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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501901

RESUMO

Greenspace is widely related to mental health benefits, but this relationship may vary by social group. Gentrification, as linked to processes of unequal urban development and conflict, potentially impacts health outcomes. This study explores the relationships between greenspace and mental health and between gentrification and mental health associations. It also further examines gentrification as an effect modifier in the greenspace-mental health association and SES as an effect modifier in the gentrification-mental health association. We used cross-sectional Barcelona (Spain) data from 2006, which included perceived mental health status and self-reported depression/anxiety from the Barcelona Health Survey. Greenspace exposure was measured as residential access to (1) all greenspace, (2) greenways and (3) parks in 2006. Census-tract level gentrification was measured using an index including changes in sociodemographic indicators between 1991 and 2006. Logistic regression models revealed that only greenways were associated with better mental health outcomes, with no significant relationship between mental health and parks or all greenspace. Living in gentrifying neighborhoods was protective for depression/anxiety compared to living in non-gentrifying neighborhoods. However, only residents of gentrifiable census tracts benefited from the exposure to greenways. SES was not found to be an effect modifier in the association between gentrification and mental health. Future research should tackle this study's limitations by incorporating a direct measure of displacement in the gentrification status indicator, accounting for qualitative aspects of greenspace and user's perceptions. Gentrification may undermine the health benefits provided by greenspace interventions.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Mudança Social , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Características de Residência
2.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116393, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388678

RESUMO

The quality characteristics of urban green spaces (UGS) have been suggested to play a critical role in their use and their potentials to exert health effects. However, epidemiological studies evaluating such a role are scarce. These studies have generally focused on a limited number of quality dimensions. We studied the association between 10 UGS quality dimensions, assessed through a comprehensive multidimensional tool, and physical activity, overweight/obesity, and UGS use. Our study was based on 2053 adults participating in the Barcelona Health Survey (2016) and the quality of 149 UGS located in Barcelona, Spain. For each participant, we abstracted the average and maximum quality score separately for each of the 10 quality dimensions and an overall quality score for the UGS within 300 m of the participant's residential address. Data on the study outcomes were obtained through face-to-face interviews. We developed logistic regression and negative binomial models to assess our evaluated associations and conducted mediation analyses between the different outcomes. We observed that the overall quality of UGS was associated with higher likelihood of engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR:1.13; 95% CI:1.00-1.27), lower risk of overweight/obesity (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.98), and increased use of UGS (exponentiated regression coefficient: 1.08; 95% CI:1.01-1.15). For the quality dimensions, we observed different patterns of associations depending on the outcome; however, bird biodiversity and amenities seem to be relevant to all of our evaluated outcomes. The mediation analysis suggested that UGS use mediate the association between quality and physical activity, while physical activity mediates the association between quality and overweight/obesity. The novel results from this study will allow decision-makers better design UGS and directly pinpoint relevant quality dimensions to promote physical activity, reduce the risk of overweight/obesity and boost the use of UGS amongst citizens.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Espanha
3.
Environ Res ; 191: 110032, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green areas has been associated with several health benefits; however, the available evidence on such benefits for hypertension is still limited. This study aimed to investigate and compare the association between residential exposure to greenspace and hypertension in Barcelona, Spain and Brussels, Belgium. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2016 Barcelona Health Interview Survey (HIS) (n = 3400) and the 2013 Belgian HIS (n = 2335). Both surveys were harmonized in terms of outcomes, confounders and exposure assessment. Residential exposure to greenspace was characterized as 1) surrounding greenspace (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index 2 (MSAVI2)) across buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m; 2) surrounding green space across 300 m and 500 m buffers; and 3) Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Our outcome was self-reported hypertension. We developed logistic regression models to evaluate the city-specific association between each greenspace measure and hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: One interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential distance to the nearest green space was associated with higher risk of hypertension in Barcelona [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.29 (IQR: 262.2)], but not in Brussels [OR: 0.95; 95%CI 0.77-1.17 (IQR: 215.2)]. Stratified analyses suggested stronger associations in older participants (≥65 years) for both cities. Findings for residential surrounding green space and greenspace were not conclusive. However, in Brussels, we found protective associations in older participants for both residential surrounding greenspace metrics [NDVI 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.81 (IQR: 0.21) and MSAVI2 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.83 (IQR: 0.18)]. We did not find any indication for the modification of our evaluated associations by sex and education level. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that living closer to greenspace could be associated with lower risk of hypertension, particularly in older age. Future research is needed to replicate our findings in other settings and shed light on potential underlying mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344630

