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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we followed unaffected men known to carry mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to investigate whether they are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population. We found that carriers of BRCA2 mutations have a high risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly more aggressive prostate cancer, and that this risk varies by family history of prostate cancer and the location of the mutation within the gene.

3.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 19(4): 273-277, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308102

RESUMO

In January 2019, a new nationally commissioned Genomic Medicine Service (GMS) has now commenced in the NHS. Capitalising on the infrastructure developed through the 100,000 Genomes Project, the GMS is underpinned by seven supra-regional Genomic Laboratory Hubs (GLHs) delivering the new inherited rare disease and cancer somatic tissue genetic test directory. This replaces the UKGTN test directory, with the aim of standardising criteria for whole genome sequencing or targeted panel tests where applicable. The new test directory will define who can order specific genetic tests under prescribed eligibility criteria. In keeping with Dame Sally Davies' white paper Generation Genome, this will further democratise genetic testing and, in some situations, avoid the need to refer to clinical genetics to access testing. The aim is to simplify patient pathways and reduce regional or social inequalities. We will discuss the implications of whole genome sequencing and the potential impact of the new nationally commissioned GMS for both patients, their relatives and clinicians. We will also discuss the imminent challenges in implementing genomic medicine into the NHS, and the future impact of novel technologies on service delivery as genomic medicine becomes increasingly integrated into routine healthcare.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 3-18, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909963

RESUMO

Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals.

8.
BJU Int ; 2018 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the baseline results of a longitudinal psychosocial study that forms part of the IMPACT study, a multi-national investigation of targeted prostate cancer (PCa) screening among men with a known pathogenic germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. PARTICPANTS AND METHODS: Men enrolled in the IMPACT study were invited to complete a questionnaire at collaborating sites prior to each annual screening visit. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and the following measures: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer, Cancer Worry Scale-Revised, risk perception and knowledge. The results of the baseline questionnaire are presented. RESULTS: A total of 432 men completed questionnaires: 98 and 160 had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, respectively, and 174 were controls (familial mutation negative). Participants' perception of PCa risk was influenced by genetic status. Knowledge levels were high and unrelated to genetic status. Mean scores for the HADS and SF-36 were within reported general population norms and mean IES scores were within normal range. IES mean intrusion and avoidance scores were significantly higher in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers than in controls and were higher in men with increased PCa risk perception. At the multivariate level, risk perception contributed more significantly to variance in IES scores than genetic status. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the psychosocial profile of men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations undergoing PCa screening. No clinically concerning levels of general or cancer-specific distress or poor quality of life were detected in the cohort as a whole. A small subset of participants reported higher levels of distress, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals offering PCa screening to identify these risk factors and offer additional information and support to men seeking PCa screening.

10.
Genet Med ; 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565421

RESUMO

PurposeBRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.MethodsWe used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).ResultsA total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis. There were 23 incident invasive BCs and 2 EOCs. The cumulative risk of invasive BC was 9.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9-15%) by age 85 years and the corresponding risk of EOC was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-2.6%). The SIR for invasive BC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.62-1.40) in the overall cohort, 0.85 (95% CI 0.48-1.50) in noncarriers from BRCA1 families, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.57-1.87) in noncarriers from BRCA2 families. The SIR for EOC was 0.79 (95% CI 0.20-3.17) in the overall cohort.ConclusionOur results did not provide evidence for elevated risks of invasive BC or EOC in BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.44.

11.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 17(6): 573-574, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196361
12.
J Community Genet ; 8(4): 267-273, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755064

RESUMO

Clinical genetic services and genomic research are rapidly developing but, historically, those with the greatest need are the least to benefit from these advances. This encompasses low-income communities, including those from ethnic minority and indigenous backgrounds. The "Genomix" workshop at the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) 2016 conference offered the opportunity to consider possible solutions for these disparities from the experiences of researchers and genetic healthcare practitioners working with underserved communities in the USA, UK and Australia. Evident from the workshop and corresponding literature is that a multi-faceted approach to engaging communities is essential. This needs to be complemented by redesigning healthcare systems that improves access and raises awareness of the needs of these communities. At a more strategic level, institutions involved in funding research, commissioning and redesigning genetic health services also need to be adequately represented by underserved populations with intrinsic mechanisms to disseminate good practice and monitor participation. Further, as genomic medicine is mainstreamed, educational programmes developed for clinicians should incorporate approaches to alleviate disparities in accessing genetic services and improving study participation.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 16(3): 433-440, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091804

RESUMO

In the United Kingdom, current screening guidelines for TP53 germline mutation carriers solely recommends annual breast MRI, despite the wide spectrum of malignancies typically seen in this group. This study sought to investigate the role of one-off non-contrast whole-body MRI (WB MRI) in the screening of asymptomatic TP53 mutation carriers. 44 TP53 mutation carriers and 44 population controls were recruited. Scans were read by radiologists blinded to participant carrier status. The incidence of malignancies diagnosed in TP53 mutation carriers against general population controls was calculated. The incidences of non-malignant relevant disease and irrelevant disease were measured, as well as the number of investigations required to determine relevance of findings. In TP53 mutation carriers, 6 of 44 (13.6, 95% CI 5.2-27.4%) participants were diagnosed with cancer during the study, all of which would be considered life threatening if untreated. Two were found to have two primary cancers. Two participants with cancer had abnormalities on the MRI which were initially thought to be benign (a pericardial cyst and a uterine fibroid) but transpired to be sarcomas. No controls were diagnosed with cancer. Fifteen carriers (34.1, 95% CI 20.5-49.9%) and seven controls (15.9, 95% CI 6.7-30.1%) underwent further investigations following the WB MRI for abnormalities that transpired to be benign (p = 0.049). The cancer detection rate in this group justifies a minimum baseline non-contrast WB MRI in germline TP53 mutation carriers. This should be adopted into national guidelines for management of adult TP53 mutation carriers in addition to the current practice of contrast enhanced breast MRI imaging.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Reino Unido , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BJU Int ; 117(4): 686-96, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26471473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immunocytochemical detection of ERG protein in exfoliated cells as a means of identifying patients with prostate cancer (PCa) before prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples (30 mL) were collected after digital rectal examination (DRE) from 159 patients with an elevated age-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or an abnormal DRE who underwent prostate biopsy. In all cases, exfoliated urinary cells from half of the urine sample underwent immunocytochemical assessment for ERG protein expression. Exfoliated cells in the remaining half underwent assessment of TMPRSS2:ERG status using either nested reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR (151 cases) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; eight cases). Corresponding tissue samples were evaluated using FISH to determine chromosomal gene fusion tissue status and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine ERG protein expression. Results were correlated with clinicopathological variables. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of urinary ERG immunocytochemistry (ICC) for PCa were 22.7 and 100%, respectively. ERG ICC results correlated with advanced tumour grade, stage and higher serum PSA. In comparison, urine TMPRSS2:ERG transcript analysis had 27% sensitivity and 98% specificity for PCa detection. On tissue IHC, ERG staining was highly specific for PCa. In all, 52% of cancers harboured foci of ERG staining; however, only 46% of cancers that were found to have ERG overexpression were positive on urine ICC. The ERG ICC results showed strong concordance with urinary RT-PCR and FISH, and tissue IHC and FISH. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that cytological gene fusion detection using ICC is feasible and identifies patients with adverse disease markers. ERG ICC was highly specific, but this technique was less sensitive than RT-PCR.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG
15.
J Med Genet ; 52(12): 856-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cowden's syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. It is associated with hamartomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, mucocutaneous lesions and increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. In addition to increased risk of tumour development, mutations in PTEN have also been associated with autoimmunity in both mice and humans. Until now, however, an association between Cowden's syndrome and immune deficiency has been reported in a single patient only. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two patients with Cowden's syndrome and an increased frequency of infections were investigated for possible underlying immunodeficiency. In one patient, hypogammaglobulinaemia with a functional antibody deficiency was identified, while the other patient had a persisting CD4+ T cell lymphopenia (with normal antibody production). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Cowden's syndrome may be associated with both T cell and B cell immune dysfunction. We recommend that patients with Cowden's syndrome and an increased frequency of infections are investigated for associated immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Criança , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Masculino , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética
16.
Fam Cancer ; 14(4): 637-40, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26077135

RESUMO

In 2011, the Leicestershire Clinical Genetics Department in collaboration with Macmillan Cancer Support initiated a project called Supporting Families with Cancer (SFWC). The project aimed to raise awareness of inherited cancers amongst both healthcare professionals and the general public and develop a patient-centred collaborative approach to cancer treatment and support services. This paper describes the project's development of a range of community outreach events and a training scheme for primary healthcare professionals designed to improve familial cancer referral rates in Leicester. Following consultation with patients and support groups, a series of interactive 'medical supermarket' events were held in Leicester. These events focused on providing patients with a forum for sharing research data, information about diagnosis and treatments and access to support groups and other allied healthcare services with additional information being made available digitally via SFWC webpages and a series of short videos available on a YouTube channel. Qualitative and quantitative data presented here indicate that the SFWC medical supermarket model has been well received by patients and offers a patient-centred, holistic approach to cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Família , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 16(5): 442, 2014 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25510853

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is frequent for news items to lead to a short lived temporary increase in interest in a particular health related service, however it is rare for this to have a long lasting effect. In 2013, in the UK in particular, there has been unprecedented publicity in hereditary breast cancer, with Angelina Jolie's decision to have genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene and subsequently undergo risk reducing mastectomy (RRM), and a pre-release of the NICE guidelines on familial breast cancer in January and their final release on 26th June. The release of NICE guidelines created a lot of publicity over the potential for use of chemoprevention using tamoxifen or raloxifene. However, the longest lasting news story was the release of details of film actress Angelina Jolie's genetic test and surgery. METHODS: To assess the potential effects of the 'Angelina Jolie' effect, referral data specific to breast cancer family history was obtained from around the UK for the years 2012 and 2013. A consortium of over 30 breast cancer family history clinics that have contributed to two research studies on early breast surveillance were asked to participate as well as 10 genetics centres. Monthly referrals to each service were collated and increases from 2012 to 2013 assessed. RESULTS: Data from 12 family history clinics and 9 regional genetics services showed a rise in referrals from May 2013 onwards. Referrals were nearly 2.5 fold in June and July 2013 from 1,981 (2012) to 4,847 (2013) and remained at around two-fold to October 2013. Demand for BRCA1/2 testing almost doubled and there were also many more enquiries for risk reducing mastectomy. Internal review shows that there was no increase in inappropriate referrals. CONCLUSIONS: The Angelina Jolie effect has been long lasting and global, and appears to have increased referrals to centres appropriately.


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Pessoas Famosas , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mastectomia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Reino Unido
18.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 23(6): 594-601, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25259886

RESUMO

Information comparing attitudes towards taking cancer chemopreventive agents and assessing drug characteristics that would make chemopreventive agents more acceptable to participants is essential for future trial design and to ultimately promote compliance. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional questionnaire study, the aim of which was to assess current attitudes towards chemopreventive agents and to determine which characteristics make chemopreventive agents more acceptable to potential target populations. Questionnaires were distributed to four groups of participants: university students, cancer patients, partners/spouses of patients with cancer and individuals at a high familial risk for cancer. The survey's overall response rate was 35.5% (350 participants). The majority of participants (92.9%) considered taking cancer chemopreventive agents. Factors that positively influenced participants towards chemoprevention were a family history of cancer and having children. Diet-derived chemopreventive agents were preferred by 74.6%, who associated these agents with being 'healthier' and having a better side-effect profile. Most participants preferred either two medium-sized capsules or four small capsules daily. Overall, participants were keen to consider chemoprevention, particularly in cases in which cancer risk was high, and preferred diet-derived agents, believing them to have minimal side-effects.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Quimioprevenção , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioprevenção/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 22(7): 866-74, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24253862

RESUMO

Ethnic disparities in use of cancer genetics services raise concerns about equitable opportunity to benefit from familial cancer risk assessment, improved survival and quality of life. This paper considers available research to explore what may hinder or facilitate minority ethnic access to cancer genetics services. We sought to inform service development for people of South Asian, African or Irish origin at risk of familial breast, ovarian, colorectal and prostate cancers in the UK. Relevant studies from the UK, North America and Australasia were identified from six electronic research databases. Current evidence is limited but suggests low awareness and understanding of familial cancer risk among minority ethnic communities studied. Socio-cultural variations in beliefs, notably stigma about cancer or inherited risk of cancer, are identified. These factors may affect seeking of advice from providers and disparities in referral. Achieving effective cross-cultural communication in the complex contexts of both cancer and genetics counselling, whether between individuals and providers, when mediated by third party interpreters, or within families, pose further challenges. Some promising experience of facilitating minority ethnic access has been gained by introduction of culturally sensitive provider and counselling initiatives, and by enabling patient self-referral. However, further research to inform and assess these interventions, and others that address the range of challenges identified for cancer genetics services are needed. This should be based on a more comprehensive understanding of what happens at differing points of access and interaction at community, cancer care and genetic service levels.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviços em Genética , Grupos Minoritários , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/genética , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Palliat Med ; 16(11): 1350-5, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24063552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients are commonly referred to cancer genetics services when all affected family members are deceased. This makes genetic testing and risk assessment more difficult, reducing the benefit from screening and prophylactic treatment. METHODS: Observational, retrospective, cohort study of 508 randomly selected patients referred to a regional cancer genetics unit, using review of case notes to explore whether a simple clinical "3, 2, 1" family history rule could have been used to improve timely and appropriate referrals for genetic assessment. The 3, 2, 1 criteria are: three affected relatives with the same/associated cancers, across two generations, with at least one person affected age <50 years. RESULTS: Most (71% [362]) genetic risk assessment referrals were in unaffected individuals and 22% (80) of these were referred after all affected family members had died, including 24% (19) who lost their last remaining affected relative in the previous year. Most (59% [301]) referrals met all 3, 2, 1 criteria, and 67% of these could have been made earlier in clinical practice. A further 23% (115) met two of the three criteria. CONCLUSION: Using a simple "3, 2, 1" family rule in cancer care and particularly in palliative care could enable earlier cancer genetic risk assessment for unaffected relatives, improving the potential to benefit from targeted screening and intervention.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Cuidados Paliativos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Triagem
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