Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 373
Filtrar
1.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 331, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare cardiometabolic indicators in singletons and multiples at age 7 and explore the birthweight mediation effect. METHODS: We studied 5431 singletons and 103 sets of multiples from Generation XXI birth cohort. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Age- and sex-specific z-scores were calculated (additionally height-specific for blood pressure). Adjusted regression coefficients and respective 95% confidence intervals [ß (95%CI)] were computed using path analysis. RESULTS: Multiples had lower weight [- 0.419 (- 0.616;-0.223)], height [- 0.404 (- 0.594;-0.213)], BMI [- 0.470 (- 0.705;-0.234)], fat mass index [- 0.359 (- 0.565;-0.152)], waist circumference [- 0.342 (- 0.537;-0.147)], and waist-to-height ratio [- 0.165 (- 0.326;-0.003)] z-scores. These results were explained by the indirect effect via birthweight, which was also negative and significant for all the aforementioned cardiometabolic indicators, while no direct effect was present. There were also significant indirect effects regarding fat-free mass index, glucose, insulin, and blood pressure, though the total effects were not significant, due to the balance between direct and indirect effects. The only significant direct effect was regarding diastolic blood pressure [- 0.165 (- 0.302;-0.028)]. CONCLUSIONS: At age 7, multiples presented better cardiometabolic indicators explained by lower weight at birth, except for the lower blood pressure which was independent of an effect via birthweight.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables. METHODS: A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60-84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version. RESULTS: Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life.

3.
Environ Int ; 132: 105070, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable literature on the psychological and behavioural benefits of green space. However, less is known about its health-promoting effects, as expressed on biological markers. Additionally, incorporating biomarkers into pediatric research may help elucidate the links between exposures to environmental stressors and lifelong health. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between geographical accessibility to green spaces and allostatic load (AL), a measure of biological multi-system dysregulation. METHODS: We used data from 3108 7-year old children enrolled in Generation XXI, a population-based birth cohort from the Porto Metropolitan Area (Portugal). We computed an AL index based on seven biomarkers representing four regulatory systems: immune/inflammatory system (high sensitivity C-reactive protein); metabolic system (high density lipoprotein; total cholesterol; glycated hemoglobin; waist-hip ratio) and cardiovascular system (systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Accessibility to green spaces was calculated using a Geographic Information System and crude and adjusted associations were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: Among the 3108 children (51.7% male; mean age 87.3 months), the mean AL index was 0.00 (standard deviation 2.94). Adjusted models showed that having a green space within 400 m and 800 m from the child's school was inversely associated with AL (400 m: beta -0.29 95% CI -0.54 to -0.02; 800 m: -0.29 95% CI -0.51 to -0.07). Also, there was a 12% (0%; 23%) increase in the AL index for every 1 km increase in distance to the nearest green space. No significant associations with AL were observed with residential accessibility to green space or with the presence of a garden at home. CONCLUSION: We found a cross-sectional negative association between accessibility to green space near schools and AL in children, suggesting that the provision of green space may contribute to improvements in population health beginning early in life.

4.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(4): 249-259, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time-trend disparity in adverse pregnancy outcomes according to maternal nationality or immigration status has been well documented. In this study, we investigated time changes in individual-level risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes that have not been given the needed attention. OBJECTIVE: To compare 20-year trends in sociodemographic, obstetric, health care factors, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Portuguese and non-Portuguese women. METHODS: We studied 2 105 497 livebirths from Portuguese national birth registry (1995-2014). We compared maternal sociodemographic characteristics (age, education, employment, and marital status), obstetric, and health care factors (parity, number of foetuses, place and type of delivery) in Portuguese and non-Portuguese at four periods (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-09, and 2010-2014). Time-trend analysis using joinpoint regression method was performed to identify trends (joinpoints) and compare time changes in the prevalence of sociodemographic, obstetric, and health care factors expressed as annual percentage change (APC). RESULTS: The proportion of livebirths in non-Portuguese mothers increased between 1995 and 1999 (2.9%), 2000-2004 (6.3%), 2005-2009 (9.5%), and 2010-2014 (9.8%). The proportion of women aged ≥ 35 years among Portuguese mothers varied from 11.1% (1995-1999), 14.4% (2000-2004), 18.6% (2005-2009) to 25.5% (2010-2014); among non-Portuguese women, the corresponding proportions were 15.7% (1995-1999), 14.6% (2000-2004), 16.1% (2005-2009), and 19.0% (2010-2014), respectively. The rate of change in maternal age ≥ 35 years had 2 joinpoints in both Portuguese (APC = 6.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2, 6.9; 2005-2014) and non-Portuguese (3.3%, 95% CI 2.5, 4.0; 2002-2014). Increase in caesarean rate was higher for non-Portuguese (24.0%-36.1%) than the Portuguese (30.6%-31.6%) between 1995 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic, obstetric, and health care factors have divergent time trends and rate of change for Portuguese and non-Portuguese.

