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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484128

RESUMO

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Pericárdio , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
2.
Med Image Anal ; 74: 102213, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455223

RESUMO

In clinical applications, using erroneous segmentations of medical images can have dramatic consequences. Current approaches dedicated to medical image segmentation automatic quality control do not predict segmentation quality at slice-level (2D), resulting in sub-optimal evaluations. Our 2D-based deep learning method simultaneously performs quality control at 2D-level and 3D-level for cardiovascular MR image segmentations. We compared it with 3D approaches by training both on 36,540 (2D) / 3842 (3D) samples to predict Dice Similarity Coefficients (DSC) for 4 different structures from the left ventricle, i.e., trabeculations (LVT), myocardium (LVM), papillary muscles (LVPM) and blood (LVC). The 2D-based method outperformed the 3D method. At the 2D-level, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) of the DSC predictions for 3823 samples, were 0.02, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.02 for LVM, LVC, LVT and LVPM, respectively. At the 3D-level, for 402 samples, the corresponding MAEs were 0.02, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04. The method was validated in a clinical practice evaluation against semi-qualitative scores provided by expert cardiologists for 1016 subjects of the UK BioBank. Finally, we provided evidence that a multi-level QC could be used to enhance clinical measurements derived from image segmentations.

3.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1140-1148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microwave ablation (MWA) provides an effective treatment of lung and liver tumors but suffers from a lack of reproducibility of ablation size among currently available technologies. In-vitro evaluations are far removed from clinical practices because of uninfused tissue. This study is in-vivo preclinical testing of a new MWA system on swine lungs and liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All ablations were performed under CT guidance and multiple algorithms were tested with a power of 50, 75, and 100 W for durations of 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15 min. A 3 D-evaluation of the ablation zone was carried out using enhanced-CT. The sphericity index, coefficients of variation, and energy efficiency (which corresponds to the volume yield according to the power supplied) were calculated. RESULTS: Fifty liver and 48 lung ablations were performed in 17 swine. The sphericity index varies from 0.50 to 0.80 for liver ablations and from 0.40 to 0.69 for lung ablations. The coefficient of variation was below 15% for 4/5 and 4/8 protocols for lung and liver ablations, respectively. The energy efficiency seems to decrease with the duration of the ablation from 0.60 × 10-3 cm3/J (75 W, 3 min) to 0.26 × 10-3 cm3/J (100 W, 15 min) in the liver and from 0.57 × 10-3 cm3/J (50 W, 10 min) to 0.42 × 10-3 cm3/J (100 W, 12 min) in the lungs. CONCLUSION: A shorter treatment time provides the best energy efficiency, and the best reproducibility is obtained for a 10 min treatment duration. The system tested provides an interesting reproducibility in both lung and liver measurements. Our results may help interventional radiologists in the optimal selection of treatment parameters.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Ablação por Cateter , Animais , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/cirurgia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/cirurgia , Micro-Ondas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 786-794, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for pulmonary tumors. Patterns on chest computed tomography (CT) after RFA are classified into five types; however, the follow-up has not been fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe (1) the CT pattern 3 years after RFA and (2) its evolution over 7 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lesions treated with RFA between 2009 and 2017 and with ≥3 years of follow-up CT data were included. Lesions with local recurrences were excluded from the study. The morphology of the ablation zone was classified as nodular, fibrotic, atelectatic, cavitary, and disappeared. Other initial anatomical parameters were recorded. Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. RESULTS: One hundred lung RFA scars were included, and a retrospective longitudinal study was performed. Three years after RFA, nodular, fibrotic, atelectatic, and cavitary scars, and disappearance were observed in 49%, 36%, 5%, 3%, and 6% of the scars, respectively. Evolution over 7 years showed that the fibrosis, atelectasis, and disappearance remained stable over time, whereas 28% of nodular scars evolved into fibrotic scars. Additionally, 45% of cavitary scars evolved into nodular scars. Pleural contact was associated with disappearance, and the use of a 20-mm needle was associated with atelectasis. CONCLUSION: Follow-up after RFA showed that fibrosis, disappearance, and atelectasis remained stable over time. Nodular scars could evolve into fibrotic scars, and cavitary scars could evolve into nodular scars.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Radiol Artif Intell ; 3(1): e200021, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937851

