Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 164
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144226, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360548

RESUMO

Improving access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in schools is important to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3 and 6. Inadequate WaSH and MHM in schools adversely affect student health and educational performance, as well as teacher satisfaction. However, there is little evidence describing factors associated with WaSH services and MHM in schools. We conducted 2690 surveys and collected 1946 water samples at randomly selected schools in rural areas of 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We developed multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models to identify factors associated with basic water services, water quality, basic sanitation facilities, basic handwashing facilities, and availability of MHM materials. We found that 51% of schools had at least a basic, on-premises water service. Twenty-eight percent of schools had at least basic sanitation services, 12% had at least a basic handwashing facility, and 26% had MHM materials available. Four percent of schools had all basic WaSH services. Half (52%) of schools had drinking water compliant with the WHO guideline value for E. coli. In regression models, we found that schools that did not share their water point with a community, had a parent-teacher association that supported WaSH, or had support from an external WaSH program were more likely to have access to basic, continuous, on-premises water service versus worse access. Schools with an on-premises water point, water available on the day of survey, a health club, or handwashing stations near toilets were more likely to have a basic sanitation service versus a lower service. Schools with limited or basic sanitation, health clubs, an MHM curriculum, a designated MHM focal person, or school funds for WaSH were more likely to have MHM materials. We conclude that improved institutional management and external support, accountability mechanisms, and enhanced training and hygiene curriculum will support sustained WaSH service delivery in schools in LMICs.

2.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113682, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360500

RESUMO

We conducted cost effectiveness analyses of four different CLTS interventions implemented in Ethiopia and Ghana. In each country, a pilot approach in which additional local actors were trained in CLTS facilitation was compared to the conventional approach. Data were collected using bottom-up costing, household surveys, and observations. We assessed variability of cost effectiveness from a societal perspective for latrine ownership and latrine use outcomes in different contexts. Cost effectiveness ranged from $34-$1897 per household ($5.85-$563 per person) gaining access to a private latrine or stopping open defecation, depending on the intervention, context, and outcome considered. For three out of four interventions, CLTS appeared more cost effective at reducing open defecation than at increasing latrine ownership, although sensitivity analysis revealed considerable variation. The pilot approaches were more cost effective at reducing open defecation than conventional approaches in Ethiopia, but not in Ghana. CLTS has been promoted as a low-cost means of improving the ownership and use of sanitation facilities. In our study, the cost of CLTS per household gaining latrine access was slightly higher than in other studies, and the cost of CLTS per household stopping OD was slightly lower than in other studies. Our results show that aggregate measures mask considerable variability in costs and outcomes, and thus the importance of considering and reporting context and uncertainty in economic analysis of sanitation interventions.

3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113681, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360501

RESUMO

Adequate environmental conditions, comprising sufficient environmental hygiene items (e.g. gloves, soap, and disinfectant), adequate infrastructure (e.g. sanitation facilities, water supply), a clean environment, and hygienic behaviors in healthcare facilities (HCFs) are necessary for safe care in maternity wards. Few data are available describing environmental conditions in maternity wards in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We collected data on these conditions from 1547 HCFs with maternity wards in 14 countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). We described patterns and availability of essential environmental conditions, and a regression model was developed to explore predictive factors. 73% of HCFs offering maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services did not meet the guidelines for the World Health Organization 'six cleans' (clean perineum, clean bed surface, clean hands, clean blade, clean cord tie, and clean towels to wrap the baby and mother). The items with the lowest availability were clean towels (40%). In a multivariable logistic regression model, HCFs that provided maternity services were more likely to have all 'six cleans' available if they: had at least an improved water source; had an infection prevention and control (IPC) protocol; had a budget considered sufficient that included funding for water, sanitation, hygiene, and IPC; and emphasized the importance of IPC within the nearby community. Our results demonstrate substantial differences between countries in the availability of environmental hygiene items, facility cleanliness, and quality of environmental health infrastructure in HCF maternity wards. There are several low-cost, high-impact, context-relevant opportunities to enhance essential environmental conditions that would improve the quality of neonatal and maternal care in maternity wards in HCFs in LMICs.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143136, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153751

RESUMO

In 2019, 30,000 people were forced to leave their homes due to conflict, persecution, and natural disaster each day. Eighty-five percent of refugees live in developing countries, and they often face underfunded and inadequate environmental health services. Many displaced persons live in camps and other temporary settlements long after the displacement event occurs. However, there is little evidence on environmental health conditions in the transitional phase-defined by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as six months to two years after displacement. To address this gap in research, we conducted a systematic scoping review of environmental health conditions, exposures, and outcomes in transitional displacement settings, as well as reported obstacles and recommendations for improvement. Eighty-eight publications met the inclusion criteria. Water supply was the most frequently discussed environmental health topic. Overcrowding was the most common risk factor reported, Vibrio cholerae was the most common pathogen reported, and diarrhea was the most commonly reported health outcome. Obstacles and recommendations were categorized as institutional, political or implementation-based. Identified knowledge gaps included minimal information on setting logistics and on topics such as menstrual hygiene, oral hygiene and fomite contamination. In order to improve environmental health conditions in transitional displacement settings, all levels of government and non-governmental organizations should increase collaboration to improve resource provision. This study is the first to report on environmental health conditions in this important time of transition between the emergency and protracted stages of displacement.

5.
Dev Policy Rev ; 38(1): 64-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041525

RESUMO

Motivation: Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) is a global partnership addressing challenges to universal water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) access. Shortly following adoption of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, the Research and Learning (R&L) constituency of SWA undertook a systematic study to determine global research priorities and learning needs. Purpose: We aimed to identify priority topics where improved knowledge would aid achievement of Goal 6, by developing a global WaSH research agenda, and to describe evidence-use challenges among WaSH professionals. Approach and Methods: We delivered a tailored, semi-structured electronic questionnaire to representatives from countries, R&L institutions, and other SWA partners (external support agencies, civil society, and private sector). The survey gathered views from 76 respondents working in an estimated 36 countries across all world regions. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively to identify patterns and themes. Findings: Most responses indicated lowered confidence on at least one Goal 6 target area, especially managing untreated wastewater and faecal sludge. Both brief and lengthy information formats were valued. WaSH information was perceived as conflicting or unreliable among non-R&L constituencies, suggesting differences in perceptions and information-seeking approaches. While the R&L constituency appeared saturated with learning and training opportunities, others perceived barriers to participating (e.g. not receiving notice or invitation). Research and other WaSH activities were frequently constrained by upward accountability to funders, while stakeholders were inconsistently included in research processes. Policy implications: This study offers insight into perceived research and decision challenges related to Goal 6 targets. It develops a unified research agenda focused on high priority topics, and recommends renewed attention to evidence synthesis, learning and implementation support, research engagement, and multisectoral coordination.

6.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 613-630, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095188

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic placed hygiene at the centre of disease prevention. Yet, access to the levels of water supply that support good hand hygiene and institutional cleaning, our understanding of hygiene behaviours, and access to soap are deficient in low-, middle- and high-income countries. This paper reviews the role of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) in disease emergence, previous outbreaks, combatting COVID-19 and in preparing for future pandemics. We consider settings where these factors are particularly important and identify key preventive contributions to disease control and gaps in the evidence base. Urgent substantial action is required to remedy deficiencies in WaSH, particularly the provision of reliable, continuous piped water on-premises for all households and settings. Hygiene promotion programmes, underpinned by behavioural science, must be adapted to high-risk populations (such as the elderly and marginalised) and settings (such as healthcare facilities, transport hubs and workplaces). WaSH must be better integrated into preparation plans and with other sectors in prevention efforts. More finance and better use of financing instruments would extend and improve WaSH services. The lessons outlined justify no-regrets investment by government in response to and recovery from the current pandemic; to improve day-to-day lives and as preparedness for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saneamento , Idoso , Humanos , Higiene , Água
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992630

RESUMO

Exposure to toxic metals and metalloids (TMs) such as arsenic and lead at levels of concern is associated with lifelong adverse health consequences. As exposure to TMs from paint, leaded gasoline, canned foods, and other consumer products has decreased in recent decades, the relative contribution of drinking water to environmental TM exposure and associated disease burdens has increased. We conducted a rapid review from June to September 2019 to synthesize information on the sources of TM contamination in small rural drinking water systems and solutions to TM contamination from these sources, with an emphasis on actionable evidence applicable to small rural drinking water systems worldwide. We reviewed publications from five databases (ProQuest, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Global Health Library) as well as grey literature from expert groups including WHO, IWA, and others; findings from 61 eligible review publications were synthesized. Identified sources of TMs in included studies were natural occurrence (geogenic), catchment pollution, and corrosion of water distribution system materials. The review found general support for preventive over corrective actions. This review informs a useful planning and management framework for preventing and mitigating TM exposure from drinking water based on water supply characteristics, identified contamination sources, and other context-specific variables.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Metaloides , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Metaloides/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113627, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956900

RESUMO

Reliable safe water supply is a pillar of society and a key to public health. The Nordic countries have an abundance of clean fresh water as a source for drinking water supplies. They have followed developments in safeguarding water, both the recommendations of the World Health Organization framework for safe drinking water and European legislation. Worldwide, including the Nordic countries, small water supplies are less compliant with water safety regulation. The forthcoming EU directive on drinking water require risk-based approaches and improved transparency on water quality. This research looks at the Nordic frameworks for safe water supply, with emphasis on risk-based approaches and smaller systems. We analyzed the legal frameworks for safe water, the structure of the water sector across the Nordic countries and explored how prepared these countries are to meet these requirements. Our findings show that, while legal requirements are mostly in place, delivery of information to the public needs to be improved. Most Nordic countries are in the process of implementing risk-based management in large and medium size water supplies, whereas small supplies are lagging. We conclude that a key to success is increased training and support for small supplies. We suggest wider adoption of the Nordic model of cooperation with benchmarking of safe water for all to transfer knowledge between the countries. This work provides insights into challenges and opportunities for the Nordic countries and provides insights relevant to countries worldwide in their effort towards realization of SDG Target 6.1.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140230, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886988

RESUMO

Adaptation to drought is particularly challenging on remote island atolls, such as those found in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), a nation of 58,000 populating 29 low-lying coral atolls spread over >2 million km2. Exposure to consecutive atmospheric hazards, such as meteorological floods and droughts diminish scarce water resources and erode the resilience of island communities. Drought impact mitigation measures must supply emergency drinking water to stricken communities, while simultaneously conserving natural sources in order to reduce their vulnerability to subsequent events. Household surveys (n = 298) and focus group discussions (n = 16) in eight RMI communities revealed that 86% of households have experienced drought and 88% reported using multiple water sources to meet normal household needs. With no surface water and a thin freshwater lens (FWL), rainwater collected from rooftops is the most common household water source. The traditional use of carved hollows in the base of coconut trees to collect rainwater ("Mammaks") appears to have been displaced by large rainwater tanks. However, rationing of rainwater for consumption only during drought was widely reported, with private wells supporting non-consumptive uses. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination units have provided relief during drought emergencies but concerns have been raised around dependency, maintenance challenges, and loss of traditional water practices. Most notably, RO use has the potential to change the anthroposhpere by adversely affecting the FWL; 86% of RO units were installed at island-centre where excessive pumping can cause upconing, making the FWL brackish. Balancing the introduction of desalination technology to mitigate water shortages with maintenance of traditional water conservation practices to preserve the quantity and quality of the FWL is a promising strategy on island atolls that requires further investigation.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233679, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667923

RESUMO

Continuous, safely managed water is critical to health and development, but rural service delivery faces complex challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We report the first application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods to improve the microbial quality of household water for consumption (HWC) and the functionality of water sources in four rural districts of northern Ghana. We further report on the impacts of interventions developed through these methods. A local CQI team was formed and trained in CQI methods. Baseline data were collected and analyzed to identify determinants of service delivery problems and microbial safety. The CQI team randomized communities, developed an improvement package, iteratively piloted it in intervention communities, and used uptake survey data to refine the package. The final improvement package comprised safe water storage containers, refresher training for community WaSH committees and replacement of missing maintenance tools. This package significantly reduced contamination of HWC (p<0.01), and significant reduction in contamination persisted two years after implementation. Repair times in both intervention and control arms decreased relative to baseline (p<0.05), but differences between intervention and control arms were not significant at endline. Further work is needed to build on the gains in household water quality observed in this work, sustain and scale these improvements, and explore applications of CQI to other aspects of water supply and sanitation.


Assuntos
Gestão da Qualidade Total/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Gana , Embalagem de Produtos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Engenharia Sanitária/educação , Engenharia Sanitária/instrumentação
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138234, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481202

RESUMO

Adequate environmental health services are critical for human rights, health, and development, especially in the context of forced displacement. There are more than 70 million forcibly displaced persons worldwide, most in protracted situations, having been displaced for more than two years. Some live in camps or informal settlements, but most live in urban areas. Environmental health services are important in the transition from emergency response to sustainable development in these settings, but evidence on environmental health in displaced populations is disparate and of variable quality. We conducted a systematic scoping review of environmental conditions, exposures, and outcomes in protracted displacement settings; obstacles to improvement in environmental health services; and recommendations made for improvement. We included 213 publications from peer-reviewed and grey literature databases. Data were extracted on environmental health topics including water, sanitation, hygiene, overcrowding, waste management, energy supply, vector control, menstrual hygiene, air quality, and food safety. Most studies present data from low- and lower-middle income countries. Northern Africa and Western Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are the most-represented regions. There is substantial evidence on water, sanitation, and crowding, but few studies report findings on other environmental health topics. Water-related disease, parasites, and respiratory infections are frequently cited and studies report that services often fail to meet international standards for humanitarian response. The most frequent obstacles and recommendations are institutional, political, or implementation-related, but few studies provide concrete recommendations for improvement. Our review compiles and characterizes the research on environmental health in protracted displacement. We recommend including displaced populations in international environmental health policy and monitoring initiatives, and bridging from humanitarian response to sustainable development by preparing for long-term displacement from the early stages of a crisis.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , África ao Sul do Saara , África do Norte , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245057

RESUMO

Environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) are critical for safe care provision, yet their availability in low- and middle-income countries is low. A poor understanding of costs hinders progress towards adequate provision. Methods are inconsistent and poorly documented in costing literature, suggesting opportunities to improve evidence. The goal of this research was to develop a model to guide budgeting for EHS in HCFs. Based on 47 studies selected through a systematic review, we identified discrete budgeting steps, developed codes to define each step, and ordered steps into a model. We identified good practices based on a review of additional selected guidelines for costing EHS and HCFs. Our model comprises ten steps in three phases: planning, data collection, and synthesis. Costing-stakeholders define the costing purpose, relevant EHS, and cost scope; assess the EHS delivery context; develop a costing plan; and identify data sources (planning). Stakeholders then execute their costing plan and evaluate the data quality (data collection). Finally, stakeholders calculate costs and disseminate findings (synthesis). We present three hypothetical costing examples and discuss good practices, including using costing frameworks, selecting appropriate indicators to measure the quantity and quality of EHS, and iterating planning and data collection to select appropriate costing approaches and identify data gaps.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Orçamentos , Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Humanos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137237, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109810

RESUMO

Sanitary inspection is used in low-, medium- and high-income settings to assess the risk of microbial contamination at water sources. However, the relationship between sanitary inspection and water quality is not well understood. We conducted a critical literature review and synthesized the findings of 25 studies comparing the results of sanitary inspection and microbial water quality analysis. Most studies used sub-standard sanitary inspection and water quality analysis methods, and applied simplistic comparisons that do not characterize the complexity of the relationship. Sanitary risk score was used to represent sanitary inspection results in 21 (84%) studies; of which 12 (57%) found a significant association between score and microbial water quality and nine (43%) did not. Participatory sanitary inspection (12%) and reporting results back to communities (24%) were uncommon. Most studies relied on laboratory-based water quality analysis as an independently sufficient measure of safety, but reported inadequate quality control (52%) and/or sub-standard sample processing methods (66%). We found that sanitary inspections could contribute to improving water safety through four mechanisms: guiding remedial action at individual water sources, allowing operators and external support programs to prioritize repairs, identifying programmatic issues, and contributing to research. The purpose of the sanitary inspection should be considered when planning sanitary inspection execution, data analysis, and reporting to ensure appropriate methods are employed and results are fit for purpose. Further exploration should recognize that sanitary risk factors represent sources of contamination, pathways for contaminants to enter water supplies, and breakdowns in barriers to contamination. These different sanitary risk factor types have different and inter-dependent effects on water quality.

14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 134, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970501

RESUMO

Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Deficient environmental health (EH) conditions and infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities (HCFs) contribute to the spread of HAIs, but microbial sampling of sources of contamination is rarely conducted nor reported in low-resource settings. The purpose of this study was to assess EH conditions and IPC practices in Malawian HCFs and evaluate how EH deficiencies contribute to pathogen exposures and HAIs, and to provide recommendations to inform improvements in EH conditions using a mixed-methods approach. Thirty-one maternity wards in government-run HCFs were surveyed in the three regions of Malawi. Questionnaires were administered in parallel with structured observations of EH conditions and IPC practices and microbial testing of water sources and facility surfaces. Results indicated significant associations between IPC practices and microbial contamination. Facilities where separate wards were not available for mothers and newborns with infections and where linens were not used for patients during healthcare services were more likely to have delivery tables with surface contamination (relative risk = 2.23; 1.49, 3.34). E. coli was detected in water samples from seven (23%) HCFs. Our results suggest that Malawian maternity wards could reduce microbial contamination, and potentially reduce the occurrence of HAIs, by improving EH conditions and IPC practices. HCF staff can use the simple, low-cost EH monitoring methods used in this study to incorporate microbial monitoring of EH conditions and IPC practices in HCFs in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Maternidades , Controle de Infecções , Infecções , Descontaminação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Gravidez
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136553, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982735

RESUMO

There are 70.8 million forcibly displaced people worldwide, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and asylum seekers. Since mortality rates are highest in the first six months of displacement, the provision of adequate services and infrastructure by relief organizations is critical in this "emergency phase." Environmental health provisions such as adequate water supply, excreta management, solid waste management, and vector control measures are among those essential services. We conducted a systematic scoping review of environmental health in the emergency phase of displacement (the six months following first displacement). A total of 122 publications, comprising 104 peer-reviewed and 18 grey literature publications, met the inclusion criteria. We extracted data relating to environmental health conditions and services, associated outcomes, and information concerning obstacles and recommendations for improving these conditions and services. Despite the fact that most displaced people live outside of camps, publications largely report findings for camps (n = 73, 60%). Water supply (n = 57, 47%) and excreta management (n = 47, 39%) dominate the literature. Energy access (n = 7, 6%), exposure to harsh weather from inadequate shelter (n = 5, 4%), food hygiene and safety (n = 4, 3%), indoor air quality (n = 3, 3%), menstrual hygiene management (n = 2, 2%), dental hygiene (n = 2, 2%), and ambient air quality (n = 1, 1%) are relatively understudied. The most common health outcome attributed to inadequate environmental conditions in the included publications is diarrhea (n = 43, 35%). We found that organizations and governments often embrace their own standards, however we call for policymakers to adopt standards no less rigorous than Sphere for the emergency phase of displacement. Although other reviews examine water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies, this is the first systematic review of environmental health more broadly in the first six months of displacement.


Assuntos
Emergências , Humanos , Higiene , Menstruação , Refugiados , Saneamento
16.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(2): 142-152, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722372

RESUMO

Many healthcare facilities (HCFs) in low-income countries experience unreliable connectivity to energy sources, which adversely impacts the quality of health service delivery and provision of adequate environmental health services. This assessment explores the status and consequences of energy access through interviews and surveys with administrators and healthcare workers from 44 HCFs (central hospitals, district hospitals, health centres and health posts) in Malawi. Most HCFs are connected to the electrical grid but experience weekly power interruptions averaging 10 h; less than one-third of facilities have a functional back-up source. Inadequate energy availability is associated with irregular water supply and poor medical equipment sterilization; it adversely affects provider safety and contributes to poor lighting and working conditions. Some challenges, such as poor availability and maintenance of back-up energy sources, disproportionately affect smaller HCFs. Policymakers, health system actors and third-party organizations seeking to improve energy access and quality of care in Malawi and similar settings should address these challenges in a way that prioritizes the specific needs of different facility types.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Eletricidade , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Malaui , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água/normas
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135241, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843312

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 seeks to "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water", which is challenging particularly in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Pacific Island Countries (PIC). We report drinking water sources and services in the Solomon Islands and examine geographical inequalities. Based on two quantitative baseline datasets of n = 1,598 rural and n = 1,068 urban households, we analyzed different drinking water variables (source type, collection time, amount, use, perceived quality, storage, treatment) and a composite index, drinking water service level. We stratified data by urban and rural areas and by province, mapped, and contextualized them. There are substantive rural-urban drinking water inequalities in the Solomon Islands. Overall, urban households are more likely to: use improved drinking water sources, need less time to collect water, collect more water, store their water more safely, treat water prior to consumption, perceive their water quality as better and have an at least basic drinking water service than rural households. There are also provincial and center-periphery inequalities in drinking water access, with more centrally located provinces using piped water supplies and more distant and remote provinces using rainwater and surface water as their primary source. There are also inter-national inequalities. Out of all PICs, the Solomon Islands have among the lowest access to basic drinking water services: 92% of urban and 55% of rural households. Of all SIDS, PICs are least serviced. This study shows that drinking water inequality is a critical issue, and highlights that all identified dimensions of inequality - rural-urban, provincial, center-periphery and inter-national - need to be explicitly recognized and addressed and included in pro-equity monitoring, policy and programming efforts by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders to reduce inequalities as per the Agenda 2030.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Humanos , Melanesia , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 289-298, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279687

RESUMO

In Urban Africa, water and sanitation utility companies are facing a huge backlog of sanitation provision in the informal settlement areas. In order to clear this backlog, new investment is required. However, to select appropriate sanitation technologies, lifecycle costs need to be assessed. The aim of this research was to establish lifecycle costs for appropriate sanitation technologies in informal settlement areas. Three sanitation options were compared: simplified sewerage, urine diversion dry toilet (UDDT) and Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine. Three scenarios for simplified sewerage were considered; gravity flow into existing conventional sewers with treatment; new-build with pumping and treatment; and new-build gravity flow with treatment. The study revealed that simplified sewerage is the cheapest option for Soweto informal settlement, even when the costs of pumping and treatment are included. Gravity simplified sewerage with treatment is cheaper than the UDDT system and VIP latrine at all population densities above 158 and 172 persons/ha, respectively. The total annual cost per household of simplified sewerage and treatment was US$142 compared to US$156 and US$144 for UDDT and VIP latrine respectively. The costs of simplified sewerage could be recovered through a monthly household surcharge and cross-subsidy summing US$5.3 The study concluded that simplified sewerage system was the first choice for Soweto informal settlement areas, given the current population density.


Assuntos
Saneamento/métodos , Aparelho Sanitário , Custos e Análise de Custo , Saneamento/economia , Esgotos , África do Sul , Toaletes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA