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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151859, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826494

RESUMO

Green and blue spaces have numerous health benefits. It has been hypothesized that contact with these spaces can have an important role in cognitive development, because it provides children with unique stimuli that can help develop curiosity, creativity, awareness, and control. This study aimed to estimate the association between exposure to green and blue spaces and the various measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) among children from Porto Metropolitan Area (Portugal). This investigation used data from the Generation XXI birth cohort. Exposure was assessed by Geographic Information Systems using vegetation indexes and measures of accessibility to urban green spaces and blue spaces in the surroundings of the residence and school, measured at 0, 4, 7 and 10 years. The outcome was the verbal, performance, and global IQ, measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), administered at age 10. Associations were estimated using crude and adjusted multilevel models. The mediation role of air pollution and physical activity was quantified. This study included 3827 children. The adjusted models showed that having green spaces up to 800 m of the residence was positively associated with performance IQ (1.30 95%CI [0.26; 2.35]) and global IQ (1.27 [0.18; 2.36]). No clear associations were observed regarding accessibility to blue spaces. Physical activity appeared to have a minor mediation role. Children with urban green spaces around their residences had higher performance and global IQ. Local actors in the sectors of public health and urban planning should promote the creation of green spaces close to residential areas.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 772782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805081

RESUMO

Background: Knowledge on the settings and activities associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is essential to inform decision-making. We thus designed a case-control study to identify relevant settings for community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Portugal. Methods: We evaluated 1,088 cases, identified through the national surveillance system, and 787 community controls, recruited using random digit dialing. Sociodemographic characteristics, individual protective measures, and activities or visited settings were obtained through telephone interview. We report sex-, age-, education-, and citizenship-adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Household overcrowding (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.91) and work in senior care (4.99; 1.30-33.08) increased while working remotely decreased the risk of infection (0.30; 0.22-0.42). Going to restaurants/other dining spaces (0.73; 0.59-0.91), grocery stores (0.44; 0.34-0.57) or hair salons (0.51; 0.39-0.66), or the use of public transportation did not present a higher risk of infection (0.98; 0.75-1.29), under existing mitigation strategies. Lower education ( ≤ 4 years vs. tertiary education: 1.79; 1.33-2.42) and no Portuguese citizenship (5.47; 3.43-9.22) were important risk factors. Conclusions: The utilization of public transportation, restaurants, and commercial spaces was not associated with increased risk of infection, under capacity restrictions, physical distancing, use of masks, and hygiene measures. Overcrowding, foreign citizenship, low education and working on-site were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Máscaras , Fatores de Risco
3.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to estimate the economic costs of care provided to children born very preterm and extremely preterm across 11 European countries, and to understand what perinatal and socioeconomic factors contribute to higher costs. METHODS: Generalised linear modelling was used to explore the association between perinatal and sociodemographic characteristics and total economic costs (€, 2016 prices) during the fifth year of life. RESULTS: Lower gestational age was associated with increased mean societal costs of €2755 (p < 0.001), €752 (p < 0.01) and €657 (p < 0.01) for children born at < 26, 26-27 and 28-29 weeks, respectively, in comparison to the reference group born at 30-31 weeks. A sensitivity analyses that excluded variables (BPD, any neonatal morbidity and presence of congenital anomaly) plausibly lying on the causal pathway between gestational age at birth and economic outcomes elevated incremental societal costs by €1482, €763 and €144 at < 26, 26-27 and 28-29 weeks, respectively, in comparison to the baseline model. CONCLUSION: This study provides new evidence about the main cost drivers associated with preterm birth in European countries. Evidence identified by this study can act as inputs within cost-effectiveness models for preventive or treatment interventions for preterm birth. IMPACT: What is the key message of your article? This study provides new evidence about the magnitude and drivers of economic costs associated with preterm birth in European countries. What does it add to the existing literature? Lower gestational age is associated with increased mean societal costs during mid-childhood with indirect costs representing a key driver of increased costs. What is the impact? For policy makers, this study adds to sparse evidence about the main cost drivers associated with preterm birth in European countries beyond the first 2 years of life.