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop and evaluate a complete deep learning pipeline that allows fully automated end-diastolic left ventricle (LV) cardiac MRI segmentation, including trabeculations and automatic quality control of the predicted segmentation. Materials and Methods: This multicenter retrospective study includes training, validation, and testing datasets of 272, 27, and 150 cardiac MR images, respectively, collected between 2012 and 2018. The reference standard was the manual segmentation of four LV anatomic structures performed on end-diastolic short-axis cine cardiac MRI: LV trabeculations, LV myocardium, LV papillary muscles, and the LV blood cavity. The automatic pipeline was composed of five steps with a DenseNet architecture. Intraobserver agreement, interobserver agreement, and interaction time were recorded. The analysis includes the correlation between the manual and automated segmentation, a reproducibility comparison, and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The automated method achieved mean Dice coefficients of 0.96 ± 0.01 (standard deviation) for LV blood cavity, 0.89 ± 0.03 for LV myocardium, and 0.62 ± 0.08 for LV trabeculation (mean absolute error, 3.63 g ± 3.4). Automatic quantification of LV end-diastolic volume, LV myocardium mass, LV trabeculation, and trabeculation mass-to-total myocardial mass (TMM) ratio showed a significant correlation with the manual measures (r = 0.99, 0.99, 0.90, and 0.83, respectively; all P < .01). On a subset of 48 patients, the mean Dice value for LV trabeculation was 0.63 ± 0.10 or higher compared with the human interobserver (0.44 ± 0.09; P < .01) and intraobserver measures (0.58 ± 0.09; P < .01). Automatic quantification of the trabeculation mass-to-TMM ratio had a higher correlation (0.92) compared with the intra- and interobserver measures (0.74 and 0.39, respectively; both P < .01). Conclusion: Automated deep learning framework can achieve reproducible and quality-controlled segmentation of cardiac trabeculations, outperforming inter- and intraobserver analyses.Supplemental material is available for this article.© RSNA, 2020.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hybrid aortic arch repair in patients with chronic residual aortic dissection (RAD) is a less invasive alternative to conventional surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the short-term and long-term results of hybrid treatment for RAD after type A repair. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, all patients treated for chronic RAD with hybrid aortic arch repair were included. Indications for treatment were rapid aortic growth, aortic diameter > 55 mm, or aortic rupture. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2020, we performed 29 hybrid treatments for chronic RAD. Twenty-four patients were treated for complete supra-aortic debranching in zones 0 and 5 with left subclavian artery debranching alone in zone 2. There was 1 perioperative death (3.4%): The patient was treated for an aortic rupture. There was no spinal cord ischemia and 1 minor stroke (3.4%). After a median follow-up of 25.4 months (range 3-97 months), the long-term mortality was 10.3% (3/29) with no late aortic-related deaths. Twenty-seven patients (93.1%) developed FL thrombosis of the descending thoracic aorta; the rate of aneurysmal progression on thoraco-abdominal aorta was 41.4% (12/29), and the rate of aortic reintervention was 34.5% (10/29). CONCLUSION: In a high-volume aortic center, hybrid repair of RAD is associated with good anatomical results and a low risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality, including that of patients treated in zone 0. A redo replacement of the ascending aortic segment is sometimes necessary to provide a safer proximal landing zone and reduce the risk of type 1 endoleak after TEVAR.

