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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641350

RESUMO

Due to the high consumption of fat-rich processed foods, efforts are being done to reduce their saturated fat (SFA) contents and replace it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), creating a necessity to find alternative PUFA sources. Macroalgae, being a promising natural source of healthy food, may be such an alternative. The fatty acid (FA) profile of Fucus spiralis, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, and Saccorhiza polyschides were determined through direct transesterification and their seasonal variation was studied. F. spiralis showed the highest FA content overall, B. bifurcata presented the higher PUFA amounts, and U. lactuca and S. polyschides the higher SFA. The production of FA was shown to be influenced by the seasons. Spring and summer seemed to induce the FA production in F. spiralis and B. bifurcata while in U. lactuca the same was verified in winter. U. lactuca presented a ω6/ω3 ratio between 0.59 and 1.38 while B. bifurcata presented a ratio around 1.31. The study on the seasonal variations of the macroalgal FA profile can be helpful to understand the best season to yield FA of interest, such as ALA, EPA, and DHA. It may also provide valuable information on the best culturing conditions for the production of desired FAs.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5512, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535666

RESUMO

The maintenance of genomic stability requires the coordination of multiple cellular tasks upon the appearance of DNA lesions. RNA editing, the post-transcriptional sequence alteration of RNA, has a profound effect on cell homeostasis, but its implication in the response to DNA damage was not previously explored. Here we show that, in response to DNA breaks, an overall change of the Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA editing is observed, a phenomenon we call the RNA Editing DAmage Response (REDAR). REDAR relies on the checkpoint kinase ATR and the recombination factor CtIP. Moreover, depletion of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 renders cells hypersensitive to genotoxic agents, increases genomic instability and hampers homologous recombination by impairing DNA resection. Such a role of ADAR2 in DNA repair goes beyond the recoding of specific transcripts, but depends on ADAR2 editing DNA:RNA hybrids to ease their dissolution.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , DNA/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Edição de RNA , RNA/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Genes Reporter , Instabilidade Genômica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Humanos , Enzimas Multifuncionais/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4919, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389725

RESUMO

BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations predispose to breast, ovarian and other cancers. High-throughput sequencing of tumour genomes revealed that oncogene amplification and BRCA1/2 mutations are mutually exclusive in cancer, however the molecular mechanism underlying this incompatibility remains unknown. Here, we report that activation of ß-catenin, an oncogene of the WNT signalling pathway, inhibits proliferation of BRCA1/2-deficient cells. RNA-seq analyses revealed ß-catenin-induced discrete transcriptome alterations in BRCA2-deficient cells, including suppression of CDKN1A gene encoding the CDK inhibitor p21. This accelerates G1/S transition, triggering illegitimate origin firing and DNA damage. In addition, ß-catenin activation accelerates replication fork progression in BRCA2-deficient cells, which is critically dependent on p21 downregulation. Importantly, we find that upregulated p21 expression is essential for the survival of BRCA2-deficient cells and tumours. Thus, our work demonstrates that ß-catenin toxicity in cancer cells with compromised BRCA1/2 function is driven by transcriptional alterations that cause aberrant replication and inflict DNA damage.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Proteína BRCA2/deficiência , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4740, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362897

