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1.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 26(1): 33-41, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686571

RESUMO

Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of premature mortality. Survival is possible when timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are available in the community. GPs are well placed to provide early OHCA care and significantly increased rates of survival are achieved when GPs participate in resuscitation. A novel project alerts volunteer GP first responders to nearby OHCAs in Ireland.Objectives: To explore the reasons why GPs volunteer to be OHCA first responders and their experience of participation.Methods: A qualitative study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis was undertaken in 2017/18. Fourteen GPs from differing geographical areas in Ireland, who volunteered as OHCA first-responders were recruited to participate by purposive methods.Results: GP participation in OHCA voluntary first response was understood as a function of GPs relationship to the community, their ability to manage competing demands in their personal and professional lives and also specific participatory gains. GPs expressed both altruistic motivations and a sense of obligation. GPs described a complex, multifaceted role in providing OHCA first response; they derived an inherent sense of satisfaction in delivering potentially life-saving interventions but also in the provision of holistic, compassionate end-of-life care for patients and their families. Participation was not without psychosocial risk for GPs.Conclusion: GPs volunteer to provide early OHCA emergency care because of their relationship to the community. Care provided is complex and includes both resuscitation and end-of-life care.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029015, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the reasons why lay community first responders (CFRs) volunteer to participate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest response and the realities of their experience in providing this service to the community. DESIGN: A qualitative study, using in-depth semistructured interviews that were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was undertaken and credibility checks conducted. SETTING: Nine geographically varied lay CFR schemes throughout Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve experienced CFRs. RESULTS: CFRs were motivated to participate based on a variety of factors. These included altruistic, social and pre-existing emergency care interest. A proportion of CFRs may volunteer because of experience of cardiac arrest or illness in a relative. Sophisticated structures and complex care appear to underpin CFR involvement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Strategic and organisational issues, multifaceted cardiac arrest care and the psychosocial impact of participation were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Health systems that facilitate CFR out-of-hospital cardiac arrest response should consider a variety of relevant issues. These issues include the suitability of those that volunteer, complexities of resuscitation/end-of-life care, responder psychological welfare as well as CFRs' core role of providing early basic life support and defibrillation in the community.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012764, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobilization of community first responders (CFRs) to the scene of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) event has been proposed as a means of shortening the interval from occurrence of cardiac arrest to performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation, thereby increasing patient survival. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of mobilizing community first responders (CFRs) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest events in adults and children older than four weeks of age, in terms of survival and neurological function. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases for relevant trials in January 2019: CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), and Web of Science. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov, and we scanned the abstracts of conference proceedings of the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials (RCTs and q-RCTs) that compared routine emergency medical services (EMS) care versus EMS care plus mobilization of CFRs in instances of OHCA.Trials with randomization by cluster were eligible for inclusion, including cluster-design studies with intervention cross-over.In some communities, the statutory ambulance service/EMS is routinely provided by the local fire service. For the purposes of this review, this group represents the statutory ambulance service/EMS, as distinct from CFRs, and was not included as an eligible intervention.We did not include studies primarily focused on opportunistic bystanders. Individuals who were present at the scene of an OHCA event and who performed CPR according to telephone instruction provided by EMS call takers were not considered to be CFRs.Studies primarily assessing the impact of specific additional interventions such as administration of naloxone in narcotic overdose or adrenaline in anaphylaxis were also excluded.We included adults and children older than four weeks of age who had experienced an OHCA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed all titles and abstracts received to assess potential eligibility, using set inclusion criteria. We obtained and examined in detail full-text copies of all papers considered potentially eligible, and we approached authors of trials for additional information when necessary. We summarized the process of study selection in a PRISMA flowchart.Three review authors independently extracted relevant data using a standard data extraction form and assessed the validity of each included trial using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus.We synthesized findings in narrative fashion due to the heterogeneity of the included studies. We used the principles of the GRADE system to assess the certainty of the body of evidence associated with specific outcomes and to construct a 'Summary of findings' table. MAIN RESULTS: We found two completed studies involving a total of 1136 participants that ultimately met our inclusion criteria. We also found one ongoing study and one planned study. We noted significant heterogeneity in the characteristics of interventions and outcomes measured or reported across these studies, thus we could not pool study results.One completed study considered the dispatch of police and fire service CFRs equipped with automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) in an EMS system in Amsterdam and surrounding areas. This study was an RCT with allocation made by cluster according to non-overlapping geographical regions. It was conducted between 5 January 2000 and 5 January 2002. All participants were 18 years of age or older and had experienced witnessed OHCA. The study found no difference in survival at hospital discharge (odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 2.2; 1 RCT; 469 participants; low-certainty evidence), despite the observation that all 72 incidences of defibrillation performed before EMS arrival occurred in the intervention group (OR and 95% CI - not applicable; 1 RCT; 469 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). This study reported increased survival to hospital admission in the intervention group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0; 1 RCT; 469 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).The second completed study considered the dispatch of nearby lay volunteers in Stockholm, Sweden, who were trained to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This represented a supplementary CFR intervention in an EMS system where police and fire services were already routinely dispatched to OHCA in addition to EMS ambulances. This study, an RCT, included both witnessed and unwitnessed OHCA and was conducted between 1 April 2012 and 1 December 2013. Participants included adults and children eight years of age and older. Researchers found no difference in 30-day survival (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.29; 1 RCT; 612 participants; low-certainty evidence), despite a significant increase in CPR performed before EMS arrival (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.03; 1 RCT; 665 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).Neither of the included completed studies considered neurological function at hospital discharge or at 30 days, measured by cerebral performance category or by any other means. Neither of the included completed studies considered health-related quality of life. The overall certainty of evidence for the outcomes of included studies was low to moderate. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence shows that context-specific CFR interventions result in increased rates of CPR or defibrillation performed before EMS arrival. It remains uncertain whether this can translate to significantly increased rates of overall patient survival. When possible, further high-quality RCTs that are adequately powered to measure changes in survival should be conducted.The included studies did not consider survival with good neurological function. This outcome is likely to be important to patients and should be included routinely wherever survival is measured.We identified one ongoing study and one planned trial whose results once available may change the results of this review. As this review was limited to randomized and quasi-randomized trials, we may have missed some important data from other study types.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Socorristas , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Cardioversão Elétrica , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 99: 61-66, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addiction is a context specific but common and devastating condition. Though several evidence-based treatments are available, many of them remain under-utilized, among others due to the lack of adequate training in addiction medicine (AM). AM Training needs may differ across countries because of difference in discipline and level of prior AM training or contextual factors like epidemiology and availability of treatment. For appropriate testing of training needs, reliability and validity are key issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the AM-TNA Scale: an instrument specifically designed to develop the competence-based curriculum of the Indonesian AM course. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study in Indonesia, Ireland, Lithuania and the Netherlands the AM-TNA was distributed among a convenience sample of health professionals working in addiction care in The Netherlands, Lithuania, Indonesia and General Practitioners in-training in Ireland. 428 respondents completed the AM-TNA scale. To assess the factor structure, we used explorative factor analysis. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's Alpha, ANOVA determined the discriminative validity. RESULTS: Validity: factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure: One on providing direct patient treatment and care (Factor 1: clinical) and one factor on facilitating/supporting direct patient treatment and care (Factor 2: non-clinical) AM competencies and a cumulative 76% explained variance. Reliability: Factor 1 α = 0.983 and Factor 2: α = 0.956, while overall reliability was (α = 0.986). The AM-TNA was able to differentiate training needs across groups of AM professionals on all 30 addiction medicine competencies (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: In our study the AM-TNA scale had a strong two-factor structure and proofed to be a reliable and valid instrument. The next step should be the testing external validity, strengthening discriminant validity and assessing the re-test effect and measuring changes over time.

