*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19906, 2020 Nov 16.*

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We study symmetries of open bosonic systems in the presence of laser pumping. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians describing these systems can be parity-time ([Formula: see text]) symmetric in special cases only. Systems exhibiting this symmetry are characterised by real-valued energy spectra and can display exceptional points, where a symmetry-breaking transition occurs. We demonstrate that there is a more general type of symmetry, i.e., rotation-time ([Formula: see text]) symmetry. We observe that [Formula: see text]-symmetric non-Hermitian Hamiltonians exhibit real-valued energy spectra which can be made singular by symmetry breaking. To calculate the spectra of the studied bosonic non-diagonalisable Hamiltonians we apply diagonalisation methods based on bosonic algebra. Finally, we list a versatile set rules allowing to immediately identifying or constructing [Formula: see text]-symmetric Hamiltonians. We believe that our results on the [Formula: see text]-symmetric class of bosonic systems and their spectral singularities can lead to new applications inspired by those of the [Formula: see text]-symmetric systems.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11447, 2020 Jul 07.*

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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12356, 2020 Jul 23.*

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We implement an all-optical setup demonstrating kernel-based quantum machine learning for two-dimensional classification problems. In this hybrid approach, kernel evaluations are outsourced to projective measurements on suitably designed quantum states encoding the training data, while the model training is processed on a classical computer. Our two-photon proposal encodes data points in a discrete, eight-dimensional feature Hilbert space. In order to maximize the application range of the deployable kernels, we optimize feature maps towards the resulting kernels' ability to separate points, i.e., their "resolution," under the constraint of finite, fixed Hilbert space dimension. Implementing these kernels, our setup delivers viable decision boundaries for standard nonlinear supervised classification tasks in feature space. We demonstrate such kernel-based quantum machine learning using specialized multiphoton quantum optical circuits. The deployed kernel exhibits exponentially better scaling in the required number of qubits than a direct generalization of kernels described in the literature.

*Opt Express ; 27(22): 32454-32464, 2019 Oct 28.*

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We report on experimental implementation of a machine-learned quantum gate driven by a classical control. The gate learns optimal phase-covariant cloning in a reinforcement learning scenario having fidelity of the clones as reward. In our experiment, the gate learns to achieve nearly optimal cloning fidelity allowed for this particular class of states. This makes it a proof of present-day feasibility and practical applicability of the hybrid machine learning approach combining quantum information processing with classical control. The quantum information processing performed by the setup is equivalent to boson sampling, which, in complex systems, is predicted to manifest quantum supremacy over classical simulation of linear-optical setups.

*Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16318, 2019 Nov 08.*

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The concept of quantum money (QM) was proposed by Wiesner in the 1970s. Its main advantage is that every attempt to copy QM unavoidably leads to imperfect counterfeits. In the Wiesner's protocol, quantum banknotes need to be delivered to the issuing bank for verification. Thus, QM requires quantum communication which range is limited by noise and losses. Recently, Bozzio et al. (2018) have demonstrated experimentally how to replace challenging quantum verification with a classical channel and a quantum retrieval game (QRG). This brings QM significantly closer to practical realisation, but still thorough analysis of the revised scheme QM is required before it can be considered secure. We address this problem by presenting a proof-of-concept attack on QRG-based QM schemes, where we show that even imperfect quantum cloning can, under some circumstances, provide enough information to break a QRG-based QM scheme.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(26): 260501, 2019 Dec 31.*

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We report on the experimental measurement of the Hilbert-Schmidt distance between two two-qubit states by many-particle interference. We demonstrate that our three-step method for measuring distances in the Hilbert space is far less complex than reconstructing density matrices and that it can be applied in quantum-enhanced machine learning to reduce the complexity of calculating Euclidean distances between multidimensional points, which can be especially interesting for near term quantum technologies and quantum artificial intelligence research. Our results are also a novel example of applying mixed states in quantum information processing. Usually working with mixed states is undesired, but here it gives the possibility of encoding extra information as the degree of coherence between the given two dimensions of the density matrix.

*Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14740, 2018 Oct 03.*

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We describe how an ensemble of four-level atoms in the diamond-type configuration can be applied to create a fully controllable effective coupling between two cavity modes. The diamond-type configuration allows one to use a bimodal cavity that supports modes of different frequencies or different circular polarisations, because each mode is coupled only to its own transition. This system can be used for mapping a quantum state of one cavity mode onto the other mode on demand. Additionally, it can serve as a fast opening high-Q cavity system that can be easily and coherently controlled with laser fields.

*Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13480, 2018 Sep 07.*

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For several decades, scientists have been aware of significant benefits allowing quantum information processing technologies to surpass their classical counterparts. Recent technological development allows these benefits to be tested experimentally and in some cases also implemented in practical devices. So far the majority of experimental quantum networks was limited to peer-to-peer communications between two parties. Practical implementation of quantum communications networks, however, needs to address the problem of scalability to serve large numbers of users. Similarly to classical computer networks, their quantum counterparts would require routing protocols to direct the signal from its source to destination. Devices implementing these routing protocols are called quantum routers and have recently been subject of an intense research. In this paper, we report on experimental implementation of a linear-optical quantum router. Our device allows single-photon polarization-encoded qubits to be routed coherently into two spatial output modes depending on the state of two identical control qubits. The polarization qubit state of the routed photon is maintained during the routing operation. The success probability of our scheme can be increased up to 25% making it the most efficient linear-optical quantum router developed to this date.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 38076, 2016 11 30.*

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Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 19610, 2016 Jan 21.*

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In standard optical tomographic methods, the off-diagonal elements of a density matrix ρ are measured indirectly. Thus, the reconstruction of ρ, even if it is based on linear inversion, typically magnifies small errors in the experimental data. Recently, an optimal tomography solution measuring all the elements of ρ one-by-one without error magnification has been theoretically proposed. We implemented this method for two-qubit polarization states. For comparison, we also experimentally implemented other well-known tomographic protocols, either based solely on local measurements (of, e.g., the Pauli operators and James-Kwiat-Munro-White projectors) or with mutually unbiased bases requiring both local and global measurements. We reconstructed seventeen separable, partially and maximally entangled two-qubit polarization states. Our experiments show that our method has the highest stability against errors in comparison to other quantum tomographies. In particular, we demonstrate that each optimally-reconstructed state is embedded in an uncertainty circle of the smallest radius, both in terms of trace distance and disturbance. We explain how to experimentally estimate uncertainty radii for all the implemented tomographies and show that, for each reconstructed state, the relevant uncertainty circles intersect indicating the approximate location of the corresponding physical density matrix.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(15): 153602, 2015 Apr 17.*

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We show that it is possible to reduce the number of two-qubit gates needed for the construction of an arbitrary controlled-unitary transformation by up to 2 times using a tunable controlled-phase gate. On the platform of linear optics, where two-qubit gates can only be achieved probabilistically, our method significantly reduces the amount of components and increases success probability of a two-qubit gate. The experimental implementation of our technique presented in this Letter for a controlled single-qubit unitary gate demonstrates that only one tunable controlled-phase gate is needed instead of two standard controlled-not gates. Thus, not only do we increase the success probability by about 1 order of magnitude (with the same resources), but also avoid the need for conducting quantum nondemolition measurement otherwise required to join two probabilistic gates. Subsequently, we generalize our method to a higher order, showing that n-times controlled gates can be optimized by replacing blocks of controlled-not gates with tunable controlled-phase gates.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(17): 173601, 2013 Apr 26.*

##### RESUMO

The security of quantum cryptography is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem, which implies that an eavesdropper copying transmitted qubits in unknown states causes their disturbance. Nevertheless, in real cryptographic systems some level of disturbance has to be allowed to cover, e.g., transmission losses. An eavesdropper can attack such systems by replacing a noisy channel by a better one and by performing approximate cloning of transmitted qubits which disturb them but below the noise level assumed by legitimate users. We experimentally demonstrate such symmetric individual eavesdropping on the quantum key distribution protocols of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) and the trine-state spherical code of Renes (R04) with two-level probes prepared using a recently developed photonic multifunctional quantum cloner [Lemr et al., Phys. Rev. A 85, 050307(R) (2012)]. We demonstrated that our optimal cloning device with high-success rate makes the eavesdropping possible by hiding it in usual transmission losses. We believe that this experiment can stimulate the quest for other operational applications of quantum cloning.