RESUMO

Superblocks are currently being introduced in Barcelona to respond to the city's scarcity of green spaces and high levels of air pollution, traffic injuries, and sedentariness. The aim is to calm the streets by reducing the number of square meters dedicated to private vehicles and to reclaim part of this public space for people. Salut als Carrers (Health in the Streets) is a project to evaluate the potential environmental and health effects of the superblock model with an equity perspective in Barcelona. This study aims to explain the various interventions implemented in different neighborhoods in Barcelona and the methods that will be used to evaluate them in a quasi-experimental and health impact assessment (HIA) approaches. Given the complexity of the intervention evaluated, the project employs mixed methodologies. Quantitative methods include: (a) a pre-post health survey of 1200 people randomly selected from the municipal register asked about self-perceived health and quality of life, social support, mental health, mobility, physical activity, neighborhood characteristics, and housing; (b) pre-post environmental measurements, mainly of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter of less than 10 µm (PM10), and particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and black carbon; (c) pre-post environmental walkability measures using the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) tool; (d) use of public space and physical activity levels using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), a validated observation tool; (e) pre-post traffic injury measures with a comparison group; and (f) the comparison and integration of pre-post assessment with previous HIAs and the improvement of future HIAs. Qualitative studies will be performed to analyze residents' perception of these effects by using: (a) various focus groups according to different participant characteristics who are more or less likely to use the superblocks; and (b) a guerrilla ethnography, which is a method that combines ethnographic observation and semi-structured interviews. This study, which evaluates the impact of an ambitious urban-renewal program on health, will help to assess the effectiveness of public policy in terms of health and health inequalities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Planejamento Ambiental , Qualidade de Vida , Cidades , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 345, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "Employment in the neighbourhoods" program is an innovative, tailor-made Active Labour Market Program that has been implemented in 12 neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain). Its goal is to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the program on participants' quality of life, and identify the mechanisms underlying these effects, according to their own perception and the perception of technical staff who assisted them. METHODS: We used Concept Mapping, a mixed methods approach combining qualitative and quantitative analysis, to develop a conceptual map of the participants' and technical staffs' perceptions about changes in the participants' quality of life. Data collection occurred within the generation and structuring steps where participants brainstormed answers to a focus question, and then rated and sorted the responses. To create maps, we used Concept Systems Incorporated software, which conducted two main forms of analysis, a multidimensional scaling analysis, and a hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: Study participants reported several positive effects on mental health and emotional wellbeing, including self-esteem and empowerment, and considered that this was achieved through strengthened social networks, skills acquisition, emotional coaching, and personalized technical assistance. They also described some negative impacts, mainly related to the labour market situation. We observed marked gender differences in the discourses of program participants. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained have allowed us to identify different perceived effects and mechanisms by which the "Employment in the Neighbourhoods" Active Labour Market Programme can influence quality of life of participants from the most deprived areas of Barcelona.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Características de Residência , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
6.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 93(6): 733-745, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to estimate the association between working hour mismatches and mental well-being. We also investigate the confounding and moderating role of job quality in this association. METHODS: We use cross-sectional data from the European Working Conditions Survey of 2015 in the analysis. The sample includes 9345 male and 10,998 female employees in 28 countries. We run a multilevel linear regression accounting for the clustering of countries with mental well-being assessed by the World Health Organization Index. We compute mismatches in working hours as the difference between desired and actual hours of work, categorized as underemployed, unconstrained, and overemployed. The main dependent variable is the combination of these mismatches for each of the following working schedules: ≤ 20; 21-34; 35-40; 41-47; and ≥ 48 h/week (h/w). RESULTS: The adverse association of short and long hours with well-being is mostly attributable to mismatches in working hours (except for men in the 41-47 h/w group). Once we adjust for job quality, overemployed men ≥ 48 h/w experience a reduction in mental well-being of - 5.2 (95 CI % - 7.04 to - 3.76) with respect to the unconstrained base category 35-40 h/w. Overemployed women experience a reduction in mental well-being ranging from - 4.94 (95 CI % - 6.54 to - 3.34) in the ≥ 48 h/w schedule to - 11.11 (95 CI % - 17.35 to - 4.87) in the ≤ 20 h/w schedule. We observe a confounding role of job quality across most working hour schedules, but the interaction effects are modest. CONCLUSION: Employee control over working hours is associated with mental well-being with differences by gender. Labour policies aimed at promoting flexibility on the employee side could be favoured to improve workers' mental well-being.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Adulto , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in small areas due to several specific causes before (2001-2004, 2005-2008) and during (2009-2012) the economic crisis in seven Spanish cities. METHODS: This ecological study of trends, with census tracts as the areas of analysis, was based on three periods. Several causes of death were studied. A socioeconomic deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. For each small area, we estimated standardized mortality ratios, and controlled for their variability using Bayesian models (sSMR). We also estimated the relative risk of mortality according to deprivation in the different cities, periods, and sexes. RESULTS: In general, a similar geographical pattern was found for the socioeconomic deprivation index and sSMR. For men, there was an association in all cities between the deprivation index and all-cause mortality that remained stable over the three periods. For women, there was an association in Barcelona, Granada, and Sevilla between the deprivation index and all-cause mortality in the third period. Patterns by causes of death were more heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS: After the start of the financial crisis, socioeconomic inequalities in total mortality in small areas of Spanish cities remained stable in most cities, although several causes of death showed a different pattern.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Causas de Morte , Cidades , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
8.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(1): 36-42, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the last Western great recession of 2008, an increasing interest on the effects of Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) on improving health has emerged. The aim of our review is to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of ALMPs and whether some types of ALMP are more effective. METHODS: Using the Scoping review methodology, we conducted a literature review in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science and selected articles published between 1990 and 2017 in high income countries. We applied four sequential phases of document screening to the list of retrieved articles. RESULTS: Of the 416 documents detected in the search, 36 documents were finally selected. Most of them focused on mental health and related components (72.2%) and found positive results at least in one outcome (80.6%). The ALMPs reported mainly attempt to build capacity through job search assistance (31.6%) with a component on mental health, showing positive results on health; some offer job training (16.7%) and few subsidized employment (8.3%), showing more controversial results, although mostly positive. The rest include a combination of different types of ALMPs. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that ALMPs have a positive impact on health and quality of life. There are relatively few studies of the impact of ALMPs on general health, and most of the studies found are focused on Anglo-Saxon and Nordic countries. The most significant knowledge gaps are the mechanisms involved in achieving this improvement, and above all the differential health impacts according to axes of inequality and welfare state.