4.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605211006352, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784812

RESUMO

This study measured the prevalence of bullying behavior in 10-year-old children and investigated the effect of the socioeconomic context on the impact of household dysfunction on bullying. We studied 5,338 members of the Portuguese Generation XXI birth cohort. Information on involvement in bullying, socioeconomic characteristics, and household dysfunction was collected by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Being a victim of bullying was reported by 14.4% of participants, being a bully by 1.4%, and being a bully-victim by 3.9%. Being a victim or both bully-victim, simultaneously, was more frequent among children from medium-high income families. Also, children from low-income families who reported household substance abuse, witnessed parents' intimate partner violence, and were victims of physical violence, were more frequently victims of bullying; and those who experienced family violence were more frequently involved as bully-victims. Among children from medium-high income families, all these household adversity experiences significantly increased the odds of being victim, bully, or bully-victim. Thus, although children from medium-high income families are less likely to experience adversity at home, when it happens, there is a greater effect on their behavior, suggesting that better socioeconomic circumstances do not seem to act as a protective factor.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718381

RESUMO

We aimed to describe transitions between preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) eligibility and HIV infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We used data from 1885 MSM, who had not used PrEP, enrolled in the Lisbon Cohort of MSM with at least 2 consecutive measurements of PrEP eligibility from 2014 to 2020. A time-homogeneous Markov multistate model was applied to describe the transitions between states of PrEP eligibility-eligible (E) and ineligible (I)-and from these to HIV infection (HIV). The intensities of the transitions were closer for I-E and E-I (intensities' ratio, 1.107 [95%CI, 1.008-1.176]), while the intensity of the E-HIV transition was higher than that for ineligible-HIV infection (I-HIV) (intensities' ratio, 9.558 [95%CI, 0.738-65.048]). The probabilities of transitions increased with time; for 90 days, the probabilities were similar for the transitions I-E and E-I (0.285 [95%CI, 0.252-0.319] vs 0.258 [95% CI, 0.228-0.287]), while the transition E-HIV was more likely than I-HIV (0.004 [95%CI, 0.003-0.007] vs 0.001 [95%CI, 0.001-0.008]) but tended to become closer with time. Being classified as ineligible was a short-time indicator of a lower probability of acquiring HIV. Once an individual moved to eligible, he was at a higher risk of seroconversion demanding a timely delivery of PrEP.

6.
Porto Biomed J ; 6(5): e141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651089

RESUMO

Background: In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy results in a denial of the girl's fundamental right to education. School expulsion of pregnant adolescents is a common practice exercised by teachers in this country for decades. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and feelings of secondary school teachers towards this practice. Methods: The study used a qualitative approach comprising focus groups and individual semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of sixteen teachers and nine headmasters (n = 25) from nine secondary schools of the rural Igunga district, in Tabora region, Tanzania. Data was collected in March to June 2017 and submitted to thematic analysis. Results: Though most participants were not satisfied with the practice, their role on the expulsion of pregnant students was perceived as mandatory by law and regulations. Main argument in favor was its deterrent effect, yet the review of schools' registries did not sustain that perception. Stigma and fear of contamination added a relevant contribution to its implementation. Conflicting feelings among teachers were also disclosed. Conclusion: This study was of most value to understand current perceptions and feelings of those who exercise the practice of banning pregnant adolescents from school in Tanzania, while having identified some of the cultural and social believes acting as influential factors in its pervasiveness. International and national human rights organizations should increase their efforts and campaigns in order to strength social awareness of the benefit of females' education to society as a whole and of adopting policies and practices in support of their equal right to education.