5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different directions of the association of birthweight with cardio-metabolic health have been found, especially in children, which may be explained by the mediating effect of attained adiposity. We aimed to untangle direct and BMI-mediated associations of birthweight with childhood cardio-metabolic indicators. METHODS: Children from Generation XXI birth cohort were included (n = 4881). Birthweight was abstracted from clinical files. At age 4 and 7, children were re-evaluated. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) z-scores were the cardio-metabolic traits analyzed. Regression coefficients and respective 95% confidence intervals [ß (95%CI)] were computed using path analysis. RESULTS: Birthweight had inverse total effect on SBP at age 4 [-0.005 (-0.010; -0.001)] and 7 [-0.011 (-0.017; -0.006)] and DBP at 7 [-0.008 (-0.012; -0.004)]. Direct effects were found for SBP at 4 [-0.013 (-0.018; -0.009)] and 7 [-0.014 (-0.019; -0.009)], and DBP at 7 [-0.010 (-0.015; -0.006)], explaining the inverse total effects. Positive BMI-mediated indirect effects were found for all cardio-metabolic traits: higher birthweight was associated with higher childhood BMI, which in turn was associated with higher levels of cardio-metabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS: Positive BMI-mediated effect of birthweight on all cardio-metabolic traits was found. However, direct effects were in the opposite direction, significant for blood pressure, which may explain the diversity of results observed in the literature. Combining the direct and BMI-mediated effects, higher birthweight was associated with lower blood pressure at age 7 and have no effect on other cardio-metabolic traits.

6.
Acta Med Port ; 32(6): 434-440, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe demographic, socioeconomic and pregnancy-related characteristics associated with a caesarean delivery in Luanda. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study which included 995 puerperal women and who were assessed between December 2012 and February 2013 at Lucrécia Paím maternity hospital in Luanda, Angola. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the magnitude of associations (odds ratios-95% confidence intervals) between the type of delivery and variables showing a significant association in the bivariate analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of caesarean section was 44%. Women with caesarean delivery were less educated, resided more often in a periurban area and were more likely to disclose lower family income when compared with women who had vaginal delivery. Living in a periurban area was significantly associated with a caesarean delivery regardless of all covariates considered, for primiparous women (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals = 2.14, 1.27 - 3.62) and for multiparous women (1.78, 1.26 - 2.51). Among multiparous women, a lower family income was also significantly associated with caesarean delivery. Hypertensive disorders during the current pregnancy were associated with a caesarean delivery in the multivariate models fitted for primiparous (3.96, 1.57 - 9.98) and for multiparous women (1.68, 1.03 - 2.74). DISCUSSION: The associations between low socioeconomic position and high risk of caesarean delivery demonstrated in this study are consistent results in previous researches curried out in African contexts. The poorer and less educated women, who live far from health facilities, have few antenatal care visits and often arrive with complicated conditions, justifying a caesarean delivery. Lack of qualified human and material resources to manage emergencies in peripheral health centers and delaying in the reference system also leads to an increase in the number of caesareans performed in this particular maternity hospital. CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic differences were observed according to the type of delivery. Cesarean section was more prevalent among women with lower income and residents in periurban areas.