Assuntos
Emprego , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Políticas , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
9.
Environ Int ; 134: 105132, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Car-dependent city planning has resulted in high levels of environmental pollution, sedentary lifestyles and increased vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The Barcelona Superblock model is an innovative urban and transport planning strategy that aims to reclaim public space for people, reduce motorized transport, promote sustainable mobility and active lifestyles, provide urban greening and mitigate effects of climate change. We estimated the health impacts of implementing this urban model across Barcelona. METHODS: We carried out a quantitative health impact assessment (HIA) study for Barcelona residents ≥20 years (N = 1,301,827) on the projected Superblock area level (N = 503), following the comparative risk assessment methodology. We 1) estimated expected changes in (a) transport-related physical activity (PA), (b) air pollution (NO2), (c) road traffic noise, (d) green space, and (e) reduction of the urban heat island (UHI) effect through heat reductions; 2) scaled available risk estimates; and 3) calculated attributable health impact fractions. Estimated endpoints were preventable premature mortality, changes in life expectancy and economic impacts. RESULTS: We estimated that 667 premature deaths (95% CI: 235-1,098) could be prevented annually through implementing the 503 Superblocks. The greatest number of preventable deaths could be attributed to reductions in NO2 (291, 95% PI: 0-838), followed by noise (163, 95% CI: 83-246), heat (117, 95% CI: 101-137), and green space development (60, 95% CI: 0-119). Increased PA for an estimated 65,000 persons shifting car/motorcycle trips to public and active transport resulted in 36 preventable deaths (95% CI: 26-50). The Superblocks were estimated to result in an average increase in life expectancy for the Barcelona adult population of almost 200 days (95% CI: 99-297), and result in an annual economic impact of 1.7 billion EUR (95% CI: 0.6-2.8). DISCUSSION: The Barcelona Superblocks were estimated to help reduce harmful environmental exposures (i.e. air pollution, noise, and heat) while simultaneously increase PA levels and access to green space, and thereby provide substantial health benefits. For an equitable distribution of health benefits, the Superblocks should be implemented consistently across the entire city. Similar health benefits are expected for other cities that face similar challenges of environmental pollution, climate change vulnerability and low PA levels, by adopting the Barcelona Superblock model.