7.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100167, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557855

RESUMO

Background: To inform the on-going debate about the use of universal prescriptive versus national intrauterine growth charts, we compared perinatal mortality for small and large-for-gestational-age (SGA/LGA) infants according to international and national charts in Europe. Methods: We classified singleton births from 33 to 42 weeks of gestation in 2010 and 2014 from 15 countries (N = 1,475,457) as SGA (birthweight <10th percentile) and LGA (>90th percentile) using the international Intergrowth-21st newborn standards and national charts based on the customised charts methodology. We computed sex-adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for stillbirth, neonatal and extended perinatal mortality by this classification using multilevel models. Findings: SGA and LGA prevalence using national charts were near 10% in all countries, but varied according to international charts with a north to south gradient (3.0% to 10.1% and 24.9% to 8.0%, respectively). Compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants by both charts, risk of perinatal mortality was increased for SGA by both charts (aOR[95% confidence interval (CI)]=6.1 [5.6-6.7]) and infants reclassified by international charts from SGA to AGA (2.7 [2.3-3.1]), but decreased for those reclassified from AGA to LGA (0.6 [0.4-0.7]). Results were similar for stillbirth and neonatal death. Interpretation: Using international instead of national charts in Europe could lead to growth restricted infants being reclassified as having normal growth, while infants with low risks of mortality could be reclassified as having excessive growth. Funding: InfAct Joint Action, CHAFEA Grant n°801,553 and EU/EFPIA Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking ConcePTION grant n°821,520. AH received a PhD grant from EHESP.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies are sparse and inconclusive about the association between maternal education and cognitive development among children born very preterm (VPT). Although this association is well established in the general population, questions remain about its magnitude among children born VPT whose risks of medical and developmental complications are high. We investigated the association of maternal education with cognitive outcomes in European VPT birth cohorts. METHODS: We used harmonized aggregated data from 15 population-based cohorts of children born at <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) or <1500 g from 1985 to 2013 in 13 countries with information on maternal education and assessments of general development at 2-3 years and/or intelligence quotients between 4 and 15 years. Term-born controls (≥37 weeks of GA) were available in eight cohorts. Maternal education was classified as: low (primary/lower secondary); medium (upper secondary/short tertiary); high (bachelor's/higher). Pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) in cognitive scores were estimated (reference: high educational level) for children assessed at ages 2-3, 4-7 and 8-15 years. RESULTS: The study included 10 145 VPT children from 12 cohorts at 2-3 years, 8829 from 12 cohorts at 4-7 years and 1865 children from 6 cohorts at 8-15 years. Children whose mothers had low, compared with high, educational attainment scored lower on cognitive measures [pooled unadjusted SMDs: 2-3 years = -0.32 (95% confidence intervals: -0.43 to -0.21); 4-7 years = -0.57 (-0.67; -0.47); 8-15 years = -0.54 (-0.72; -0.37)]. Analyses by GA subgroups (<27 vs ≥27 weeks) in children without severe neonatal morbidity and term controls yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Across diverse settings and regardless of the degree of prematurity, low maternal education was associated with lower cognition.

9.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(11): 1899-1913, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478018

RESUMO

The magnetotactic yet uncultured species 'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is a spherical, multicellular ensemble of bacterial cells able to align along magnetic field lines while swimming propelled by flagella. Magnetotaxis is due to intracytoplasmic, membrane-bound magnetic crystals called magnetosomes. The net magnetic moment of magnetosomes interacts with local magnetic fields, imparting the whole microorganism a torque. Previous works investigated 'Ca. M. multicellularis' behavior when free swimming in water; however, they occur in sediments where bumping into solid particles must be routine. In this work, we investigate the swimming trajectories of 'Ca. M. multicellularis' close to solid boundaries using video microscopy. We applied magnetic fields 0.25-8.0 mT parallel to the optical axis of a light microscope, such that microorganisms were driven upwards towards a coverslip. Because their swimming trajectories approach cylindrical helixes, circular profiles would be expected. Nevertheless, at fields 0.25-1.1 mT, most trajectory projections were roughly sinusoidal, and net movements were approximately perpendicular to applied magnetic fields. Closed loops appeared in some trajectory projections at 1.1 mT, which could indicate a transition to the loopy profiles observed at magnetic fields ≥ 2.15 mT. The behavior of 'Ca. M. multicellularis' near natural magnetic grains showed that they were temporarily trapped by the particle's magnetic field but could reverse the direction of movement to flee away. Our results show that interactions of 'Ca. M. multicellularis with solid boundaries and magnetic grains are complex and possibly involve mechano-taxis.