7.
Int Health ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections are major public health problems. We aimed to study the 6-mo impact of mass drug administration with praziquantel and albendazole on urinary schistosomiasis and STH. METHODS: We examined children (aged 2-15 y) from one hamlet, who provided urine and faeces samples at baseline (n=197), 1 mo (n=102) and 6 mo (n=92); 67 completed the protocol. RESULTS: At baseline, 47/67 (70.1%) children presented Schistosoma haematobium (75.8% in the baseline total sample) and 12/67 (17.9%) with STH (30.5% in the initial sample, p=0.010). Among the children, 47.3% had heavy Schistosoma haematobium infection. The most frequent STH was Trichuris trichiura in 9.0%. We also found Hymenolepis nana (13.2%) and Plasmodium falciparum (9.1%) infections and anaemia (82.1%). One mo after chemotherapy there was a significant (p=0.013) reduction of Schistosoma haematobium prevalence (23.5%) and a high egg reduction rate (86.9%). Considering the sample of 67 children, the mean egg concentration was 498 at baseline, 65 at 1 mo and 252 at 6 mo (p<0.05). We also observed a reduction in STH infections, 50% in Ascaris lumbricoides, 33.3% in T. trichiura and 50% in hookworms. At 6 mo, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (76.1%) was similar to the baseline and the STH reduction was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies have reported many losses in these settings, but we were able to show that mass drug administration for control of schistosomiasis and STH present low effectiveness, that reinfections occur rapidly and that stand alone anthelmintic therapy is not a sustainable choice.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8790, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217447

RESUMO

Living in deprived neighbourhoods may have biological consequences, but few studies have assessed this empirically. We examined the association between neighbourhood deprivation and allostatic load, a biological marker of wear and tear, taking into account individual's socioeconomic position. We analysed data from three cohort studies (CoLaus-Switzerland; EPIPorto-Portugal; Whitehall II-UK) comprising 16,364 participants. We defined allostatic load using ten biomarkers of dysregulated metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory systems (body mass index; waist circumference; total, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; glucose; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; C-reactive protein). Mixed Poisson regression models were fitted to examine associations with neighbourhood deprivation (in quintiles, Q1-least deprived as reference). After adjustment for confounding variables, participants living in the most deprived quintile had 1.13 times higher allostatic load than those living in the least deprived quintile (Relative Risk, RR, for Q2 RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09; Q3 = 1.06, 1.03-1.10; Q4 = 1.09, 1.06-1.12; Q5 = 1.13, 1.09-1.16). This association was partially modified by individual's socioeconomic position, such that the relative risk was higher in participants with low socioeconomic position (Q5 vs Q1 1.16, 1.11-1.22) than those with high socioeconomic position (Q5 vs Q1 1.07, 1.01-1.13). Neighbourhood deprivation is associated with biological wear and tear, suggesting that neighbourhood-level interventions may yield health gains.

9.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3194, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between insulin resistance and haematological parameters from adolescence to adulthood. METHODS: Participants from the EPITeen cohort were evaluated at 13, 17, and 21 years, through standardized procedures. A fasting blood sample was obtained, and insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). The cross-sectional association between HOMA-IR and haematological parameters at 21 years was quantified in 1671 participants by multivariate linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). For the longitudinal analysis (n = 496), trajectories of insulin and glucose were estimated using model-based clustering, and haematological parameters were compared according to trajectories using ANOVA. RESULTS: At 21 years, after adjustment for BMI, positive associations (ß [95%CI]) were found between HOMA-IR and red blood count (0.05 [0.03;0.07] in females; 0.02 [0.00;0.04] in males); and haematocrit (0.29 [0.12;0.46] in females; 0.21 [0.04,0.38] in males). In females, HOMA-IR was inversely associated with packed cell volume (PCV) (-0.35 [-0.66;-0.05]) and iron levels (-3.98 [-6.94,-1.03]) but positively associated with white blood cells (0.31 [0.19;0.43]) and platelets (7.66 [3.93;11.39]). In males, a higher HOMA-IR was significantly associated with higher haemoglobin (0.09 [0.03;0.16]). Regarding the longitudinal analysis, similar trends were found, but statistical significance was not reached. CONCLUSIONS: Both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses support the hypothesis that insulin resistance is associated with increased red blood cells count and haematocrit in young adults, even within normal ranges of insulin and glucose.