8.
Invest Radiol ; 56(2): 127-133, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (≥7 T) is a unique opportunity to improve the clinical diagnosis of brain pathologies, such as multiple sclerosis or focal epilepsy. However, several shortcomings of 7 T MRI, such as radiofrequency field inhomogeneities, could degrade image quality and hinder radiological interpretation. To address these challenges, an original synthetic MRI method based on T1 mapping achieved with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) sequence was developed. The radiological quality of on-demand T1-based contrasts generated by this technique was evaluated in multiple sclerosis and focal epilepsy imaging at 7 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out from October 2017 to September 2019 and included 21 patients with different phenotypes of multiple sclerosis and 35 patients with focal epilepsy who underwent MRI brain examinations using a whole-body investigative 7 T magnetic resonance system. The quality of 2 proposed synthetic contrast images were assessed and compared with conventional images acquired at 7 T using the MP2RAGE sequence by 4 radiologists, evaluating 3 qualitative criteria: signal homogeneity, contrast intensity, and lesion visualization. Statistical analyses were performed on reported quality scores using Wilcoxon rank tests and further multiple comparisons tests. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were calculated as well. RESULTS: Radiological quality scores were reported higher for synthetic images when compared with original images, regardless of contrast, pathologies, or raters considered, with significant differences found for all 3 criteria (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon rank test). None of the 4 radiologists ever rated a synthetic image "markedly worse" than an original image. Synthetic images were rated slightly less satisfying for only 3 epileptic patients, without precluding lesion identification. CONCLUSION: T1-based synthetic MRI with the MP2RAGE sequence provided on-demand contrasts and high-quality images to the radiologist, facilitating lesion visualization in multiple sclerosis and focal epilepsy, while reducing the magnetic resonance examination total duration by removing an additional sequence.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to assess the ability of low-dose CT (LDCT) to determine lung involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and to describe a COVID19-LDCT severity score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR were retrospectively analysed. Clinical data, the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and imaging features were recorded. Lung features included ground-glass opacities (GGO), areas of consolidation and crazy paving patterns. The COVID19-LDCT score was calculated by summing the score of each segment from 0 (no involvement) to 10 (severe impairment). Univariate analysis was performed to explore predictive factor of high COVID19-LDCT score. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare groups and a Spearman correlation used with p<0.05 for significance. RESULTS: Eighty patients with positive RT-PCR were analysed. The mean age was 55 years ± 16, with 42 males (53%). The most frequent symptoms were fever (60/80, 75%) and cough (59/80, 74%), the mean NEWS was 1.7±2.3. All LDCT could be analysed and 23/80 (28%) were normal. The major imaging finding was GGOs in 56 cases (67%). The COVID19-LDCT score (mean value = 19±29) was correlated with NEWS (r = 0.48, p<0.0001). No symptoms were risk factor to have pulmonary involvement. Univariate analysis shown that dyspnea, high respiratory rate, hypertension and diabetes are associated to a COVID19-LDCT score superior to 50. CONCLUSIONS: COVID19-LDCT score did correlate with NEWS. It was significantly different in the clinical low-risk and high-risk groups. Further work is needed to validate the COVID19-LDCT score against patient prognosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Taxa Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
10.
Insights Imaging ; 11(1): 117, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose chest CT (LDCT) showed high sensitivity and ability to quantify lung involvement of COVID-19 pneumopathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors for lung involvement in 247 patients with a visual score and assess the prevalence of incidental findings. METHODS: For 12 days in March 2020, 250 patients with RT-PCR positive tests and who underwent LDCT were prospectively included. Clinical and imaging findings were recorded. The extent of lung involvement was quantified using a score ranging from 0 to 40. A logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with a score ≥ 10. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were analyzed; 138 (54%) showed lung involvement. The mean score was 4.5 ± 6.5, and the mean score for patients with lung involvement was 8.1 ± 6.8 [1-31]. The mean age was 43 ± 15 years, with 121 males (48%) and 17 asymptomatic patients (7%). Multivariate analysis showed that age > 54 years (odds ratio 4.4[2.0-9.6] p < 0.001) and diabetes (4.7[1.0-22.1] p = 0.049) were risk factors for a score ≥ 10. Multivariate analysis including symptoms showed that only age > 54 years (4.1[1.7-10.0] p = 0.002) was a risk factor for a score ≥ 10. Rhinitis (0.3[0.1-0.7] p = 0.005) and anosmia (0.3[0.1-0.9] p = 0.043) were protective against lung involvement. Incidental imaging findings were found in 19% of patients, with a need for follow-up in 0.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of lung involvement was 54% in a predominantly paucisymptomatic population. Age ≥ 55 years and diabetes were risk factors for significant parenchymal lung involvement. Rhinitis and anosmia were protective against LDCT abnormalities.

11.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(6-7): 473-484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473997

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the reference imaging technique for the management of a large number of diseases. The number of MRI examinations increases every year, simultaneously with the number of patients receiving a cardiac electronic implantable device (CEID). The presence of a CEID was considered an absolute contraindication for MRI for many years. The progressive replacement of conventional pacemakers and defibrillators by "magnetic resonance (MR)-conditional" CEIDs and recent data on the safety of MRI in patients with "MR-non-conditional" CEIDs have gradually increased the demand for MRI in patients with a CEID. However, some risks are associated with MRI in CEID carriers, even with MR-conditional devices, because these devices are not "MR safe". Specific programming of the device in "MR mode" and monitoring patients during MRI remain mandatory for all patients with a CEID. A standardized patient workflow based on an institutional protocol should be established in each institution performing such examinations. This joint position paper of the Working Group of Pacing and Electrophysiology of the French Society of Cardiology and the French Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac and Vascular Imaging describes the effect of and risks associated with MRI in CEID carriers. We propose recommendations for patient workflow and monitoring and CEID programming in MR-conditional, "MR-conditional non-guaranteed" and MR-non-conditional devices.