Assuntos
Deltaproteobacteria , Natação , Campos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Células Procarióticas
10.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birth size (BS) and obesity have been associated with higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in childhood, insulin acting as a mediator, despite contradictory findings. To further explore these issues, we studied the associations between DHEAS, BS, adiposity, maternal characteristics, and cardiometabolic risk indicators, in participants of Generation XXI, a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: A sample of 700 children (mean age 7.1 yr) was randomly selected. Data on maternal characteristics, BS, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio, body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin, lipid profile, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were analyzed in relation to DHEAS. RESULTS: DHEAS was negatively associated with BS and positively associated with all adiposity indicators, with no sex differences. DHEAS was positively associated with insulinemia independently of the child's BS or BMI. No significant association was found between DHEAS, maternal characteristics, lipid profile, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Including insulin in the model did not affect the association between BS and DHEAS but reduced the magnitude of the BMI effect by 24% for boys and 30% for girls. CONCLUSION: Higher DHEAS levels at 7 years old were associated with lower BS and higher adiposity. DHEAS levels were positively associated with insulinemia independently of BS or BMI. IMPACT: Low birth weight and obesity have been associated with higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in prepuberty. Insulin has been suggested as a mediator, despite previous studies failing to show an association between DHEAS and insulin levels. In a randomly selected population of 700 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort, higher DHEAS levels were associated with a lower birth size and higher adiposity, with no sex differences. DHEAS was positively related to insulinemia independently of the child's birth size or body mass index. No association was found between DHEAS and other cardiometabolic risk factors.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444589

RESUMO

(1) Background: In an ageing society, social relationships may benefit cognitive performance with an impact on the health of older people. This study aims to estimate the effect of different social support sources on the risk of cognitive impairment in a sample of older Portuguese people. (2) Methods: From the Portuguese EpiPorto cohort study, we followed a sample of participants with 60 to 85 years (N = 656) between 2009 and 2015 (4.63 mean years of follow-up). The participants' perception of social support from family, friends and significant others was evaluated. Cox's regression models were used to investigate the association between this and sociodemographic variables. (3) Results: It was found that social support from friends reduces the risk of cognitive impairment. Men, participants aged 60 to 64 and those not married have a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for other variables. Participants between 80 and 85 years old (p = 0.021), those with less than four years of education (p < 0.001), and those with cognitive impairment (p = 0.007) have perception of less social support from friends. (4) Conclusions: A social support network from friends reduces the risk of cognitive impairment for older people.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Apoio Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 673959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368050