Assuntos
Saúde da População Urbana , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Temperatura Alta
10.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(4): e532-e540, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in self-perceived health status and mental health among participants in an active labour market policy (ALMP) of Barcelona, and to assess whether the results differed according to the participants' social characteristics and their program trajectories. METHODS: A pre-post intervention study was designed, including unemployed people participating in a return-to-work ALMP in 13 deprived neighborhoods of Barcelona; using one survey upon entering the program (pre), and another 1 year later (post). We assessed the prevalence of poor self-perceived health status and poor mental health (Goldberg-12 questionnaire) in both periods of time. We fit five Poisson regression models using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to measure changes in self-perceived health and mental health between pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: About 696 individuals (48% women) participated in the study, mainly manual workers. In both sexes, mental health improved (prevalence ratio [PR]-comparing post- and pre-periods for women: 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.61 and men: PR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.32-0.53), whereas self-perceived health status remained stable or worsened. Men who remained unemployed reported poorer self-perceived health status, while no such association was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a mental health improvement among male and female participants.


Assuntos
Emprego , Saúde Mental , Desemprego , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 229-234, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183741

RESUMO

Objective: To determine if the onset of the economic crisis in Spain affected cancer mortality and mortality trends. Method: We conducted a longitudinal ecological study based on all cancer-related deaths and on specific types of cancer (lung, colon, breast and prostate) in Spain between 2000 and 2013. We computed age-standardised mortality rates in men and women, and fit mixed Poisson models to analyse the effect of the crisis on cancer mortality and trends therein. Results: After the onset of the economic crisis, cancer mortality continued to decline, but with a significant slowing of the yearly rate of decline (men: RR = 0.987, 95%CI = 0.985-0.990, before the crisis, and RR = 0.993, 95%CI = 0.991-0.996, afterwards; women: RR = 0.990, 95%CI = 0.988-0.993, before, and RR = 1.002, 95%CI = 0.998-1.006, afterwards). In men, lung cancer mortality was reduced, continuing the trend observed in the pre-crisis period; the trend in colon cancer mortality did not change significantly and continued to increase; and the yearly decline in prostate cancer mortality slowed significantly. In women, lung cancer mortality continued to increase each year, as before the crisis; colon cancer continued to decease; and the previous yearly downward trend in breast cancer mortality slowed down following the onset of the crisis. Conclusions: Since the onset of the economic crisis in Spain the rate of decline in cancer mortality has slowed significantly, and this situation could be exacerbated by the current austerity measures in healthcare