6.
Ir J Med Sci ; 188(2): 683-688, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric airway management is of fundamental importance in the critically unwell child. Pre-hospital paediatric airway management especially endotracheal intubation is however controversial. AIM: To explore Irish Advanced Paramedics (APs) training, experience and clinical practice in paediatric airway management as well as to examine clinician attitudes toward this topic. METHODS: An anonymous online survey of all graduates of the University College Dublin AP training program (N = 453). RESULTS: With duplicates and failed email deliveries excluded a valid sample of 382 individuals was obtained from whom a response rate of 185/382 (48.4%) was achieved. Three quarters of responding APs worked in urban or mixed practice with the remaining minority operating primarily in rural areas. One quarter of responding APs reported formal training in paediatric intubation. Almost 70% of APs had encountered a child requiring significant airway management in the preceding year. However, this was a rare exposure in terms of overall workload. Basic airway adjuncts were used frequently in such circumstances, with endotracheal intubation having been attempted by only a small minority of APs. Lack of practice was identified by many responding APs as a key issue causing concern in terms of paediatric intubation. CONCLUSION: Paediatric airway management has key relevance for pre-hospital care in Ireland. The overall frequency of exposure to children who may benefit from definitive airway management is however likely to represent a significant barrier to the acquisition and maintenance of competency. The ongoing practice of pre-hospital paediatric intubation by APs may not justify its risks.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000912, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402259