RESUMO

Unraveling the long-term kinetics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and the individual characteristics influencing it, including the impact of pre-existing antibodies to human coronaviruses causing common cold (HCoVs), is essential to understand protective immunity to COVID-19 and devise effective surveillance strategies. IgM, IgA and IgG levels against six SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the nucleocapsid antigen of the four HCoV (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1) were quantified by Luminex, and antibody neutralization capacity was assessed by flow cytometry, in a cohort of health care workers followed up to 7 months (N = 578). Seroprevalence increases over time from 13.5% (month 0) and 15.6% (month 1) to 16.4% (month 6). Levels of antibodies, including those with neutralizing capacity, are stable over time, except IgG to nucleocapsid antigen and IgM levels that wane. After the peak response, anti-spike antibody levels increase from ~150 days post-symptom onset in all individuals (73% for IgG), in the absence of any evidence of re-exposure. IgG and IgA to HCoV are significantly higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic seropositive individuals. Thus, pre-existing cross-reactive HCoVs antibodies could have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coronavirus Humano 229E/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue
5.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR provides a highly variable cycle-threshold (Ct) value that cannot distinguish viral infectivity. Subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) has been used to monitor active replication. Given the importance of long RT-PCR positivity and the need for work reincorporation and discontinuing isolation, we studied the functionality of normalized viral loads (NVL) for patient monitoring and sgRNA for viral infectivity detection. METHODS: NVL measured through the Nucleocapsid and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase genes and sgRNA RT-PCRs were performed in 2 consecutive swabs from 84 health-care workers. RESULTS: NVL provided similar and accurate quantities of both genes of SARS-CoV-2 at two different time-points of infection, overcoming Ct-value and swab collection variability. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, 51.19% were sgRNA-positive in the 1 stRT-PCR and 5.95% in the 2 ndRT-PCR. All sgRNA-positive samples had >4log10RNAcopies/1000cells, while samples with ≤1log10 NVL were sgRNA-negative. Although NVL were positive until 29 days after symptom onset, 84.1% of sgRNA-positive samples were from the first 7 days, which correlated with viral culture viability. Multivariate analyses showed that sgRNA, NVL and days of symptoms were significantly associated (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NVL and sgRNA are two rapid accessible techniques that could be easily implemented in routine hospital practice providing a useful proxy for viral infectivity and COVID-19 patient follow-up.

6.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299561

RESUMO

Fucus spiralis that was collected in the four seasons was submitted to an extraction with ethanol:water (crude extracts Et80), followed by a liquid-liquid fractionation with organic solvents (fraction He from n-hexane; aqueous fractions AQ1, AQ2, AQ3 and AQ4; ethyl acetate fraction EA), with the aim of obtaining phlorotannin-enriched extracts. All the extracts (Et80, He, AQ1, AQ2, AQ3, AQ4 and EA) that were obtained for the F. spiralis of the four seasons were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds. The summer extracts presented the highest contents in polyphenols (TPC), as well as the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), when compared to the samples from the other seasons. The reductive percentage of the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) compound was similar between the seasons. For all the seasons, the EA extract showed the highest polyphenol content (TPC), and the highest antioxidant capacity (highest ferric reducing power (FRAP) and lowest concentration needed to reduce 50% of the DPPH compound), which is in agreement with a phlorotannin-enriched fraction. This study revealed that the polyphenol content and antioxidant power of the F. spiralis extracts are influenced by the time of harvest, as well as by the solvents used for their extraction.


Assuntos
Fucus/química , Polifenóis/análise , Taninos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Estações do Ano , Alga Marinha/química , Solventes
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3937, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168151

RESUMO

Although human nucleoporin Tpr is frequently deregulated in cancer, its roles are poorly understood. Here we show that Tpr depletion generates transcription-dependent replication stress, DNA breaks, and genomic instability. DNA fiber assays and electron microscopy visualization of replication intermediates show that Tpr deficient cells exhibit slow and asymmetric replication forks under replication stress. Tpr deficiency evokes enhanced levels of DNA-RNA hybrids. Additionally, complementary proteomic strategies identify a network of Tpr-interacting proteins mediating RNA processing, such as MATR3 and SUGP2, and functional experiments confirm that their depletion trigger cellular phenotypes shared with Tpr deficiency. Mechanistic studies reveal the interplay of Tpr with GANP, a component of the TREX-2 complex. The Tpr-GANP interaction is supported by their shared protein level alterations in a cohort of ovarian carcinomas. Our results reveal links between nucleoporins, DNA transcription and replication, and the existence of a network physically connecting replication forks with transcription, splicing, and mRNA export machinery.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Dano ao DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Transporte de RNA
8.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 1050-1063, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986538