10.
Eur Biophys J ; 48(6): 513-521, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203416

RESUMO

Magnetotactic bacteria are microorganisms that present intracellular chains of magnetic nanoparticles, the magnetosome chain. A challenge in the study of magnetotactic bacteria is the measurement of the magnetic moment associated with the magnetosome chain. Several techniques have been used to estimate the average magnetic moment of a population of magnetotactic bacteria, and others permit the measurement of the magnetic moment of individual bacteria. The U-turn technique allows the measurement of the individual magnetic moment and other parameters associated with the movement and magnetotaxis, such as the velocity and the orientation angle of the trajectory relative to the applied magnetic field. The aim of the present paper is to use the U-turn technique in a population of uncultured magnetotactic cocci to measure the magnetic moment, the volume, orientation angle and velocity for the same individuals. Our results showed that the magnetic moment is distributed in a log-normal distribution, with a mean value of 8.2 × 10-15 Am2 and median of 5.4 × 10-15 Am2. An estimate of the average magnetic moment using the average value of the orientation cosine produces a value similar to the median of the distribution and to the average magnetic moment obtained using transmission electron microscopy. A strong positive correlation is observed between the magnetic moment and the volume. There is no correlation between the magnetic moment and the orientation cosine and between the magnetic moment and the velocity. Those null correlations can be explained by our current understanding of magnetotaxis.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Movimento
11.
Environ Microbiol ; 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188524

RESUMO

The most well-recognized magnetoreception behaviour is that of the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which synthesize membrane-bounded magnetic nanocrystals called magnetosomes via a biologically controlled process. The magnetic minerals identified in prokaryotic magnetosomes are magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) and greigite (Fe3 S4 ). Magnetosome crystals, regardless of composition, have consistent, species-specific morphologies and single-domain size range. Because of these features, magnetosome magnetite crystals possess specific properties in comparison to abiotic, chemically synthesized magnetite. Despite numerous discoveries regarding MTB phylogeny over the last decades, this diversity is still considered underestimated. Characterization of magnetotactic microorganisms is important as it might provide insights into the origin and establishment of magnetoreception in general, including eukaryotes. Here, we describe the magnetotactic behaviour and characterize the magnetosomes from a flagellated protist using culture-independent methods. Results strongly suggest that, unlike previously described magnetotactic protists, this flagellate is capable of biomineralizing its own anisotropic magnetite magnetosomes, which are aligned in complex aggregations of multiple chains within the cell. This organism has a similar response to magnetic field inversions as MTB. Therefore, this eukaryotic species might represent an early origin of magnetoreception based on magnetite biomineralization. It should add to the definition of parameters and criteria to classify biogenic magnetite in the fossil record.

12.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
13.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(3): 226-237, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity are well-established, but less is known about when the social gradient first emerges and how it evolves across childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVE: This study examines maternal education differentials in children's body mass trajectories in infancy, childhood and adolescence using data from four contemporary European child cohorts. METHODS: Prospective data on children's body mass index (BMI) were obtained from four cohort studies-Generation XXI (G21-Portugal), Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) infant and child cohorts, and the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS-UK)-involving a total sample of 41,399 children and 120,140 observations. Children's BMI trajectories were modelled by maternal education level using mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Maternal educational inequalities in children's BMI were evident as early as three years of age. Children from lower maternal educational backgrounds were characterised by accelerated BMI growth, and the extent of the disparity was such that boys from primary-educated backgrounds measured 0.42 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.24, 0.60) heavier at 7 years of age in G21, 0.90 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.60, 1.19) heavier at 13 years of age in GUI and 0.75 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.52, 0.97) heavier in MCS at 14 years of age. The corresponding figures for girls were 0.71 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.50, 0.91), 1.31 kg/m2 (95% CI 1.00, 1.62) and 0.76 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.53, 1.00) in G21, GUI and MCS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal education is a strong predictor of BMI across European nations. Socio-economic differentials emerge early and widen across childhood, highlighting the need for early intervention.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764549