RESUMO

Objective: Resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is largely determined by the availability of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation within 5-10 min of collapse. The potential contribution of organised groups of volunteers to delivery of CPR and defibrillation in their communities has been little studied. Ireland has extensive networks of such volunteers; this study develops and tests a model to examine the potential impact at national level of these networks on early delivery of care. Methods: A geographical information systems study considering all statutory ambulance resource locations and all centre point locations for community first responder (CFR) schemes that operate in Ireland were undertaken. ESRI ArcGIS Desktop 10.4 was used to map CFR and ambulance base locations. ArcGIS Online proximity analysis function was used to model 5-10 min drive time response areas under sample peak and off-peak conditions. Response areas were linked to Irish population census data so as to establish the proportion of the population that have the potential to receive a timely cardiac arrest emergency response. Results: This study found that CFRs are present in many communities throughout Ireland and have the potential to reach a million additional citizens before the ambulance service and within a timeframe where CPR and defibrillation are likely to be effective treatments. Conclusion: CFRs have significant potential to contribute to survival following OHCA in Ireland. Further research that examines the processes, experiences and outcomes of CFR involvement in OHCA resuscitation should be a scientific priority.

8.
Resuscitation ; 126: 43-48, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510194

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to establish the role and outcome of general practitioner (GP) involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: A ten year prospective observational study involving a cohort of Irish general practices. SETTING: 521 general practice settings distributed throughout the Republic of Ireland, representing approximately one quarter of all practices and a third of Irish GPs. PARTICIPANTS: 534 patients suffering cardiac arrest in the community for whom resuscitation was attempted. INTERVENTIONS: Cardiac arrest with resuscitation attempted (CARA) in which a GP played a role. RESULTS: Over a ten year period almost half of participating practices reported one or more CARAs. A total of 534 CARAs were reported at a variety of locations; 161 (30%) had ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation) at some point, with outcome data available for 147/161; 90 patients survived to hospital discharge. Most survivors for whom follow up data are available were discharged home and were completely independent. The highest rate of survival was achieved when CARAs occurred at a GP practice premises (47.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation following OHCA is a key task in general practice. Over time a significant number of GPs encounter OHCA, attempt resuscitation and achieve higher survival to hospital discharge rates than occur nationally among OHCAs in Ireland. We conclude that a defibrillator should be routinely available at all general practices and staff should have appropriate resuscitation skills.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Fatores Etários , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desfibriladores/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Br J Gen Pract ; 67(657): e267-e273, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28246098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually in Ireland. Overdose prevention and management, including naloxone prescription, should be a priority for healthcare services. Naloxone is an effective overdose treatment and is now being considered for wider lay use. AIM: To establish GPs' views and experiences of opiate addiction, overdose care, and naloxone provision. DESIGN AND SETTING: An anonymous postal survey to GPs affiliated with the Department of Academic General Practice, University College Dublin, Ireland. METHOD: A total of 714 GPs were invited to complete an anonymous postal survey. Results were compared with a parallel GP trainee survey. RESULTS: A total of 448/714 (62.7%) GPs responded. Approximately one-third of GPs were based in urban, rural, and mixed areas. Over 75% of GPs who responded had patients who used illicit opiates, and 25% prescribed methadone. Two-thirds of GPs were in favour of increased naloxone availability in the community; almost one-third would take part in such a scheme. A higher proportion of GP trainees had used naloxone to treat opiate overdose than qualified GPs. In addition, a higher proportion of GP trainees were willing to be involved in naloxone distribution than qualified GPs. Intranasal naloxone was much preferred to single (P<0.001) or multiple dose (P<0.001) intramuscular naloxone. Few GPs objected to wider naloxone availability, with 66.1% (n = 292) being in favour. CONCLUSION: GPs report extensive contact with people who have opiate use disorders but provide limited opiate agonist treatment. They support wider availability of naloxone and would participate in its expansion. Development and evaluation of an implementation strategy to support GP-based distribution is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Medicina Geral , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribução , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
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