RESUMO

ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers are commonly mutated in human cancer. Mammalian SWI/SNF complexes comprise three conserved multisubunit chromatin remodelers (cBAF, ncBAF and PBAF) that share the BRG1 (also known as SMARCA4) subunit responsible for the main ATPase activity. BRG1 is the most frequently mutated Snf2-like ATPase in cancer. In the present study, we have investigated the role of SWI/SNF in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer cells, given its role in transcription, DNA replication and DNA-damage repair. We show that depletion of BRG1 increases R-loops and R-loop-dependent DNA breaks, as well as transcription-replication (T-R) conflicts. BRG1 colocalizes with R-loops and replication fork blocks, as determined by FANCD2 foci, with BRG1 depletion being epistatic to FANCD2 silencing. Our study, extended to other components of SWI/SNF, uncovers a key role of the SWI/SNF complex, in particular cBAF, in helping resolve R-loop-mediated T-R conflicts, thus, unveiling a new mechanism by which chromatin remodeling protects genome integrity.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Estruturas R-Loop , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos
10.
EMBO J ; 40(7): e106018, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634895

RESUMO

The BRCA2 tumor suppressor is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor essential for maintaining genome integrity. BRCA2-deficient cells spontaneously accumulate DNA-RNA hybrids, a known source of genome instability. However, the specific role of BRCA2 on these structures remains poorly understood. Here we identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 as a BRCA2-interacting protein. DDX5 associates with DNA-RNA hybrids that form in the vicinity of DSBs, and this association is enhanced by BRCA2. Notably, BRCA2 stimulates the DNA-RNA hybrid-unwinding activity of DDX5 helicase. An impaired BRCA2-DDX5 interaction, as observed in cells expressing the breast cancer variant BRCA2-T207A, reduces the association of DDX5 with DNA-RNA hybrids, decreases the number of RPA foci, and alters the kinetics of appearance of RAD51 foci upon irradiation. Our findings are consistent with DNA-RNA hybrids constituting an impediment for the repair of DSBs by homologous recombination and reveal BRCA2 and DDX5 as active players in their removal.

11.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546337

RESUMO

An important factor in consumers' acceptability, beyond visual appearance and taste, is food texture. The elderly and people with dysphagia are more likely to present malnourishment due to visually and texturally unappealing food. Three-dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing technology that can aid the food industry in developing novel and more complex food products and has the potential to produce tailored foods for specific needs. As a technology that builds food products layer by layer, 3D Printing can present a new methodology to design realistic food textures by the precise placement of texturing elements in the food, printing of multi-material products, and design of complex internal structures. This paper intends to review the existing work on 3D food printing and discuss the recent developments concerning food texture design. Advantages and limitations of 3D Printing in the food industry, the material-based printability and model-based texture, and the future trends in 3D Printing, including numerical simulations, incorporation of cooking technology to the printing, and 4D modifications are discussed. Key challenges for the mainstream adoption of 3D Printing are also elaborated on.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 62-71, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the COVID-19 spring 2020 pandemic peak in Spain, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of 578 randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona was 11.2%. METHODS: A follow-up survey 1 month later (April-May 2020) measured infection by rRT-PCR and IgM, IgA, and IgG to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein by Luminex. Antibody kinetics, including IgG subclasses, was assessed until month 3. RESULTS: At month 1, the prevalence of infection measured by rRT-PCR and serology was 14.9% (84/565) and seroprevalence 14.5% (82/565). We found 25 (5%) new infections in 501 participants without previous evidence of infection. IgM, IgG, and IgA levels declined in 3 months (antibody decay rates 0.15 [95% CI, .11-.19], 0.66 [95% CI, .54-.82], and 0.12 [95% CI, .09-.16], respectively), and 68.33% of HCWs had seroreverted for IgM, 3.08% for IgG, and 24.29% for IgA. The most frequent subclass responses were IgG1 (highest levels) and IgG2, followed by IgG3, and only IgA1 but no IgA2 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and improved surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in HCWs remains critical, particularly in high-risk groups. The observed fast decay of IgA and IgM levels has implications for seroprevalence studies using these isotypes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2153: 1-8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840768