RESUMO

Angola reports one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world, and anemia represents one of its important causes. Recent studies, in under-five children from the Bengo province of Angola, described high prevalence's, suggesting malaria, undernutrition and urogenital schistosomiasis as important contributors for the occurrence and spatial variations of anemia. Educational community-based interventions, either in Nutrition and Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Malaria are recommended to correct anemia. Herein, we designed a cluster-randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of two educational-plus-therapeutic interventions in the reduction of anemia: one in nutrition and the other in WASH/Malaria. Socioeconomic, nutritional, anthropometric, parasitological and biochemical data will be collected from all willing-to-participate children, aging under four and resident in the Health Research Center of Angola study area. Considering the multifactorial causes of this condition, determining the efficacy of both interventions might help documenting weaknesses and opportunities for planning integrated strategies to reduce anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Anemia/etiologia , Angola , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.

16.
Allergy ; 74(7): 1277-1291, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor air contaminants may act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, to what extent these contaminants affect health is poorly known. We aimed to assess the association between EDCs exposure and asthma, respiratory symptoms and obesity in schoolchildren. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional analysis of 815 participants from 20 schools in Porto, Portugal, were analysed. Symptoms were assessed, asthma was defined on lung function, and airway reversibility and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. The concentrations of 13 volatile organic compounds and 2 aldehydes identified as EDCs were measured in 71 classrooms throughout 1 week. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the effect of co-exposure. Associations were estimated by regression coefficients using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Increased individual and combined EDCs levels were found in classrooms having more children with asthma and obesity. Higher levels of hexane, styrene, cyclohexanone, butylated hydroxytoluene and 2-butoxyethanol were associated with obesity, and higher levels of cyclohexanone were associated with increased child BMI. Toluene, o-xylene, m/p-xylene and ethylbenzene were significantly associated with nasal obstruction. A positive association was found between PC1 and the risk of obese asthma (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.01, 1.98) and between PC2 and overweight (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.28, 1.79). PC1 and PC2 were also associated with nasal obstruction, and PC2 was associated with breathing difficulties and lean body mass, although EDCs concentrations were low. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings further support the role of EDCs in asthma and obesity development. Moreover, even low levels of indoor exposure may influence the risk of asthma, respiratory symptoms and obesity.

17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 234: 96-102, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section (CS) may reduce mortality and morbidity for very preterm breech infants, but evidence is inconclusive. We evaluated neonatal outcomes for singleton breech infants by mode of delivery in a European cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Data come from the EPICE population-based cohort of very preterm births in 19 regions in 11 European countries (7770 live births). The study population was singleton spontaneous-onset breech births at 24-31 weeks gestational age (GA) without antenatal medical complications requiring caesarean delivery (N = 572). Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for maternal and pregnancy covariates and propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of (1) CS and (2) a unit policy of systematic CS for breech presentation by GA. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, intraventricular haemorrhage grades III & IV or cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Secondary outcomes were each component separately, five minute Apgar score below seven and mortality within six hours of delivery. RESULTS: 64.4% of infants were delivered by CS with a range across regions from 41% to 100%; these infants had higher GA and were more likely to be small for gestational age, receive antenatal steroids, and have mothers who were hospitalised for more than one day before delivery compared to those delivered vaginally. CS was associated with lower risks of all outcomes in mixed-effects adjusted models (odds ratio (OR) for the composite outcome: 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.81), but not in propensity score matched models (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.41; 1.29). A systematic CS policy was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in unadjusted, but not adjusted models (OR for composite outcome: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.44; 1.28). 35% of births 24-25 weeks were delivered by CS and protective effects were consistently stronger, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Point estimates indicated protective effects of caesarean delivery for very preterm breech infants in conventional statistical models. However, analyses using propensity scores and based on unit policies did not confirm statistically significant associations. Prospective large-scale studies are needed to establish best practice and could be implemented in European regions where vaginal delivery remains an option.


