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1.
Mol Ecol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051915

RESUMO

Reproductive character displacement occurs when competition for successful breeding imposes a divergent selection on the interacting species, causing a divergence of reproductive traits. Here, we show that a disputed butterfly taxon is actually a case of male wing colour shift, apparently produced by reproductive character displacement. Using double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing we studied four butterfly taxa of the subgenus Cupido (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): Cupido minimus and the taxon carswelli, both characterized by brown males and females, plus C. lorquinii and C. osiris, both with blue males and brown females. Unexpectedly, taxa carswelli and C. lorquinii were close to indistinguishable based on our genomic and mitochondrial data, despite displaying strikingly different male coloration. In addition, we report and analysed a brown male within the C. lorquinii range, which demonstrates that the brown morph occurs at very low frequency in C. lorquinii. Such evidence strongly suggests that carswelli is conspecific with C. lorquinii and represents populations with a fixed male brown colour morph. Considering that these brown populations occur in sympatry with or very close to the blue C. osiris, and that the blue C. lorquinii populations never do, we propose that the taxon carswelli could have lost the blue colour due to reproductive character displacement with C. osiris. Since male colour is important for conspecific recognition during courtship, we hypothesize that the observed colour shift may eventually trigger incipient speciation between blue and brown populations. Male colour seems to be an evolutionarily labile character in the Polyommatinae, and the mechanism described here might be at work in the wide diversification of this subfamily of butterflies.

2.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 351, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060594

RESUMO

Trait-based analyses explaining the different responses of species and communities to environmental changes are increasing in frequency. European butterflies are an indicator group that responds rapidly to environmental changes with extensive citizen science contributions to documenting changes of abundance and distribution. Species traits have been used to explain long- and short-term responses to climate, land-use and vegetation changes. Studies are often characterised by limited trait sets being used, with risks that the relative roles of different traits are not fully explored. Butterfly trait information is dispersed amongst various sources and descriptions sometimes differ between sources. We have therefore drawn together multiple information sets to provide a comprehensive trait database covering 542 taxa and 25 traits described by 217 variables and sub-states of the butterflies of Europe and Maghreb (northwest Africa) which should serve for improved trait-based ecological, conservation-related, phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of this group of insects. We provide this data in two forms; the basic data and as processed continuous and multinomial data, to enhance its potential usage.

5.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 15(42): 1948, 20200210.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050316

RESUMO

Introdução: A exposição nociva ao calor ganha mais relevância com a progressão do aquecimento global antropogênico e a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) tem um papel crescente nesse cenário. No Brasil, as ondas de calor entre 2014 e 2015 duraram mais tempo que nos anos prévios, além disso, entre 2000-2015 a associação entre temperatura e hospitalizações variou de acordo com a duração da exposição ao calor. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desta revisão é realizar uma atualização sobre manejo clínico de patologias relacionadas ao calor na APS. Metodologia: Realizou-se a busca na base de dados ACCESSS, que utiliza a pirâmide 5.0 da assistência à saúde baseada em evidências. Foram identificados 103 sumários sintetizados para referência clínica com as palavras "Heat stress", "Heat Stroke", "Heat Wave" e "Heat Exhaustion", mas apenas três entravam no escopo deste estudo. Resultados e Discussão: O estresse pelo calor é uma condição comum, negligenciada e evitável que afeta diversos pacientes, iniciando-se com uma má adaptação ao calor que se não for corrigida pode gerar uma cascata de eventos inflamatórios. O estresse pelo calor é caracterizado por sintomas inespecíficos, como mal-estar, cefaleia e náusea. O tratamento envolve o resfriamento do paciente e monitoramento, garantindo hidratação adequada. A exaustão pelo calor, se não tratada, pode evoluir para insolação, uma doença grave que pode levar ao coma e morte, envolvendo disfunção do sistema nervoso central - necessitando de um tratamento mais agressivo além do resfriamento


Introduction: The nocive exposure to heat gets more attention with anthropogenic global warming, and Primary Health Care (PHC) has a growing role in this scenario. In Brazil heat waves between 2014 and 2015 lasted longer than in previous years. Further, in addition between 2000-2015 the association between temperature and hospitalizations varied according to the duration of heat exposure. Therefore, the aim of this review is to perform an update on clinical management of heat related pathologies in PHC. Methodology: The ACCESSS database was searched using the evidence-based health care pyramid 5.0, where we identified 103 synthesized summaries for clinical reference with words "Heat stress", "Heat Stroke", "Heat Wave" and "Heat Exhaustion", but only three fell within the scope of this study. Results and Discussion: Heat stress is a common, neglected and preventable condition that affects several patients, it starts with a poor adaptation to heat that if it is not adjusted it can generate a cascade of inflammatory events. Heat stress is characterized by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, headache and nausea. The treatment involves patient monitoring and cooling, ensuring adequate hydration. Heat exhaustion, if untreated, can progress to heatstroke, a serious illness that can lead to coma and death, involving central nervous system dysfunction - requiring more aggressive treatment than cooling.


Introducción: La exposición nociva al calor gana más destaque con la progresión del calentamiento global antropogénico, y la Atención Primaria a la Salud tienen un papiel cresciente en este escenario. En Brasil las olas de calor entre 2014 y 2015 duraron más tiempo que en los años previos, además entre 2000-2015 la asociación entre temperatura y hospitalizaciones ha variado de acuerdo con la duración de la exposición al calor. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una actualización sobre manejo clínico de patologías relacionadas al calor en la APS. Metodología: Se realizó la búsqueda en la base de datos ACCESSS, que utiliza la pirámide 5.0 de la asistencia a la salud basada en evidencias. Se han identificado 103 sumarios sintetizados para referencia clínica con las palabras "Heat stress", "Heat Stroke", "Heat Wave" y "Heat Exhaustion", pero sólo tres son considerados en el ámbito de este estudio. Resultados y Discusión: El estrés por el calor es una condición común, descuidada y evitable que afecta a varios pacientes, iniciándose con una mala adaptación al calor que si no se corrige puede generar una cascada de eventos inflamatorios. El estrés por el calor se caracteriza por síntomas inespecíficos, como malestar, cefalea y náuseas. El tratamiento implica el enfriamiento del paciente y el monitoreo, garantizando la hidratación adecuada. El agotamiento por el calor, si no se trata, puede evolucionar hacia la insolación, una enfermedad grave que puede llevar al coma y a la muerte, involucrando disfunción del sistema nervioso central - necesitando un tratamiento más agresivo además del enfriamiento.

6.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 15(42): 2546, 20200210.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117129

RESUMO

A maior mobilização recente da comunidade da saúde em relação ao meio ambiente ocorreu este ano. Consistiu em uma carta assinada por mais de 350 organizações de saúde de todo o mundo, incluindo importantes organizações de Medicina de Família e Comunidade. Isto demonstra o crescente entendimento da comunidade científica e da saúde acerca da saúde planetária.


The biggest recent mobilization of the health community in relation to the environment occurred this year. It consisted of a letter signed by more than 350 health organizations from around the world, including important Family and Community Medicine organizations. This demonstrates the growing understanding of the scientific and health community about planetary health


La mayor movilización reciente de la comunidad de la salud en relación con el medio ambiente ocurrió este año. Consistió en una carta firmada por más de 350 organizaciones de salud de todo el mundo, incluidas las principales organizaciones de medicina familiar y comunitaria. Esto demuestra la creciente comprensión de la comunidad científica y de salud sobre la salud planetaria.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5680, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952919

RESUMO

The climatic preferences of the species determine to a large extent their response to climate change. Temperature preferences have been shown to play a key role in driving trends in animal populations. However, the relative importance of temperature and precipitation preferences is still poorly understood, particularly in systems where ecological processes are strongly constrained by the amount and timing of rainfall. In this study, we estimated the role played by temperature and precipitation preferences in determining population trends for birds and butterflies in a Mediterranean area. Trends were derived from long-term biodiversity monitoring data and temperature and precipitation preferences were estimated from species distribution data at three different geographical scales. We show that population trends were first and foremost related to precipitation preferences both in birds and in butterflies. Temperature preferences had a weaker effect on population trends, and were significant only in birds. The effect of precipitation on population trends operated in opposite directions in the two groups of species: butterfly species from arid environments and bird species from humid habitats are decreasing most. Our results indicate that, although commonly neglected, water availability is likely an important driver of animal population change in the Mediterranean region, with highly contrasting impacts among taxonomical groups.

8.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): e1992, fev. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-981953

RESUMO

A WONCA, em conjunto com a Planetary Health Alliance, lançou uma conclamação para a ação dos MFCs do mundo pela saúde planetária. Este comentário discute os efeitos das mudanças ambientais e a conclamação em relação o papel do médico de família na perspectiva da saúde planetária.


WONCA, with the Planetary Health Alliance, issued a declaration calling family doctors of the world to act on planetary health. This commentary discusses environmental changes and the call in relation to the role of the family doctor in the perspective of planetary health.


WONCA, junto con la Planetary Health Alliance, lanzó un llamamiento a la acción de los medicos de familia del mundo por la salud planetaria. Este comentario discute los efectos de los cambios ambientales y el llamamiento y el papel del médico de familia en la perspectiva de la salud planetaria.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Medicina de Família e Comunidade
9.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): e1899, fev. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-996071

RESUMO

Os participantes do 1º Simpósio Internacional de Saúde Planetária, reunidos em Porto Alegre, propõem que se dissemine a discussão do tema e se articule a resposta e a contribuição do sistema de saúde aos crescentes desafios que enfrenta a saúde da população decorrentes da mudança climática, poluição, redução da biodiversidade e outros fatores ambientais


The participants of the 1st International Symposium on Planetary Health, held in Porto Alegre, propose to disseminate the discussion of the theme and articulate the response and contribution of the health system to the growing challenges facing the health of the population due to climate change, pollution, reduction of biodiversity and other environmental factors.