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious type of DNA damage and a cause of genetic instability as they can lead to mutations, genome rearrangements, or loss of genetic material when not properly repaired. Eukaryotes from budding yeast to mammalian cells respond to the formation of DSBs with the immediate phosphorylation of a histone H2A isoform. The modified histone, phosphorylated in serine 139 in mammals (S129 in yeast), is named γ-H2AX. Detection of DSBs is of high relevance in research on DNA repair, aging, tumorigenesis, and cancer drug development, given the tight association of DSBs with different diseases and its potential to kill cells. DSB levels can be obtained by measuring levels of γ-H2AX in extracts of cell populations or by counting foci in individual nuclei. In this chapter some techniques to detect γ-H2AX are described.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Histonas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Animais , Imunofluorescência , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fosforilação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
14.
Foods ; 9(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255842

RESUMO

Fish is a very perishable food and therefore several storage strategies need to be employed to increase its shelf-life, guaranteeing its safety and quality from catch to consumption. Despite the advances in modern fish storage technologies, chilling and freezing are still the most common preservation methods used onboard. The present review aims to summarize strategies to increase the shelf-life of fresh (chilled) and frozen fish, as whole, gutted, or fillet, involving the assessment of different traditional cooling and freezing conditions of different fish species caught in different locations. Although there are other factors that influence the fish shelf-life, such as the fish species and the stress suffered during catch, storage time and temperature and the amount of ice are some of the most important. In addition, the way that fish is stored (whole, fillet, or gutted) also contributes to the final quality of the product. In most studies, whole chilled and frozen fish present longer shelf-life than those preserved as gutted and filleted. However, it should be noted that other factors related to the organism, capture method, and transport to the preparation/processing industry should be considered for shelf-life extension.

15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009260, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301444

RESUMO

TDP-43 is a DNA and RNA binding protein involved in RNA processing and with structural resemblance to heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), whose depletion sensitizes neurons to double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder, in which 97% of patients are familial and sporadic cases associated with TDP-43 proteinopathies and conditions clearing TDP-43 from the nucleus, but we know little about the molecular basis of the disease. After showing with the non-neuronal model of HeLa cells that TDP-43 depletion increases R loops and associated genome instability, we prove that mislocalization of mutated TDP-43 (A382T) in transfected neuronal SH-SY5Y and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from an ALS patient cause R-loop accumulation, R loop-dependent increased DSBs and Fanconi Anemia repair centers. These results uncover a new role of TDP-43 in the control of co-transcriptional R loops and the maintenance of genome integrity by preventing harmful R-loop accumulation. Our findings thus link TDP-43 pathology to increased R loops and R loop-mediated DNA damage opening the possibility that R-loop modulation in TDP-43-defective cells might help develop ALS therapies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação , Estruturas R-Loop , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Instabilidade Genômica , Células HeLa , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3400-3405, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885442