RESUMO

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) have been increasingly available in Europe. Due to the high burden of HIV in key populations, these could benefit from their use. In 2016, in Portugal, an open, non-interval, prospective cohort study was established in a network of 26 community-based voluntary HIV/STI counseling and testing centers. Data collected included questions on PEP and PrEP knowledge and use. We aimed to estimate the proportion of PEP and PrEP knowledge and its use among key populations, visiting the centers between 2016 and 2019. Method and results: Individuals who self-identify as being among at least one key population for HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers (SW), migrants, and male-to-female transgender individuals (MTF), responded to questions on PEP and PrEP knowledge and use while waiting for their test results between 2016 and 2019 (n = 12,893 for PEP; n = 10,973 for PrEP). Reported knowledge was low in all key populations for both tools: 15.7% of respondents reported knowing about PEP and 10.9% about PrEP over the course of 4 years. PEP was used by 1.8% and PrEP by 0.4% of the respondents, MSM being 88.9% of PrEP users, and 52.8% of PEP users. Multivariate logistic regression showed multiple factors associated with knowing the tools, including age, education, country of birth, gender, year of test, having a reactive HIV test in the same visit, reporting an STI or condomless sex in the last 12 months, and identifying with being MSM or SW. Conclusions: Knowledge and use of PEP and PrEP remain low among key populations in Portugal. The need remains to increase knowledge and use among those at risk for HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Clin Nutr ; 40(8): 4948-4955, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR) is common among very preterm (VPT) infants and has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment. Some research suggests that adverse effects of EUGR may be more severe in boys. We investigated EUGR and neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age (CA) by sex in a VPT birth cohort. METHODS: Data come from a population-based cohort of children born <32 weeks' gestation from 11 European countries and followed up at 2 years CA. Postnatal growth during the neonatal hospitalization was measured with: (1) birthweight and discharge-weight Z-score differences using Fenton charts (2) weight-gain velocity using Patel's model. Published cut-offs were used to define EUGR as none, moderate or severe. Neurodevelopmental impairment was assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, with standardized questions/instruments on motor function, vision, hearing and non-verbal cognition. We estimated relative risks (RR) adjusting for maternal and neonatal characteristics overall and by sex. RESULTS: Among 4197 infants, the prevalence of moderate to severe impairment at 2 years CA was 17.7%. Severe EUGR was associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the overall sample and the interaction with sex was significant. For boys, adjusted RR were 1.57 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.18-2.09) for Fenton's delta Z-score and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.12-2.01) for Patel's weight-gain velocity, while for girls they were 0.97 (0.76-1.22) and 1.12 (0.90-1.40) respectively. CONCLUSION: EUGR was associated with poor neurodevelopment at 2 years among VPT boys but not girls. Understanding why boys are more susceptible to the effects of poor growth is needed to develop appropriate healthcare strategies.

15.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200621

RESUMO

Field epidemiology and viral sequencing provide a comprehensive characterization of transmission chains and allow a better identification of superspreading events. However, very few examples have been presented to date during the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the first COVID-19 cluster detected in Portugal (59 individuals involved amongst extended family and work environments), following the return of four related individuals from work trips to Italy. The first patient to introduce the virus would be misidentified following the traditional field inquiry alone, as shown by the viral sequencing in isolates from 23 individuals. The results also pointed out family, and not work environment, as the primary mode of transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Família , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(5): 951-957, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrant women are at higher risk to face access barriers to perinatal care services and to experience worse pregnancy outcomes compared to native. Assessing the perception of migrant women and health providers discloses a multifaceted view on migrant-friendly care, a multidimensional concept in itself. This study aims to compare self-perceived assessments of migrant women and directors of obstetrics and gynaecology (GYN/OBS) departments on equitable migrant-friendly perinatal healthcare quality and access during the intrapartum and postpartum period at public maternities in Portugal. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, two indicators on Healthcare access and Quality of care were developed to compare how adult migrant women who gave birth between April 2017 and March 2019 and GYN/OBS department directors assessed offered care. The one-sample Wilcoxon test was used to compare directors' with migrants' assessments and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance to test for country regional differences. A stratified analysis by sex, spoken language, and country of birth tested for potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: Migrants rated Healthcare access significantly better (P<0.05), but perceived Quality of care worse (P<0.01) than GYN/OBS department directors. Migrants' and directors' perceptions differed significantly according to directors' gender (P<0.05). Migrants' and directors' assessments on Healthcare access (P<0.05) and Quality (P<0.01) changed significantly across regions. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants' and directors' self-perceived appraisal of Healthcare access and Quality of care significantly varied. Identifying these discordances allows to deliver insights into existing barriers in access and provision of care and raises awareness to improve quality assurance, essential to inform practice and policies.