Objetivo: Determinar si el inicio de la crisis económica en España afectó a la mortalidad por cáncer y sus tendencias. Método: Estudio ecológico longitudinal que analiza todas las muertes por cáncer y por tipos específicos de cáncer (pulmón, colon, mama y próstata) en España entre 2000 y 2013. Se estimaron las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad en hombres y mujeres, y se ajustaron modelos mixtos de Poisson para analizar el efecto de la crisis sobre la mortalidad por cáncer y sus tendencias. Resultados: Después del inicio de la crisis económica, la mortalidad por cáncer continuó su tendencia a la baja, pero con una disminución significativa del decrecimiento anual (hombres: riesgo relativo [RR] = 0,987, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] = 0,985-0,990, antes de la crisis, y RR = 0,993, IC95% = 0,991-0,996 después; mujeres: RR = 0,990, IC95% = 0,988-0,993, antes, y RR = 1,002, IC95% = 0,998-1,006 después). En los hombres, la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón se redujo, continuando la tendencia observada en el periodo anterior a la crisis; la tendencia en la mortalidad por cáncer de colon no cambió significativamente y siguió aumentando; y la disminución anual de la mortalidad por cáncer de próstata se desaceleró significativamente. En las mujeres, la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón continuó aumentando cada año, como antes de la crisis; el cáncer de colon continuó disminuyendo; y la tendencia a la disminución de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama se desaceleró después del inicio de la crisis. Conclusiones: Desde el inicio de la crisis económica en España, la disminución de la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer se ha desacelerado significativamente y esta situación podría verse exacerbada por las actuales medidas de austeridad en el sistema sanitario


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Alocação de Recursos/tendências , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Redução de Custos/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Longitudinais
14.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(7): 1047-1059, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123807

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This paper analyses the effects of temporary employment on work stress and mental health before (2006/2007) and during the economic recession (2011/2012), and examines whether the economic recession worsened these two health outcomes. METHODS: To control for selection bias, propensity scores (PS) are computed separately for salaried men and women using microdata from two cross-sectional health surveys in Spain, considering temporary (treatment group) versus permanent employment (control group). Next, we use difference-in-difference estimators stratifying by age, education level, and regional unemployment differences using PS as weights. RESULTS: Our results indicate that salaried worker with a temporary labour contract tends to have similar levels of high work stress and poorer mental health (only for men) than permanent ones for both periods. The economic recession does not appear to worsen both outcomes. However, when stratifying the sample, the economic recession is responsible for increasing stress among older temporary workers and male university graduates, without affecting women. Regarding mental health, we only find evidence of a negative impact of the economic recession on male temporary workers with university education. CONCLUSION: The economic recession has not affected poor mental health, but it has accentuated the adverse effects of work stress among some specific subgroups of male workers. These subgroups require specific preventive and support actions as the Spanish firms have not substantially changed their hiring practices after the recession.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Arch Public Health ; 77: 12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918659

RESUMO

Background: Prior studies have identified a decrease in ischaemic heart disease mortality during the recent economic recession. The Spanish population was severely affected by the Great Recession, however, there is little evidence on its effects on socioeconomic inequalities in ischaemic heart disease mortality. This study examines trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: We used linked census records with mortality registers available from the Basque Country and Barcelona city for population above 25 years, between 2001 and 04, the accelerated economic growth period of 2005-08, and 2009-12, with the last period coinciding with the Great Recession. Applying Poisson models, we calculated relative and absolute indexes of inequalities by education level for each period, age group, gender, and site. Results: We found moderate age-adjusted inequalities in IHD with a gradient of increasing rates through less educational level, but no significant evidence of increasing trends in socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality, rather an inverted U-shape time trend in some groups below 75 years in relative inequalities. Absolute inequalities decrease in the last period except for women from 50 to 64 years. Conclusions: This study shows that the economic crisis has not increased socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in two geographical settings in Spain.