RESUMO

Phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments were extracted from red algae Gracilaria gracilis through maceration in phosphate buffer using previously optimized conditions. The stability of PBPs in the extracts was assessed by monitoring the extracts at different pHs and temperatures for 10 days. Since phycoerythrin (PE) is the main PBP present in G. gracilis, PE content was spectroscopically determined and used as a response factor. Kinetic modeling was used to describe PE degradation under different ranges of T and pH. The pigment extracts presented higher stability at pH 6.9 and -20 °C. PE was semipurified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate 65% followed by dialysis against water until a purity index of 0.7. The pigment was successfully applied as colorant in pancakes and yogurts with a pigment concentration of 0.15%. This study highlights the potential of PE pigments extracted from G. gracilis for applications in food products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Phycobiliprotein pigments were extracted from red algae Gracilaria gracilis through maceration in phosphate buffer. The stability of the pigment was evaluated at different pHs and temperatures, presenting higher stability at neutral pH and low temperatures. The pigment was successfully applied as colorant in pancakes and yogurts with a low pigment concentration. This study highlights the potential of phycobiliprotein pigments extracted from G. gracilis for applications in food products.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Gracilaria/química , Ficobiliproteínas/química , Cor , Gracilaria/metabolismo , Ficobiliproteínas/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Temperatura
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3500, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641730

RESUMO

Health care workers (HCW) are a high-risk population to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection from patients or other fellow HCW. This study aims at estimating the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of HCW from a large hospital in Spain. Of the 578 participants recruited from 28 March to 9 April 2020, 54 (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1-12.0) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG and/or IgA against SARS-CoV-2. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (presence of antibodies or past or current positive rRT-PCR) was 11.2% (65/578, 95% CI: 8.8-14.1). Among those with evidence of past or current infection, 40.0% (26/65) had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Here we report a relatively low seroprevalence of antibodies among HCW at the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Spain. A large proportion of HCW with past or present infection had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19, which calls for active periodic rRT-PCR testing in hospital settings.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Genes Dev ; 34(13-14): 898-912, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439635

RESUMO

Nonscheduled R loops represent a major source of DNA damage and replication stress. Cells have different ways to prevent R-loop accumulation. One mechanism relies on the conserved THO complex in association with cotranscriptional RNA processing factors including the RNA-dependent ATPase UAP56/DDX39B and histone modifiers such as the SIN3 deacetylase in humans. We investigated the function of UAP56/DDX39B in R-loop removal. We show that UAP56 depletion causes R-loop accumulation, R-loop-mediated genome instability, and replication fork stalling. We demonstrate an RNA-DNA helicase activity in UAP56 and show that its overexpression suppresses R loops and genome instability induced by depleting five different unrelated factors. UAP56/DDX39B localizes to active chromatin and prevents the accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids over the entire genome. We propose that, in addition to its RNA processing role, UAP56/DDX39B is a key helicase required to eliminate harmful cotranscriptional RNA structures that otherwise would block transcription and replication.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Genoma/genética , Estruturas R-Loop/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Células K562
19.
Food Chem ; 321: 126688, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247888

RESUMO

The extraction of phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments from red algae Gracilaria gracilis was optimized using maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction (ultrasonic water bath and ultrasonic probe), high pressure-assisted extraction, and freeze-thaw. The experimental conditions, namely homogenization time (t1), buffer concentration (C), treatment time (t2), biomass: buffer ratio (R), and pressure (P), were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The yield of phycoerythrin (PE) extracted, determined spectroscopically, was used as the response variable. Maceration was the most efficient extraction method yielding 3.6 mg PE/g biomass under the optimal conditions (t1 = t2 = 10 min; C = 0.1 M; R = 1:50). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the biomass before and after the cell disruption treatments revealed a more efficient cell wall rupture with maceration.


Assuntos
Corantes de Alimentos/química , Gracilaria/química , Ficobiliproteínas/química , Biomassa , Pigmentação
20.
Foods ; 9(3)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131470

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease which corresponds to 90% of the worldwide cases of diabetes, mainly due to epigenetic factors such as unhealthy lifestyles. First line therapeutic approaches are based on lifestyle changes, most of the time complemented with medication mostly associated with several side effects and high costs. As a result, the scientific community is constantly working for the discovery and development of natural therapeutic strategies that provide lower financial impact and minimize side effects. This review focus on these nature-based therapeutic strategies for prevention and control of T2DM, with a special emphasis on natural compounds that present pharmacological activity as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, lipase, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors.

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