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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e023707, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927442

RESUMO

Background Aging is associated with central fat redistribution and skeletal muscle decline, yet the relationships of tissue compartments with heart failure (HF) remain incompletely characterized. We assessed the contribution of body composition to incident HF in elders. Methods and Results Participants from 2 older cohorts who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and, in one cohort, computed tomography were included. We evaluated associations with incident HF for DEXA principal components (PCs) and total lean, appendicular lean, total fat and trunk fat mass; and for computed tomography measures of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, thigh muscle, intermuscular fat area and thigh muscle density. DEXA analysis included 3621, and computed tomography analysis 2332 participants. During median follow-up of 11.8 years, 927 participants developed HF. DEXA principal components showed no relationship with HF. After adjustment for height, weight, and cardiovascular risk factors, total lean mass was near significantly associated with higher HF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.25 per SD [1.00-1.56]), whereas total fat mass and thigh muscle density were significantly related to lower HF (HR, 0.82 [0.68-0.99] and HR, 0.87 [0.78-0.97], respectively). Patterns were similar for HF subtypes. The relationships with HF for total lean and fat mass were attenuated after adjusting for intercurrent atrial fibrillation or excluding high natriuretic peptide levels. Conclusions Total lean mass was positively associated, while total fat mass and thigh muscle density were inversely associated, with incident HF. These findings highlight the limitations of DEXA for assessment of HF risk in elders and support the preeminence of computed tomography-measured skeletal muscle quality over mass as a determinant of HF incidence.

2.
Neurology ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) in blood is a sensitive but non-specific marker of brain injury. This study sought to evaluate associations between NfL concentration and MRI findings of vascular brain injury in older adults. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study included two cranial MRI scans performed about 5 years apart and assessed for white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts. About one year before their second MRI, 1,362 participants (median age 77 years and 61.4% women) without a history of TIA or stroke had measurement of four biomarkers: NfL, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1. Most (n = 1,279) also had the first MRI scan, and some (n=633) had quantitative measurements of hippocampal and WMH. In primary analyses, we assessed associations of NfL with a 10-point white matter grade (WMG) and prevalent infarcts on second MRI and with worsening WMG and incident infarct comparing the two scans. A p-value <0.0125 (0.05/4) was considered significant for these analyses. We also assessed associations with hippocampal and WMH volume. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, log2(NfL) concentration was associated with WMG (ß=0.27; p=2.3x10-4) and worsening WMG (RR=1.24; p=0.0022), but less strongly with prevalent brain infarcts (RR=1.18; p=0.013) and not with incident brain infarcts (RR=1.18; p=0.18). Associations were also present with WMH volume (beta=2242.9, p=0.0036). For the other three biomarkers, the associations for log2(GFAP) concentration with WMG and worsening WMG were significant. DISCUSSION: Among older adults without a history of stroke, higher serum NfL concentration was associated with covert MRI findings of vascular brain injury, especially the burden of WMH and its worsening. Whether these results offer opportunities for the use of NfL as a non-invasive biomarker of WMH or to control vascular risk factors remains to be determined.

3.
HGG Adv ; 2(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734193

RESUMO

Psychological and social factors are known to influence blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. To identify novel BP loci, we carried out genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial BP taking into account the interaction effects of genetic variants with three psychosocial factors: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and social support. Analyses were performed using a two-stage design in a sample of up to 128,894 adults from 5 ancestry groups. In the combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 59 loci (p value <5e-8), including nine novel BP loci. The novel associations were observed mostly with pulse pressure, with fewer observed with mean arterial pressure. Five novel loci were identified in African ancestry, and all but one showed patterns of interaction with at least one psychosocial factor. Functional annotation of the novel loci supports a major role for genes implicated in the immune response (PLCL2), synaptic function and neurotransmission (LIN7A, PFIA2), as well as genes previously implicated in neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders (FSTL5, CHODL). These findings underscore the importance of considering psychological and social factors in gene discovery for BP, especially in non-European populations.

4.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : CIRCGEN121003460, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin levels in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Cardiac troponin levels are heritable, but their genetic architecture remains elusive. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association analysis on high-sensitivity cTnT (cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cTnI (cardiac troponin I; hs-cTnI) levels in 24 617 and 14 336 participants free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 6 population-based cohorts, followed by a series of bioinformatic analyses to decipher the genetic architecture of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: We identified 4 genome-wide significant loci for hs-cTnT including a novel locus rs3737882 in PPFIA4 and 3 previously reported loci at NCOA2, TRAM1, and BCL2. One known locus at VCL was replicated for hs-cTnI. One copy of C allele for rs3737882 was associated with a 6% increase in hs-cTnT levels (minor allele frequency, 0.18; P=2.80×10-9). We observed pleiotropic loci located at BAG3 and ANO5. The proportions of variances explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 10.15% and 7.74% for hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were colocalized with BCL2 expression in heart tissues and hs-cTnT and with ANO5 expression in artery, heart tissues, and whole blood and both troponins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that genetically increased hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels were associated with higher odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.25-1.54] for hs-cTnT and 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06-1.37] for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic locus associated with hs-cTnT in a multiethnic population and found that genetically regulated troponin levels were associated with atrial fibrillation.

5.
Circulation ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587750

RESUMO

Background: The most prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) is chronological age, however underlying mechanisms are unexplained. Algorithms using epigenetic modifications to the human genome effectively predict chronological age. Chronological and epigenetic predicted ages may diverge, a phenomenon termed epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), which may reflect accelerated biological aging. We sought to evaluate for associations between epigenetic age measures and incident AF. Methods: Measures for 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge) and an epigenetic predictor of PAI-1 levels (DNAm PAI-1) were determined for study participants from 3 population-based cohort studies. Cox models evaluated for associations with incident AF and results were combined via random-effects meta-analysis. Two-sample summary-level Mendelian randomization analyses evaluated for associations between genetic instruments of the EAA measures and AF. Results: Among 5,600 individuals (mean age: 65.5 years; 60.1% female; 50.7% black), there were 905 incident AF cases during a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed all 4 epigenetic clocks and the DNAm PAI-1 predictor were associated with statistically significant higher hazards of incident AF, though the magnitudes of their point estimates were smaller relative to the associations observed for chronological age. The pooled EAA estimates for each epigenetic measure, with the exception of Horvath EAA, were associated with incident AF in models adjusted for chronological age, race, sex, and smoking variables. Following multivariable adjustment for additional known AF risk factors that could also potentially function as mediators, pooled EAA measures for 2 clocks remained statistically significant. Five year increases in EAA measures for DNAm GrimAge and DNAm PhenoAge were associated with 19% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09-1.31; p<0.01) and 15% (adjusted HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.25; p<0.01) higher hazards of incident AF, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses for the 5 EAA measures did not reveal statistically significant associations with AF. Conclusions: Our study identified adjusted associations between EAA measures and incident AF, suggesting biological aging plays an important role independent of chronological age, though a potential underlying causal relationship remains unclear. These aging processes may be modifiable and not constrained by the immutable factor of time.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17358, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462469

RESUMO

Recent evidence indicates that our understanding of the relationship between cardiac function and ischemic stroke remains incomplete. The Cardiovascular Health Study enrolled community-dwelling adults ≥ 65 years old. We included participants with speckle-tracking data from digitized baseline study echocardiograms. Exposures were left atrial reservoir strain (primary), left ventricular longitudinal strain, left ventricular early diastolic strain rate, septal e' velocity, and lateral e' velocity. The primary outcome was incident ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for demographics, image quality, and risk factors including left ventricular ejection fraction and incident atrial fibrillation. Among 4,000 participants in our analysis, lower (worse) left atrial reservoir strain was associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR per SD absolute decrease, 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-25). All secondary exposure variables were significantly associated with the outcome. Left atrial reservoir strain was associated with cardioembolic stroke (HR per SD absolute decrease, 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.67) and cardioembolic stroke related to incident atrial fibrillation (HR per SD absolute decrease, 1.60; 1.32-1.95). Myocardial dysfunction that can ultimately lead to stroke may be identifiable at an early stage. This highlights opportunities to identify cerebrovascular risk earlier and improve stroke prevention via therapies for early myocardial dysfunction.

9.
Heart ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Speckle-tracking echocardiography enables detection of abnormalities in cardiac mechanics with higher sensitivity than conventional measures of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and may provide insight into the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the relationship of LV longitudinal strain, LV early diastolic strain rate (SR) and left atrial (LA) reservoir strain with long-term CHD incidence in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The association of all three strain measures with incidence of non-fatal and fatal CHD (primary outcome of revascularisation, non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction) was examined in the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Follow-up was truncated at 10 years. RESULTS: We included 3313 participants (mean (SD) age 72.6 (5.5) years). During a median follow-up of 10.0 (25th-75th percentile 7.7-10.0) years, 439 CHD events occurred. LV longitudinal strain (HR=1.25 per SD decrement, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43) and LV early diastolic SR (HR=1.31 per SD decrement, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.50) were associated with a significantly greater risk of incident CHD after adjustment for potential confounders. By contrast, LA reservoir strain was not associated with incident CHD (HR=1.06 per SD decrement, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.19). Additional adjustment for biochemical and echocardiographic measures of myocardial stress, dysfunction and remodelling did not meaningfully alter these associations. CONCLUSION: We found an association between echocardiographic measures of subclinically altered LV mechanics and incident CHD. These findings inform the underlying biology of subclinical LV dysfunction and CHD. Early detection of asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction may offer an opportunity for prevention and early intervention.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003288, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the CHREBP locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the CHREBP locus and dyslipidemia. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near CHREBP were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; P<0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.81; PDiff <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, P=0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.84; PDiff=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified genetic variants in the CHREBP locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 153: 71-78, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175107

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction are serious complications of major noncardiac surgery in older adults. Many factors can contribute to the development of HF during the postoperative period. The incidence of, and risk factors for, procedure-associated heart failure (PHF) occurring at the time of, or shortly after, medical procedures in a population-based sample ≥ 65 years of age have not been fully characterized, particularly in comparison with HF not proximate to medical procedures. This analysis comprises 5,121 men and women free of HF at baseline from the Cardiovascular Health Study who were followed up for 12.0 years (median). HF events were documented by self-report at semi-annual contacts and confirmed by a formal adjudication committee using a review of the participants' medical records and standardized criteria for HF. Incident HF events were additionally adjudicated as either being related or unrelated to a medical procedure (PHF and non-PHF, respectively). We estimated cause-specific hazards ratios for the association of covariates with PHF and non-PHF. There were 1,728 incident HF events in the primary analysis: 168 (10%) classified as PHF, 1,526 (88%) as non-PHF, and 34 unclassified (2%). For those 1,045 participants in whom LV ejection fraction was known at the time of the HF event, it was ≥45% in 89 of 118 participants (75%) with PHF, compared to 517 of 927 participants (55%) with non-PHF (p < 0.001). Increased age, male gender, diabetes, and angina at baseline were associated with both PHF and non-PHF (range of hazard ratios (HR): 1.04-2.05]. Being Black was inversely associated with PHF [HR: 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.86]. Participants with increased age, without baseline angina, and with baseline LVEF<55% were at a significantly lower risk for PHF compared to non-PHF. Among those with PHF, surgical procedures-including cardiac, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, vascular, and urologic-comprised 83.3%, while percutaneous procedures comprised 8.9% (including 6.5% represented by cardiac catheterizations and pacemaker placements). Another group composed of a variety of procedures commonly requiring large fluid volume administration comprised 7.7%. There was a lower all-cause 30-day mortality in the PHF versus the non-PHF group (2.2% vs 5.7%), with a nonsignificant odds ratio of 0.39 in a minimally adjusted model. When individuals with prior myocardial infarction (MI) were excluded in a sensitivity analysis, the proportion of incident HF with concurrent MI was greater for PHF (32.9%) than for non-PHF (19.8%). In conclusion, PHF in older adults is a common entity with relatively low 30-day mortality. Baseline angina, lower age, and LVEF ≥ 55% were associated with a higher risk of PHF compared to non-PHF. Being Black was associated with a lower risk of PHF and PHF as a proportion of HF was lower in Black than in non-Black participants. Compared to non-PHF, PHF more frequently presented with concurrent MI and with preserved LV ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etnologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(11): 1143-1155, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091768

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10-8) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10-13). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3987, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183656

RESUMO

Here we examine the association between DNA methylation in circulating leukocytes and blood lipids in a multi-ethnic sample of 16,265 subjects. We identify 148, 35, and 4 novel associations among Europeans, African Americans, and Hispanics, respectively, and an additional 186 novel associations through a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. We observe a high concordance in the direction of effects across racial/ethnic groups, a high correlation of effect sizes between high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, a modest overlap of associations with epigenome-wide association studies of other cardio-metabolic traits, and a largely non-overlap with lipid loci identified to date through genome-wide association studies. Thirty CpGs reached significance in at least 2 racial/ethnic groups including 7 that showed association with the expression of an annotated gene. CpGs annotated to CPT1A showed evidence of being influenced by triglycerides levels. DNA methylation levels of circulating leukocytes show robust and consistent association with blood lipid levels across multiple racial/ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Leucócitos/citologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma/genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
14.
Heart ; 107(18): 1493-1502, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current estimates of aortic stenosis (AS) frequency have mostly relied on cross-sectional echocardiographic or longitudinal administrative data, making understanding of AS burden incomplete. We performed case adjudications to evaluate the frequency of AS and assess differences by age, sex and race in an older cohort with long-term follow-up. METHODS: We developed case-capture methods using study echocardiograms, procedure and diagnosis codes, heart failure events and deaths for targeted review of medical records in the Cardiovascular Health Study to identify moderate or severe AS and related procedures or hospitalisations. The primary outcome was clinically significant AS (severe AS or procedure). Assessment of incident AS burden was based on subdistribution survival methods, while associations with age, sex and race relied on cause-specific survival methods. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 5795 participants (age 73±6, 42.2% male, 14.3% Black). Cumulative frequency of clinically significant AS at maximal 25-year follow-up was 3.69% (probable/definite) to 4.67% (possible/probable/definite), while the corresponding 20-year cumulative incidence was 2.88% to 3.71%. Of incident cases, about 85% had a hospitalisation for severe AS, but roughly half did not undergo valve intervention. The adjusted incidence of clinically significant AS was higher in men (HR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21 to 2.17]) and increased with age (HR 1.08 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.11]), but was lower in Blacks (HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.81]). CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based study, we identified a higher burden of clinically significant AS than reported previously, with differences by age, sex and race. These findings have important implications for public health resource planning, although the lower burden in Blacks merits further study.

15.
Neurology ; 97(5): e436-e443, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that silent myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, we evaluated the association between silent MI and subsequent ischemic stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study. METHODS: The Cardiovascular Health Study prospectively enrolled community-dwelling individuals ≥65 years of age. We included participants without prevalent stroke or baseline evidence of MI. Our exposures were silent and clinically apparent, overt MI. Silent MI was defined as new evidence of Q-wave MI, without clinical symptoms of MI, on ECGs performed during annual study visits from 1989 to 1999. The primary outcome was incident ischemic stroke. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke subtypes: nonlacunar, lacunar, and other/unknown. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to model the association between time-varying MI status (silent, overt, or no MI) and stroke after adjustment for baseline demographics and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among 4,224 participants, 362 (8.6%) had an incident silent MI, 421 (10.0%) an incident overt MI, and 377 (8.9%) an incident ischemic stroke during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. After adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, silent MI was independently associated with subsequent ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.21). Overt MI was associated with ischemic stroke both in the short term (HR, 80; 95% CI, 53-119) and long term (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.44). In secondary analyses, the association between silent MI and stroke was limited to nonlacunar ischemic stroke (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.36-4.22). CONCLUSION: In a community-based sample, we found an association between silent MI and ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vida Independente , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Vasculares/complicações
16.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(7): 809-816, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938907

RESUMO

Importance: Intracerebral hemorrhage and arterial ischemic disease share risk factors, to our knowledge, but the association between the 2 conditions remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate whether intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with an increased risk of incident ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants: An analysis was conducted of pooled longitudinal participant-level data from 4 population-based cohort studies in the United States: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Patients were enrolled from 1987 to 2007, and the last available follow-up was December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020. Exposure: Intracerebral hemorrhage, as assessed by an adjudication committee based on predefined clinical and radiologic criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was an arterial ischemic event, defined as a composite of ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction, centrally adjudicated within each study. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Participants with prevalent intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction at their baseline study visit were excluded. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequent arterial ischemic events after adjustment for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, vascular comorbidities, and antithrombotic medications. Results: Of 55 131 participants, 47 866 (27 639 women [57.7%]; mean [SD] age, 62.2 [10.2] years) were eligible for analysis. During a median follow-up of 12.7 years (interquartile range, 7.7-19.5 years), there were 318 intracerebral hemorrhages and 7648 arterial ischemic events. The incidence of an arterial ischemic event was 3.6 events per 100 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-5.0 events per 100 person-years) after intracerebral hemorrhage vs 1.1 events per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.1-1.2 events per 100 person-years) among those without intracerebral hemorrhage. In adjusted models, intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with arterial ischemic events (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1), ischemic stroke (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.1-4.5), and myocardial infarction (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9). In sensitivity analyses, intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with arterial ischemic events when updating covariates in a time-varying manner (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0); when using incidence density matching (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2); when including participants with prevalent intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-2.9); and when using death as a competing risk (subdistribution HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. These findings suggest that intracerebral hemorrhage may be a novel risk marker for arterial ischemic events.

17.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(1): L130-L143, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909500

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified regions associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). GWASs of other diseases have shown an approximately 10-fold overrepresentation of nonsynonymous variants, despite limited exonic coverage on genotyping arrays. We hypothesized that a large-scale analysis of coding variants could discover novel genetic associations with COPD, including rare variants with large effect sizes. We performed a meta-analysis of exome arrays from 218,399 controls and 33,851 moderate-to-severe COPD cases. All exome-wide significant associations were present in regions previously identified by GWAS. We did not identify any novel rare coding variants with large effect sizes. Within GWAS regions on chromosomes 5q, 6p, and 15q, four coding variants were conditionally significant (P < 0.00015) when adjusting for lead GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms A common gasdermin B (GSDMB) splice variant (rs11078928) previously associated with a decreased risk for asthma was nominally associated with a decreased risk for COPD [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.46, P = 1.8e-4]. Two stop variants in coiled-coil α-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), a gene involved in regulating cell proliferation, were associated with COPD (both P < 0.0001). The SERPINA1 Z allele was associated with a random-effects odds ratio of 1.43 for COPD (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.74), though with marked heterogeneity across studies. Overall, COPD-associated exonic variants were identified in genes involved in DNA methylation, cell-matrix interactions, cell proliferation, and cell death. In conclusion, we performed the largest exome array meta-analysis of COPD to date and identified potential functional coding variants. Future studies are needed to identify rarer variants and further define the role of coding variants in COPD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859359

RESUMO

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 Pjoint < 5 × 10-8), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (Pint < 5 × 10-8). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (Pint = 2 × 10-6). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (Pint < 10-3). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.

19.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 95-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737810

RESUMO

Background: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with common risk factors for AF and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) through a variety of mechanisms. We determined the prospective association of brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) with incident AF among older adults. Methods: We included 2027 Cardiovascular Health Study participants (mean age=78.3 years, male=39%, Black=17%) who underwent brachial FMD measurement at the 1997 to 1998 clinic visit. Incident AF was ascertained by study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge diagnosis coding and Medicare claims data. Cox regression models were used to examine the association between FMD and incident AF. Results: We identified 754 incident of AF cases (37%) over a median follow-up of 11.0 years. After adjusting for age, sex, race, height, weight, cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, kidney function, c-reactive protein, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and statins, the risk of AF did not differ according to brachial FMD response (4th vs 1st quartile hazard ratio (HR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.26; per FMD unit increment HR=1.01, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.05). Conclusion: We found no relationship between brachial FMD and the risk of developing AF in this elderly cohort. Our findings suggest that the utility of brachial FMD as a risk marker for AF in older individuals is minimal.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Vasodilatação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(9): 1575-1585, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388800

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Greater neighborhood greenspace has been associated with brain health, including better cognition and lower odds of Alzheimer's disease in older adults. We investigated associations between neighborhood greenspace and brain-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and potential effect modification by sex or apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE), a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We obtained a sample of non-demented participants 65 years or older (n = 1125) from the longitudinal, population-based Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Greenspace data were derived from the National Land Cover Dataset. Adjusted multivariable linear regression estimated associations between neighborhood greenspace five years prior to the MRI and left and right hippocampal volume and 10-point grades of ventricular size and burden of white matter hyperintensity. Interaction terms tested effect modification by APOE genotype and sex. CHS data (1989-1999) were obtained/analyzed in 2020. RESULTS: Participants were on average 79 years old [standard deviation (SD) = 4], 58% were female, and 11% were non-white race. Mean neighborhood greenspace was 38% (SD = 28%). Greater proportion of greenspace in the neighborhood five years before MRI was borderline associated with lower ventricle grade (estimate: - 0.30; 95% confidence interval: - 0.61, 0.00). We observed no associations between greenspace and the other MRI outcome measures and no evidence of effect modification by APOE genotype and sex. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a possible association between greater greenspace and less ventricular enlargement, a measure reflecting global brain atrophy. If confirmed in other longitudinal cohort studies, interventions and policies to improve community greenspaces may help to maintain brain health in older age.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Neuroimagem
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