17.
Environ Int ; 126: 162-170, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798197

RESUMO

Satellite data is increasingly used to characterize green space for health outcome studies. Literature suggests that green space within 500 m of home is often used to represent neighborhood suitable for walking, air pollution and noise reduction, and natural healing. In this paper, we used satellite data of different spatial resolutions to derive normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), an indicator of surface greenness, at buffer distances of 50, 100, 250 and 500 m. Data included those of 2 m spatial resolution from WorldView2, 5 m resolution from RapidEye and 30 m resolution from Landsat. We found that, after radiometric calibrations, the RapidEye and WorldView2 sensors had similar NDVI values, while Landsat imagery tended to have greater NDVI; however, these sensors showed similar vegetation distribution: locations high in vegetation cover being high in NDVI, and vice versa. We linked the green space estimates to a health survey, and identified that higher NDVI values were significantly associated with better health outcomes. We further investigated the impacts of buffer size and sensor spatial resolution on identified associations between NDVI and health outcomes. Overall, the identified health outcomes were similar across sensors of different spatial resolutions, but a mean trend was identified in bigger buffer size being associated with greater health outcome.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gac Sanit ; 33(3): 229-234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the onset of the economic crisis in Spain affected cancer mortality and mortality trends. METHOD: We conducted a longitudinal ecological study based on all cancer-related deaths and on specific types of cancer (lung, colon, breast and prostate) in Spain between 2000 and 2013. We computed age-standardised mortality rates in men and women, and fit mixed Poisson models to analyse the effect of the crisis on cancer mortality and trends therein. RESULTS: After the onset of the economic crisis, cancer mortality continued to decline, but with a significant slowing of the yearly rate of decline (men: RR = 0.987, 95%CI = 0.985-0.990, before the crisis, and RR = 0.993, 95%CI = 0.991-0.996, afterwards; women: RR = 0.990, 95%CI = 0.988-0.993, before, and RR = 1.002, 95%CI = 0.998-1.006, afterwards). In men, lung cancer mortality was reduced, continuing the trend observed in the pre-crisis period; the trend in colon cancer mortality did not change significantly and continued to increase; and the yearly decline in prostate cancer mortality slowed significantly. In women, lung cancer mortality continued to increase each year, as before the crisis; colon cancer continued to decease; and the previous yearly downward trend in breast cancer mortality slowed down following the onset of the crisis. CONCLUSIONS: Since the onset of the economic crisis in Spain the rate of decline in cancer mortality has slowed significantly, and this situation could be exacerbated by the current austerity measures in healthcare.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 65, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386597

RESUMO

Background: Unemployment affects the physical and mental health of affected individuals, which can be explained by its direct effect on worsening finances due to the lack of income as well as by its negative psychosocial effects. "Employment in the Neighborhoods" return to work program was implemented in Barcelona specifically in the neighborhoods characterized with a greater economic deprivation and by high unemployment to improve personal and occupational abilities and skills of the participants to reintegrate them into the workforce. The aim of this study is to determine the association between the lack of economic resources and psychosocial factors with respect to mental health and self-rated health in unemployed persons participating in the program "Employment in the Neighborhoods". Methods: Cross-sectional study. Data collected from a self-administered questionnaire. Generalized linear models were constructed, adjusted by age and social class, to estimate prevalence ratios and analyze any possible association between economic resources, psychosocial factors and poor self-rated health and mental health. Results: Nine hundred forty-eight persons of 2763 participants in the "Employment in the Neighborhoods" program completed the questionnaire. 46.9% were women. 72.5% of women and 61.9% of men were at risk of poor mental health and 25.5% of women and 21.1% of men reported poor self-rated health. Low self-esteem [women: PR 1.88 95%CI (1.24-2.84); men: PR 2.51 95%CI (1.57-4.02)] and medium social support [2.01 (1.30-3.09)], in men, and low social support [1.74 (1.13-2.68)] in women are associated with worsening of self-rated health. In men, low self-esteem [1.40 (1.19-1.64)] and delay in paying bills [1.38 (1.17-1.64)] were associated with the risk of poor mental health; in women were associated low self-esteem [1.27 (1.11-1.44)] and received a non-contributory allowance [1.37 (1.09-1.74)]. Conclusions: Economic resources, self-esteem and social support are necessary for good general and mental health among unemployed persons. The high prevalence of poor mental health among persons participating in the active labor market program "Employment in the Neighborhoods" could be due to a substantial deficit in these factors.

20.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 325-327, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444220

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in small-for-gestational age covering the period before and after the Spanish economic crisis, taking into account mother's age, nationality and the autonomous community where she resides. We performed a trend study including children born to fertile women in Spain between 2002 and 2013. Poisson mixed models showed that the prevalence of small-for-gestational age increased following the onset of the crisis, and that a previous downward trend was interrupted.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
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