Assuntos
Apresentação Pélvica/mortalidade , Cesárea/mortalidade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Prev Med ; 120: 1-7, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593795

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of age-related changes in body mass index and waist circumference during adolescence on blood pressure levels and incidence of hypertension. Among the 2159 adolescents recruited at 13 years in Porto, Portugal, we evaluated those free of hypertension at baseline and followed-up at 17 years (n = 1377) - EPITeen cohort, 2003-2008. Changes in BMI percentage (BMI%) and waist circumference percentage (WC%) were evaluated continuously as the difference between 13 and 17 years, then categorized in sex-specific quartiles. Hypertension was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 95th sex- age- and height-specific reference percentile. The association between changes in adiposity and incidence of hypertension was computed through generalized linear models with log link function and Poisson distribution [incidence rate ratios (IRR), 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)], adjusting for baseline adiposity, sex, and family history of hypertension. Overall incidence rate of hypertension was 23.8 (95%CI 19.6-28.8) per 1000 person-years. Participants presenting the highest decrease in BMI% from 13 to 17 years (1st quartile) presented lower SBP at 17y, while for those with increasing BMI% (4th quartile) SBP increased. In comparison to stable BMI% (3rd quartile), decreases in BMI% (1st quartile) were associated with 44% lower risk of hypertension at 17y (IRR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.32-0.97). Increases in BMI% (4th quartile) were associated with increased incidence, although without statistical significance (IRR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.66-1.85). Results were similar when considering changes in WC%. Decreases in BMI and WC throughout adolescence in the whole spectrum of adiposity levels presented potential benefit for blood pressure.

19.
Hypertension ; 73(1): e1-e7, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571550

RESUMO

Intrauterine fetal conditions can have lifelong cardiovascular effects. The impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on children's cardiovascular profile is not well established. The goal of this study was to explore the association between maternal diabetes mellitus and offspring's blood pressure (BP) ≤10 years of age. Generation XXI is a prospective birth cohort, which enrolled 8301 mother-offspring pairs, including 586 (7.1%) children of diabetic mothers. The associations between maternal diabetes mellitus and BP at 4, 7, and 10 years of age was modeled using linear regression. A mixed-effects model was built to assess differences in BP variation over time. Path analysis was used to quantify effects of potential mediators. Maternal diabetes mellitus was associated with higher BP in offspring at the age of 10 (systolic: ß, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.36-2.59; and diastolic: ß, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.05-1.71). This association was independent of maternal perinatal characteristics, and it was mediated by child's body mass index and, to a lesser extent, by gestational age, type of birth, and birth weight (indirect effect proportion, 73%). No significant differences in BP were found at 4 and 7 years of age. Longitudinal analysis showed an accelerated systolic BP increase on maternal diabetes mellitus group (ß, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.03-2.28). These finding were especially relevant in males, suggesting sex differences in the mechanisms of BP prenatal programing. Our results provide further evidence that maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with high BP late in childhood, demonstrating a significant role of child's body mass in the pathway of this association.

20.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; : 1533317518813550, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Vascular disease may play an important role in the epidemiology of dementia in countries with high stroke incidence, such as Portugal. OBJECTIVE:: To assess the prevalence and etiology of cognitive impairment in a population-based cohort from Portugal. METHODS:: Individuals ≥55 years (n = 730) from the EPIPorto cohort were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Those scoring below the age-/education-adjusted cutoff points were further evaluated to identify dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to define its most common causes. RESULTS:: Thirty-six cases of MCI/dementia were identified, corresponding to adjusted prevalences of 4.1% for MCI and 1.3% for dementia. The most common cause of MCI/dementia was vascular (52.8%), followed by Alzheimer's disease (36.1%). CONCLUSION:: These findings highlight the importance of vascular cognitive impairment in the epidemiology of dementia in Portugal and carry an important public health message regarding its prevention and management, possibly extending to other countries with a high-stroke burden.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA