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2.
West Indian Med J ; 62(4): 337-40, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24756595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The twin epidemics of HIV and homelessness present several challenging aspects to the development of programmes for the provision of treatment and care. This paper describes the characteristics of this population being managed by a collaborative effort between the Centre for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Services, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of the West Indies and the National Council on Drug Abuse. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted via review of patients'medical files. Demographic and clinical data of the HIV-infected homeless population were summarized, highlighting issues related to the provision of care, rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake and subsequent adherence to treatment and known factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: A total of 12 cases were included in the analysis. There was an average age of 38.0 years (IQR 32.5-49.25) with the majority being female, nine (75.0%). Late stage diagnosis was a common feature. The majority of cases were eligible for ART on first contact, with CD4 counts on average being 284.4 (95% CI 10.9.0, 459.8). Significant risk factors for HIV transmission were also identified as all cases reported being sexual active with limited condom use reported and high reported numbers of lifetime partners, 30 (IQR 25.0-100.0). Other factors identified include eight (66.6%) cases reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms, 10 (83.3%) reporting substance abuse and nine (75.0%) reporting sex work. CONCLUSION: The implementation of combination interventions providing a comprehensive package of services that address the multitude of issues facing the HIV-infected homeless population is required in order to appropriately manage this population.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia
4.
West Indian Med J ; 62(5): 389-96, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24756649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the creation and validation of the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI) screening questionnaire. METHOD: Using the phenomenological triad of power management, dependency and psychosexual issues, drafts of the JPDI were piloted on patients from psychiatric and medical wards. The JPDI consisted of 38 close-ended, yes/no questions. Validation was conducted in a sample of 200 patients, using the International Personality Disorder Examination-Screening Instrument (IPDE-S), the Brief Screen for Depression and consultant psychiatrists' Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) personality disorder interview. Construct validity was assessed through principal component factor analysis; Spearman correlation was used to assess criterion-related and discriminant validity; Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability of the entire scale as well as the resulting factors. The Multitrait Multimethod Matrix (MTMM) was used to assess discriminant and construct validity. RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed eight clusters consisting of 30 of the 38 questions, which had close congruence with the clinical triad. Cronbach's alpha for the entire scale was α = 0.79, ranging from a high 0.70 to 0.82 to low 0.63 to 0.45. The JPDI exhibited a sensitivity of 95.06% and a specificity of 67.71%. Significant correlation of scores for the JPDI and IPDE-S (r = 0.432, p = 0.000) and the JPDI and the DSM IV-TR diagnosis (r = 0.598, p = 0.000) established concurrent validity for the JPDI. Correlations (r = 0.293, p = 0.000) suggested that the JPDI possessed predictive validity. The complete sample matrix of the MTMM provided evidence of both convergent and discriminant validity, and thereby, construct validity. CONCLUSION: The JPDI demonstrated reliability, and criterion-related and discriminant validity.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria
5.
West Indian Med J ; 62(5): 463-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24756662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of personality disorders in patients admitted to the general medical wards of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). METHOD: Patients (n = 100) sequentially admitted to the general medical wards of the UHWI were assessed for the diagnosis of personality disorder using the gold standard of a consultant assessment based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for personality disorder, the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening questionnaire (IPDE-S) and the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI). RESULTS: The three assessment instruments identified a prevalence of personality disorder in the cohort of patients of 21% consultant DSM IV-TR assessment, 28% JPDI and 70% IPDE-S. The prevalence rate identified by the IPDE-S was significantly higher than the local instruments used (p < 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of personality disorder assessed by the JPDI and the IPDE-S and the consultant DSM IV-TR instruments in Jamaica is significantly higher than the prevalence rate of studies in other countries.


Assuntos
Hospitais Universitários , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
7.
West Indian Med J ; 62(9): 825-30, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25117388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual performance and gratification impact quality of life. Although recognized in the literature as a problem, sexual dysfunction among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has never been studied in Jamaica. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was determined among 268 adult Jamaican patients (166 males, 102 females) with ESRD who had been on haemodialysis for at least three months. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was determined using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 classifications of sexual disorders. Prevalence, severity of sexual dysfunctions and relationships with the primary aetiology of ESRD and anaemia were assessed. RESULTS: Erectile dysfunction, desire and orgasmic disorderS were found in 91.4%, 88.3%, and 81.6% of male subjects, respectively. The majority of male patients were dissatisfied with their performance at intercourse after progressing to ESRD. Hypoactive sexual disorder, sexual arousal and orgasmic disorders, and aversion sexual disorder were prevalent, found in 96%, 88.1% and 87.1% of female patients. All diabetic patients with ESRD reported hypoactive sexual disorder and orgasmic dysfunction; arousal disorder was found in 94.7%. Aversion sexual disorder was found more among patients with underlying chronic glomerulonephritis. All patients with severe anaemia were found to have hypoactive sexual disorder and among these, 87.5% and 97.8% had severe arousal and orgasmic disorders, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction among patients with ESRD in Jamaica was prevalent in males and females. Associations exist between sexual dysfunction and diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis and anaemia.

10.
West Indian Med J ; 61(4): 429-36, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23240481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological transition has seen a trend from communicable to non-communicable diseases in developing countries. At the pinnacle of these chronic diseases is hypertension, pre-hypertension, diabetes and obesity. This leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, environmental and behavioural changes such as lifestyle habits represent modifiable risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The Caribbean is not immune to this trend. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted between June and September 2009 and involved individuals 15-74 years of age. Age-gender was weighted to get as close a representative sample of the general population living in the British Virgin Islands (BVI) for more than two years to a total of 301 (n = 301, M: 144, F: 157; CI 95% +/- error 5%). The study was carried out using a handout questionnaire that included variables on age, gender socio-economic status (SES), income level, cigarette smoking, physical activity, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol. RESULTS: This study shows a prevalence of hypertension of 16.6%, pre-hypertension--29.9%, diabetes mellitus--10.0% [M: 5.6%, F: 14%, p < 0.01], impaired fasting glucose (IFG)--16.9% [M: 13.9%, F: 19.7%, p < 0.01], overweight--25.6% (M: 19.4%, F: 31.2%, p < 0.001), obesity (body mass index > 30)--23.6% (M: 17.4%, F: 29.3%, p < 0.001) [all significantly higher in women], smoking habits--16.6% and alcohol--51.2% [significantly higher in men: 22.5% and 56.7%, respectively]. Of the respondents, 43.2% had a low/inactive physical activity level. Clustering of greater than one risk factor was more pronounced for women than for men 29.6% (M: 27.1%, F: 31.8%, p < 0.05). Sedentary lifestyle (low/inactive physical activity) and obesity were the only risk factors that had a positive correlation with all four chronic diseases (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The above results indicate that a national strategy needs to be implemented to control cardiovascular diseases, educate the population and promote healthy lifestyle habits with particular attention to low physical inactivity and obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
West Indian Med J ; 61(3): 249-53, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23155982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by multisystem microvascular inflammation with the generation of autoantibodies. There are reports on demographic data and clinical manifestation of lupus in the United States of America and some other developed countries. There is a single study that has reported on the clinical and immunological features of SLE patients in Jamaica and another that reported that the prevalence of SLE in Jamaica was 5-17/100,000 in 1979. METHOD: A Jamaican lupus registry was established in 2008 at the Department of Medicine, The University of the West Indies. Data were collected using patient records and interview of patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology revised diagnostic criteria for SLE. Information on demographics, presence of diagnostic criteria for SLE, presence of complications and other clinical parameters were collected. RESULTS: There were a total of 107 patients that met the criteria for diagnosis of SLE at the referral centre, 96.3% of them female. Positive ANA (90.7%), arthritis (70.0%), malar rash (53.5%) and a positive dsDNA (40.1%) were the more frequent manifestations and diagnostic indices of the disease. Up to 41.7% of the SLE population suffered some form of complication. CONCLUSIONS: The initiation of a lupus registry has allowed for reporting ofpreliminary demographic, clinical and serological data and identifying of disease burden.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Prevalência
12.
West Indian Med J ; 61(3): 284-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23155988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status in patients on chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica using the Subjective Global Assessment tool and to correlate this with measured serum nutritional biomarkers, and also to identify nutritional biomarkers that can be used to assess nutritional status of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SUBJECT AND METHODS: Two hundred and nine consecutive patients on haemodialysis were selected from dialysis centres in Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, St. Catherine and Manchester Jamaica. The nutritional status of each participant was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment tool in an interview performed by the researcher. Serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, highly sensitive complement reactive protein (hsCRP) and total fasting cholesterol were determined from a single serum sample. Only patients with ESRD were selected. Patients with acute renal failure or those with ESRD who were admitted in the previous two weeks were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained prior to interview and obtaining blood samples. RESULTS: Of the total participants, 54.5% (n=114) were male and 45.5% (n=95) female. The mean age for males was 51.9 years and females 47.6 years. Diabetes was documented as the most common cause of chronic renal disease and was found in 29.7%, hypertension in 24.4% and chronic glomerulonephritis in 22% of the participants. Approximately 80% of the study population had moderate malnutrition. There was a significant association between moderate malnutrition and a diagnosis of ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, p = 0.03. Being on haemodialysis for < or = six months was significantly associated with moderate malnutrition p = 0.002. Also associated with moderate malnutrition were presence of an arteriovenous (AV) fistula (p = 0.01), serum albumin of < 40 g/L (OR 3.68, p = 0.001), pre-dialysis creatinine of <880 micromol/L (p = 0.02) and cholesterol < 3.9 mmol/L (p = 0.04). Highly sensitive complement reactive protein levels of >10 mg/L was associated with moderate malnutrition, though statistical significance was not met (p = 0.39). CONCLUSION: Factors associated with malnutrition in patients on dialysis were having ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, dialysis duration for < or = six months, low serum albumin, pre-dialysis serum creatinine of 880 micromol/L, low total cholesterol and presence of AV fistula access.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
14.
West Indian Med J ; 61(8): 795-801, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23757900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of oestrogen receptor (ER) positivity, and determine the relationship of ER status with patient and tumour characteristics, in patients with breast cancer SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted regarding the prevalence and clinical significance of ER in patients with breast cancer at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Oestrogen receptor status results of 243 patients treated at UHWI were collected for the period January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. One hundred and ninety-nine were available for review. RESULTS: Oestrogen receptor status was positive in 125 (63%) and negative in 74 (37%) patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 52.6 +/- 13.0 years for the ER positive group and 58.5 +/- 14.23 years for the ER negative group. Postmenopausal women accounted for 55.2% and 64.9% of the ER positive and negative groups, respectively. Mean BMI was 28.0 kg/m2 and 29.6 kg/m2 for the ER positive and negative groups, respectively. Menarche occurred mainly between ages 12 and 13 years for both groups. Mean age at 1st parity was 23.4 years for the ER positive and 21.4 years for the ER negative group with median parity of two for both groups. The most prevalent risk factors were oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (24.3% for the ER positive group, 17.1% for the ER negative group), family history of breast cancer (12.0%; 13.4%) and previous smoking (8.4%; 6.9%). Tumour node metastasis (TNM) stage was Stage II in most cases (46%; 49%). Infiltrating ductal histology was most common (81.5%; 87.7%). Her 2/ neu status was negative for most patients (91.3%; 91.5%). Most patients were disease free (77.6%; 70.0%) after an average follow-up period of 3.5 years. More persons in the ER negative group had locoregional recurrence (8%) and metastases (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Oestrogen receptor positive cohort was more prevalent. The ER negative group was older (p = 0.003).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/secundário , Criança , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paridade , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
15.
West Indian Med J ; 61(9): 907-11, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24020232

RESUMO

Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is a challenge. Elevated blood pressure (> 140/80 mmHg) in the elderly (60+ years) can be either systolic, diastolic or combination of both. Arterial stiffness, intimal hyperplasia and non-compliance of the vascular tree have been underlying factors. Prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age and varies with the population under study; therefore screening this population should not only be limited to those at risk. Presentation is often due to complications such as stroke, cardiovascular events, and erectile dysfunction or due to presentation of an unrelated disorder The presence of co-morbidity, drug interaction and their side effects should be considered in the management of hypertension in the elderly. With the advent of several classes of antihypertensives, there is no shortage of drug options for treatment of hypertension in the elderly, but a careful and individualized approach is needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Interações Medicamentosas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Jamaica , Programas de Rastreamento
17.
West Indian Med J ; 60(4): 464-70, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22097679

RESUMO

Globally, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are major causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Reports from the Caribbean renal registry have also identified diabetes mellitus and hypertension as the leading causes of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure. Chronic non-communicable diseases including chronic kidney disease continue to be a major financial challenge in the Caribbean. Patients with chronic kidney disease have high rates of healthcare utilization, morbidity and mortality, and hence constitute a significant economic and clinical burden to the healthcare system. Emphasis should be placed on ways to reduce the incidence of kidney disease and the progression to dialysis. The most economically feasible form of renal replacement therapy that offers the best quality of life should be sought.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração
18.
West Indian Med J ; 60(3): 357-9, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22224355

RESUMO

A 56-year old female reported having had a fall two weeks prior to presentation. Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed an acute right-sided convexity subdural haematoma. A computed tomography angiogram revealed no vascular anomaly. One hour post procedure she had bilateral cortical blindness. Her vision subsequently was fully restored. A diagnosis of transient cortical blindness was made. Transient cortical blindness is a rare but recognized complication ofintra-arterial injection of iodinated contrast agents.


Assuntos
Angiografia/efeitos adversos , Cegueira Cortical/induzido quimicamente , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Iohexol/análogos & derivados , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Iohexol/administração & dosagem , Iohexol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
West Indian Med J ; 59(4): 369-73, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21355510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of depression among persons attending a HIV/AIDS clinic in Kingston, Jamaica, and to explore the possible role of patient-specific clinical and social issues as intermediary factors in the relationship between HIV/AIDS and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Over a three-month period, all eligible and consenting patients from a HIV/ AIDS clinic in Kingston, Jamaica, were invited to participate in the study. They were interviewed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), an instrument validated for the detection of depression in primary care settings. Clinical and socio-demographic data were retrieved for all participating patients from a pre-existing clinic database. Depression prevalence rates were calculated and the association between depression and age, gender, antiretroviral treatment, CD4 count, living arrangement, marital status and major stressors explored. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients participated in the study and 43% (n = 36) of them were depressed. No significant differences in depression rates were found with respect to any of the sociodemographic or clinicalfactors explored (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The relatively high prevalence of depression among attendees at the HIV/AIDS clinic underscores the need for depression screening in these patients.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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