and included extensive psychological, sociodemographic, health behaviour and biospecimen collection. Placenta and cord blood were collected at birth. Child visits (ongoing) occur at birth and 1, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of age and use standard anthropometric, clinical, behavioural, biological and neuroimaging methods to assess child physical and neurodevelopment. FINDINGS TO DATE: We recruited 326 pregnancies; 294 (90%) were retained through birth. Success rates for prenatal biospecimen collection were high across all trimesters (96%-99% for blood, 94%-97% for urine, 96%-99% for saliva, 96% of placentas, 88% for cord blood and 93% for buccal swab). Ninety-four per cent of eligible babies (n=277) participated in a birth examination; postnatal visits are ongoing. FUTURE PLANS: The current phase of the study follows children through age 4 to examine child neurodevelopment and physical development. In addition, the cohort participates in the National Institutes of Health's Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes programme, a national study of 50 000 families examining early environmental influences on perinatal outcomes, neurodevelopment, obesity and airway disease. Future research will leverage the rich repository of biological samples and clinical data to expand research on the mechanisms of child health outcomes in relation to environmental chemical exposures, genetics and the microbiome.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez
13.
medRxiv ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880486

RESUMO

Much is to be learned about the interface between immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We monitored immune responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding-Domain (RBD) in convalescent individuals for eight months after infection diagnosis and following vaccination. Over time, neutralizing antibody responses, which are predominantly RBD specific, generally decreased, while RBD-specific memory B cells persisted. RBD-specific antibody and B cell responses to vaccination were more vigorous than those elicited by infection in the same subjects or by vaccination in infection-naïve comparators. Notably, the frequencies of double negative B memory cells, which are dysfunctional and potentially pathogenic, increased in the convalescent subjects over time. Unexpectedly, this effect was reversed by vaccination. Our work identifies a novel aspect of immune dysfunction in mild/moderate COVID-19, supports the practice of offering SARS-CoV-2 vaccination regardless of infection history, and provides a potential mechanistic explanation for the vaccination-induced reduction of "Long-COVID" symptoms.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 280: 117002, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812205

RESUMO

Human exposure to glyphosate has become ubiquitous because of its increasing agricultural use. Recent studies suggest endocrine disrupting effects of glyphosate. Specifically, in our work in rodents, low-dose early-life exposure to Roundup® (glyphosate-based herbicide) lengthened anogenital distance (AGD) in male and female offspring. AGD is a marker of the prenatal hormone milieu in rodents and humans. The relationship between glyphosate exposure and AGD has not been studied in humans. We conducted a pilot study in 94 mother-infant pairs (45 female and 49 male) from The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES). For each infant, two AGD measurements were collected after birth; the anopenile (AGD-AP) and anoscrotal (AGD-AS) distances for males, and anoclitoral (AGD-AC) and anofourchette distances (AGD-AF) for females. We measured levels of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in 2nd trimester maternal urine samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed the relationship between exposure and AGD using sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in 95% and 93% of the samples (median 0.22 ng/mL and 0.14 ng/mL, respectively). Their concentrations were moderately correlated (r = 0.55, p = 5.7 × 10-9). In female infants, high maternal urinary glyphosate (above the median) was associated with longer AGD-AC (ß = 1.48, 95%CI (-0.01, 3.0), p = 0.05), but this was not significant after covariate adjustment. Increased AMPA was associated with longer AGD-AF (ß = 1.96, 95%CI (0.44, 3.5), p = 0.01) after adjusting for infant size and age at AGD exam. No associations were detected in male offspring. These preliminary findings partially reproduce our previous results in rodents and suggest that glyphosate is a sex-specific endocrine disruptor with androgenic effects in humans. Given the increasing glyphosate exposures in the US population, larger studies should evaluate potential developmental effects on endocrine and reproductive systems.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Organofosfonatos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez
15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) have demonstrated benefits compared with open transthoracic or 3-hole esophagectomy. PROs, including quality of life (QoL) and fear of recurrence (FoR), comparing open transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) and transhiatal robotic-assisted MIE (Th-RAMIE) have been limited. METHODS: At a single, high-volume academic center, patients undergoing THE and Th-RAMIE with gastric conduit for clinical stage I to III esophageal cancer from 2013 to 2018 were evaluated. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire in Esophageal Cancer (QLQ-OES18), and the FoR survey were administered preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Linear mixed-effects models were used for QoL and FoR score comparisons. Perioperative outcomes were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 309 patients (212 in the group and 97 in the Th-RAMIE group) were included. The Th-RAMIE cohort had a significantly higher number of lymph nodes harvested (14 ± 0.8 vs 11.2 ± 0.4; P = .01), a shorter length of stay (days, 10.0 ± 6.7 vs 12.1 ± 7.0; P = .03), lower rates of postoperative ileus (5% vs 15%; P = .02), and fewer opioids prescribed at discharge (71% vs 85%; P = .03). After adjustment, there were no significant differences in QLQ-C30, QLQ-OES18, and FoR scores between the groups out to 1 year postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: There were no clear patient-reported benefits of Th-RAMIE over THE for esophageal cancer. However, Th-RAMIE conferred several perioperative benefits.

16.
Hum Reprod Update ; 27(4): 747-770, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The function of the gestational sac (GS) and the placenta in the closely related processes of embryogenesis and teratogenicity in the first trimester has been minimally described. The prevailing assumption is that direct teratogenic effects are mediated by the critical extraembryonic organ, the placenta, which either blocks or transfers exposures to the foetus. Placental transfer is a dominant mechanism, but there are other paradigms by which the placenta can mediate teratogenic effects. Knowledge of these paradigms and first trimester human developmental biology can be useful to the epidemiologist in the conduct of biomarker-based studies of both maternal and child health. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our aim is to provide a causal framework for modelling the teratogenic effects of first trimester exposures on child health outcomes mediated by the GS and placenta using biomarker data collected in the first trimester. We initially present first trimester human developmental biology for the sake of informing and strengthening epidemiologic approaches. We then propose analytic approaches of modelling placental mechanisms by way of causal diagrams using classical non-embryolethal teratogens (diethylstilboestrol [DES], folic acid deficiency and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) as illustrative examples. We extend this framework to two chronic exposures of particular current interest, phthalates and maternal adiposity. SEARCH METHODS: Information on teratogens was identified by a non-systematic, narrative review. For each teratogen, we included papers that answered the five following questions: (i) why were these exposures declared teratogens? (ii) is there a consensus on biologic mechanism? (iii) is there reported evidence of a placental mechanism? (iv) can we construct a theoretical model of a placental mechanism? and (v) can this knowledge inform future work on measurement and modelling of placental-foetal teratogenesis? We prioritized literature specific to human development, the organogenesis window in the first trimester and non-embryolethal mechanisms. OUTCOMES: As a result of our review of the literature on five exposures considered harmful in the first trimester, we developed four analytic strategies to address first trimester placental mechanisms in birth cohort studies: placental transfer and direct effects on the foetus (DES and maternal adiposity), indirect effects through targeted placental molecular pathways (DES and phthalates), pre-placental effects through disruptions in embryonic and extraembryonic tissue layer differentiation (folic acid deficiency), and multi-step mechanisms that involve maternal, placental and foetal immune function and inflammation (DES and CMV). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The significance of this review is to offer a causal approach to classify the large number of potentially harmful exposures in pregnancy when the exposure occurs in the first trimester. Our review will facilitate future research by advancing knowledge of the first trimester mechanisms necessary for researchers to effectively associate environmental exposures with child health outcomes.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): 1427-1436, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524128