Los participantes del 1º Simposio Internacional de Salud Planetaria, reunidos en Porto Alegre, proponen la diseminación de la discusión del tema y articulación de la respuesta y la contribución del sistema de salud a los crecientes desafíos que enfrenta la salud de la población derivada del cambio climático, contaminación, reducción de la biodiversidad y otros factores ambientales.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Sistemas de Saúde , Biodiversidade , Poluição Ambiental
10.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): 2286, fev. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049865

RESUMO

A Revista Lancet Countdown: Acompanhando o Progresso em Saúde e Mudanças Climáticas é uma colaboração internacional multidisciplinar que objetiva monitorar as relações entre saúde pública e mudanças climáticas. Reúne 35 instituições acadêmicas e agências das Nações Unidas de todos os continentes, embasando-se na expertise de climatologistas, engenheiros, economistas, cientistas políticos, profissionais de saúde pública e médicos. Todos os anos, a Lancet Countdown publica uma avaliação anual do estado das mudanças climáticas e da saúde humana, procurando oferecer aos tomadores de decisão acesso a orientações para uma política baseada em evidência de alta qualidade.

12.
Fam Syst Health ; 36(2): 175-181, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389147

RESUMO

Rural proofing ensures that policies, practice guidelines, strategies, and techniques can be applied to rural populations with approximately equal benefit as what would be obtained in urban areas. Extending this concept internationally, the authors argue the importance of global proofing mental health strategies developed in well-resourced, high-income areas in order to determine their appropriateness in areas that have resource poverty such as middle- and low-income countries. An example is used to illustrate both rural and global proofing. Through this example, the authors demonstrate how they proofed urban-inspired models of mental health care in rural areas of the United States. The result is a model of rural mental health care that emphasizes collaborative care and telemental health. This model is now being global proofed in Brazil. The authors describe the application of this model in a remote rural town in Brazil. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the integration of mental health care into primary care medical settings is being discovered as essential to addressing mental health disparities worldwide. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Brasil , Saúde Global , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/normas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/tendências , População Rural , Telemedicina/métodos
14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12395, 2015 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26205828

RESUMO

How common are cryptic species--those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Borboletas/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Animais , Espanha
15.
Zootaxa ; 3937(2): 201-47, 2015 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25947469

RESUMO

A morphological study with the use of scanning electron microscope of 67 species of Iberian Lycaenidae is presented. The study covers all the genera present in the area and shows an extraordinary variation in chorionic characters that allows egg diagnosis for most species. A morphometric study showed that the eggs from the sample have sizes that are correlated with adult size, but some species showed larger egg size than expected. Species hibernating at the egg stage proved to have on average larger sizes than those overwintering at other stages, probably because this trait might be favourable to endure the adverse conditions taking place during the winter. A cladistic analysis was performed using morphologic and morphometric characters from the egg with the result of poor discriminant power. However, some formal taxonomic groups such as the genera Lycaena and Satyrium were supported by our analysis due to specific apomorphic characters.


Assuntos
Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/ultraestrutura , Animais , Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia
18.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2010. 11 p.
Tese em Português | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-935022

RESUMO

Este trabalho tem por finalidade consolidar informações sobre o efeito da mudança climática quanto às alterações no perfil de demanda, no volume da demanda, na composição e capacitação das equipes e no orçamento para atenção primária à saúde.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Brasil , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sistema Único de Saúde
20.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 783-7, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17700264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ineffective oesophageal motility and reflux oesophagitis controlling for hiatal hernia, hypotensive lower oesophageal sphincter and male sex in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: A total of 387 patients with reflux disease (mean age, 46 years, 42% men) were consecutively selected from a database. All patients underwent upper endoscopy, oesophageal manometry and 24 h oesophageal pH-metry in accordance with a standardized protocol. Reflux disease was confirmed either by endoscopy (oesophagitis grade I-IV according to Savary-Miller) or by pH-metry (increased acid exposure). Hiatal hernia was diagnosed endoscopically, whereas ineffective oesophageal motility and hypotensive lower oesophageal sphincter were characterized during manometry testing. The association between ineffective oesophageal motility and reflux oesophagitis was assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 166 patients with oesophagitis (mean age 45 years, 49% men) and 221 without oesophagitis (mean age 46 years, 37% men) were present. Prevalences of ineffective oesophageal motility, hiatal hernia, hypotensive lower oesophageal sphincter and male sex were significantly higher in patients with oesophagitis compared with those without oesophagitis (P<0.05). Ineffective oesophageal motility was independently associated with oesophagitis after multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval=1.04-2.70). CONCLUSION: Ineffective oesophageal motility is associated with reflux oesophagitis, independently of hiatal hernia, hypotensive lower oesophageal sphincter and male sex.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/complicações , Esofagite Péptica/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/diagnóstico , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Esofagoscopia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Hérnia Hiatal/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
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