Assuntos
Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Cardiopatias/terapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Marca-Passo Artificial , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Fatores de Risco
12.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the possibility for replacing conventional 3 slices, 3 breath-holds MOLLI cardiac T1 mapping with single breath-hold 3 simultaneous multi-slice (SMS3) T1 mapping using blipped-CAIPIRINHA SMS-bSSFP MOLLI sequence. As a major drawback, SMS-bSSFP presents unique artefacts arising from side-lobe slice excitations that are explained by imperfect RF modulation rendering and bSSFP low flip angle enhancement. Amplitude-only RF modulation (AM) is proposed to reduce these artefacts in SMS-MOLLI compared to conventional Wong multi-band RF modulation (WM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phantoms and ten healthy volunteers were imaged at 1.5 T using a modified blipped-CAIPIRINHA SMS-bSSFP MOLLI sequence with 3 simultaneous slices. WM-SMS3 and AM-SMS3 were compared to conventional single-slice (SMS1) MOLLI. First, SNR degradation and T1 accuracy were measured in phantoms. Second, artefacts from side-lobe excitations were evaluated in a phantom designed to reproduce fat presence near the heart. Third, the occurrence of these artefacts was observed in volunteers, and their impact on T1 quantification was compared between WM-SMS3 and AM-SMS3 with conventional MOLLI as a reference. RESULTS: In the phantom, larger slice gaps and slice thicknesses yielded higher SNR. There was no significant difference of T1 values between conventional MOLLI and SMS3-MOLLI (both WM and AM). Positive banding artefacts were identified from fat neighbouring the targeted FOV due to side-lobe excitations from WM and the unique bSSFP signal profile. AM RF pulses reduced these artefacts by 38%. In healthy volunteers, AM-SMS3-MOLLI showed similar artefact reduction compared to WM-SMS3-MOLLI (3 ± 2 vs 5 ± 3 corrupted LV segments out of 16). In-vivo native T1 values obtained from conventional MOLLI and AM-SMS3-MOLLI were equivalent in LV myocardium (SMS1-T1 = 935.5 ± 36.1 ms; AM-SMS3-T1 = 933.8 ± 50.2 ms; P = 0.436) and LV blood pool (SMS1-T1 = 1475.4 ± 35.9 ms; AM-SMS3-T1 = 1452.5 ± 70.3 ms; P = 0.515). Identically, no differences were found between SMS1 and SMS3 postcontrast T1 values in the myocardium (SMS1-T1 = 556.0 ± 19.7 ms; SMS3-T1 = 521.3 ± 28.1 ms; P = 0.626) and the blood (SMS1-T1 = 478 ± 65.1 ms; AM-SMS3-T1 = 447.8 ± 81.5; P = 0.085). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to WM RF modulation, AM SMS-bSSFP MOLLI was able to reduce side-lobe artefacts considerably, providing promising results to image the three levels of the heart in a single breath hold. However, few artefacts remained even using AM-SMS-bSSFP due to residual RF imperfections. The proposed blipped-CAIPIRINHA MOLLI T1 mapping sequence provides accurate in vivo T1 quantification in line with those obtained with a single slice acquisition.

13.
Presse Med ; 48(10): 1141-1145, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669005

RESUMO

Some patients require iteratives intravenous administrations on a central catheter, for example in oncology or infectiology, which represents a challenge for ambulatory treatment. Interventional radiology could provide solutions with the implant and monitoring of PICC-lines and ports. These are implanted in sterile environment and under imaging guidance in an interventional radiology room by an operator and with a paramedical team that need to be experienced. This development focus on the interest of one method with respect to the other, as well as the differents ways to do, the complications that could arise and the monitoring of these devices.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Radiologia Intervencionista , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208749, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of exercise cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (RTOF) and to assess right and left ventricular adaptation and aortic wall response to exercise in comparison with volunteers. METHODS: 11 RTOF and 11 volunteers underwent prospective CMR at rest and during exercise. A supine bicycle ergometer was employed to reach twice the resting heart rate during continuous exercise, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. Bi-ventricular parameters and aortic stiffness were assessed using accelerated cine sequences and flow-encoding CMR. A t-test was used to compare values between groups. A Mann Whitney test was used to compare values within groups. RESULTS: In RTOF both ventricles showed an impaired contractile reserve (RVEF rest 36.2±8.3%, +1.3±3.9% increase after exercise; LVEF rest 53.8±6.1%, +5.7±6.4% increase after exercise) compared to volunteers (RVEF rest 50.5±5.0%, +10.4±7.1% increase after exercise, p = 0.039; LVEF rest 61.9±3.1%, +12.2±4.7% increase after exercise, p = 0.014). RTOF showed a reduced distensibility of the ascending aorta during exercise compared to volunteers (RTOF: 3.4±1.9 10-3.mmHg-1 vs volunteers: 5.1±1.4 10-3.mmHg-1; p = 0.027). Ascending aorta distensibility was correlated to cardiac work in the volunteers but not in RTOF. CONCLUSION: RTOF showed an impaired contractile reserve for both ventricles. The exercise unmasked a reduced distensibility of the ascending aorta in RTOF, which may be an early sign of increased aortic rigidity.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tetralogia de Fallot/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Elasticidade , Teste de Esforço , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Descanso , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem
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