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal oxidative stress in pregnancy can arise through a multitude of sources and may have lifelong consequences for the child. Animal studies suggest that prenatal oxidative stress may contribute to metabolic dysfunction and excessive weight gain in the offspring. However, this relationship has been studied minimally in humans. OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between prenatal oxidative stress biomarkers and child weight and body mass index (BMI) z-scores from birth to age 6. METHODS: Within The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) prospective pregnancy cohort, we calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for child weight and BMI, measured between birth and age 6 (N = 736). Three oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified in third-trimester urine, including 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), its primary metabolite, and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). We examined associations between each biomarker and Z-scores using linear regression as well as group-based trajectory modeling. RESULTS: Prenatal 8-iso-PGF2α and its metabolite were associated with lower birth weight and higher weight at age 4. For example, an ln-unit increase in 8-iso-PGF2α was associated with 0.17 SD higher weight at age 4 (95% CI 0.01, 0.33). These biomarkers were also associated with higher BMI at age 4. Finally, within 4 unique weight trajectories (low, normal, high, and low-high), children of mothers with higher 8-iso-PGF2α were 2.56 times more likely (95% CI 1.22, 5.41) to be in the low-high trajectory than children in the normal group. CONCLUSION: We observed associations between third-trimester oxidative stress and lower birth weight as well as higher early childhood weight and BMI. These findings have important implications for understanding the developmental origins of childhood weight gain and metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Oxirredução , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
18.
Environ Int ; 150: 106409, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings from epidemiological studies of prenatal phthalate exposure and child cognitive development are inconsistent. Methods for evaluating mixtures of phthalates, such as weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, have rarely been applied. We developed a new extension of the WQS method to improve specificity of full-sample analyses and applied it to estimate associations between prenatal phthalate mixtures and cognitive and language outcomes in a diverse pregnancy cohort. METHODS: We measured 22 phthalate metabolites in third trimester urine from mother-child dyads who completed early childhood visits in the Conditions Affecting Neurodevelopment and Learning in Early childhood (CANDLE) study. Language and cognitive ability were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (age 3) and the Stanford Binet-5 (age 4-6), respectively. We used multivariable WQS regression to identify phthalate mixtures that were negatively and positively associated with language score and full-scale IQ, in separate models, adjusted for maternal IQ, race, marital status, smoking, BMI, socioeconomic status (SES), child age, sex, and breastfeeding. We evaluated effect modification by sex and SES. If full sample 95% WQS confidence intervals (which are known to be anti-conservative) excluded the null, we calculated a p-value using a permutation test (ppermutation). The performance of this new approach to WQS regression was evaluated in simulated data. We compared the power and type I error rate of WQS regression conducted within datasets split into training and validation samples (WQSSplit) and in the full sample (WQSNosplit) to WQS regression with a permutation test (WQSpermutation). Individual metabolite associations were explored in secondary analyses. RESULTS: The analytic sample (N = 1015) was 62.1% Black/31.5% White, and the majority of mothers had a high school education or less (56.7%) at enrollment. Associations between phthalate mixtures and primary outcomes (language score and full-scale IQ) in the full sample were null. Individual metabolites were not associated with IQ, and only one metabolite (mono-benzyl phthalate, MBzP) was associated with Bayley language score (ß = -0.68, 95% CI: -1.37, 0.00). In analyses stratified by sex or SES, mixtures were positively and negatively associated with outcomes, but the precision of full-sample WQS regression results were not supported by permutation tests, with one exception. In the lowest SES category, a phthalate mixture dominated by mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-carboxy-isooctyl phthalate (MCOP) was associated with higher language scores (ßlow SES = 2.41, full-sample 95%CI: 0.58, 4.24; ppermutation = 0.04). Performance testing in simulated data showed that WQSpermutation had improved power over WQSSplit (90% versus 56%) and a lower type I error rate than WQSNosplit (7% versus 47%). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest study of these relationships to date, we observed predominantly null associations between mixtures of prenatal phthalates and both language and IQ. Our novel extension of WQS regression improved sensitivity to detect true associations by obviating the need to split the data into training and test sets and should be considered for future analyses of exposure mixtures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez
19.
GeoJournal ; : 1-12, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519040

RESUMO

At the center of community geography is a commitment to mutually beneficial and co-produced knowledge. While the intricacies of managing these two commitments are often well-articulated for community partners, university faculty and their undergraduate students, the experiences of precariously positioned researchers (such as graduate students or those who work outside the university) remain under-examined. Therefore, through a reflection on the authors' personal experiences facilitating community geography projects, this paper takes seriously the experiences of precariously positioned researchers. We highlight how the privileging of co-production creates moments of dissonance for precariously placed researcher's experiences of mutually beneficial research. We argue that precarity, particularly when paired with privilege, results in heightened feelings of risk that may lead researchers to compromise their own ethics or values to ensure both the ongoing continuation of the partnership and the desired goals of the community partners. As we work to further establish community geography, we call for more nuanced considerations of how the entanglements fostered through co-production impact experiences of mutually beneficial research for differently positioned researchers, particularly for those situated within in the neoliberal university.

20.
Reprod Sci ; 28(5): 1476-1488, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398850

RESUMO

The placenta represents a critical node in fetal lipid acquisition, yet the mechanisms by which the placenta handles lipids under normal and pathologic conditions are incompletely understood. A key player in placental lipid handling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ influences global gene expression via its regulation of the epigenetic modifier lysine methyltransferase 5A (KMT5A), which places a methyl group on histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me) of target genes. Here we test the hypothesis that KMT5A is present in both the human and rat placentas and is affected by uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) in the rat in association with increased placental lipid accumulation. We assessed levels and localization of KMT5A, as well as lipid droplet accumulation, in human placental tissue collected from maternal donors after delivery by planned cesarean section. Using a rat model of UPI, we also evaluated the effects of UPI on lipid accumulation, PPARγ, KMT5A, and H4K20me in the rat placenta. In this study, we show for the first time the presence and activity of KMT5A, in human and in rat placentas. We also demonstrate that in the rat placenta, UPI increases hypoxia, KMT5a expression, and activity in association with increased lipid accumulation in placenta supporting male fetuses. Placental PPARγ-KMT5A axis may be an important mediator of placental lipid handling.

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