18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 118, 2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up is a major challenge for very preterm (VPT) cohorts; attrition is associated with social disadvantage and parents with impaired children may participate less in research. We investigated the impact of loss to follow-up on the estimated prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment in a VPT cohort using different methodological approaches. METHODS: This study includes births < 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) from 4 regions in the UK and Portugal participating in a European birth cohort (N = 1737 survivors). Data on maternal characteristics, pregnancy complications, neonatal outcomes and neighborhood deprivation were collected at baseline. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years of corrected age (CA) using standardized parent-report measures. We applied (1) multiple imputation (MI) and (2) inverse probability weighting (IPW) to estimate the impact of non-response on the prevalence of moderate to severe neurodevelopmental impairment and assessed violations of the missing at random (MAR) assumption using the delta method. RESULTS: 54.2% of children were followed-up. Follow-up was less likely when mothers were younger, multiparous, foreign-born, did not breastfeed and came from deprived areas. The prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 18.4% (95% confidence interval (CI):15.9-21.1) and increased to 20.4% (95%CI: 17.3-23.4) and 20.0% (95%CI:16.9-23.1) for MI and IPW models, respectively. Simulating strong violations of MAR (children with impairments being 50% less likely to be followed-up) raised estimates to 23.6 (95%CI:20.1-27.1) CONCLUSIONS: In a VPT cohort with high loss to follow-up, correcting for attrition yielded modest increased estimates of neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years CA; estimates were relatively robust to violations of the MAR assumption.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Portugal/epidemiologia , Gravidez
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173289

RESUMO

We aimed to explore how different social isolation components were associated with depression among older adults in Portugal. We analysed data collected through structured questionnaires in 2017 from 643 Portuguese adults aged 60 and over. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (Short-Form). Social isolation was operationalised using objective indicators - living alone, marital status, leisure activities - and subjective indicator - perceived social support. Because social isolation is a multidimensional construct that is likely to be more than the sum of its components, cluster analysis was conducted to group individuals into social isolation profiles. Associations were estimated using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five profiles were identified: Cluster 1 (partnered; high social support; high variety of leisure activities); Cluster 2 (partnered; high social support; few leisure activities); Cluster 3 (not partnered; low social support; few leisure activities); Cluster 4 (living alone; high social support; high variety of leisure activities); Cluster 5 (partnered; high social support; limited variety of leisure activities). Compared with Cluster 1, participants in Cluster 2 were three times more likely to have depression, independent of age, gender, education, comorbidities and self-rated health (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.38-6.71). Participants in Cluster 3 presented the highest probability of depression that was not explained by any of the confounders (OR = 4.74; 95% CI: 2.15-10.44). Older adults living alone are not necessarily more prone to depression, with social support and leisure activities playing an important role. To disentangle how social isolation affects health, objective and subjective isolation measures should be considered.

20.
Acta Med Port ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sequence variants in the GJB2 gene account for up to 50% of cases of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss in the Caucasian population. In this study, we report the frequency of the less common variants of the GJB2 gene in a Portuguese sample and compare these frequencies with those of a group of hearing-impaired patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to select the less common GJB2 variants, 147 hearing-impaired patients followed in Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João were evaluated. Afterwards, the presence of those variants was tested in 360 individuals from Generation 21. RESULTS: The patient assessment enabled the selection of 11 GJB2 variants. Of those, 10 were investigated in Generation 21 participants, with only four being detected, in heterozygosity: p.Phe83Leu, p.Arg127His, p.Val153Ile and p.Asn206Ser, with the allelic frequencies (95% confidence interval) of 0.14% (0.01% - 0.87%), 0.28% (0.01% - 1.08%), 0.97% (0.43% - 2.04%) and 0.14% (0.01% - 0.88%), respectively. Two variants, p.Val37Ile and p.Val95Met, were more frequent in the patients' group with statistical significance. DISCUSSION: Our results allow for the p.Arg127His and p.Val153Ile variants to comply with polymorphism criteria and support the pathogenicity of p.Val37Ile and p.Val95Met variants. Moreover, two cases of moderate hearing loss were explained by the p.Val37Ile/p. Asn206Ser genotype, substantiating both the pathogenicity of such variants and the hypothesis that compound heterozygosity with p.Ans206Ser is associated with mild-moderate genotypes. CONCLUSION: Understanding the role of the variants is essential in order to provide genetic counselling to patients and their families. We explored a set of uncommon GJB2 variants that comprised 12% of the hearing-impaired patients in this study, supporting the relevance of their description.

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