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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770722

RESUMO

An increasing aging population poses a significant challenge to societies worldwide. A better understanding of the molecular, cellular, organ, tissue, physiological, psychological, and even sociological changes that occur with aging is needed in order to treat age-associated diseases. The field of aging research is rapidly expanding with multiple advances transpiring in many previously disconnected areas. Several major pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and consumer companies made aging research a priority and are building internal expertise, integrating aging research into traditional business models and exploring new go-to-market strategies. Many of these efforts are spearheaded by the latest advances in artificial intelligence, namely deep learning, including generative and reinforcement learning. To facilitate these trends, the Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen and Insilico Medicine are building a community of Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs) in these areas and launched the annual conference series titled "Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD)" held in the capital of the pharmaceutical industry, Basel, Switzerland (www.agingpharma.org). This ARDD collection contains summaries from the 6th annual meeting that explored aging mechanisms and new interventions in age-associated diseases. The 7th annual ARDD exhibition will transpire 2nd-4th of September, 2020, in Basel.

2.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(Supplement_1): S45-S51, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724059

RESUMO

APOE is a well-studied gene with multiple effects on aging and longevity. The gene has three alleles: e2, e3, and e4, whose frequencies vary by ethnicity. While the e2 is associated with healthy cognitive aging, the e4 allele is associated with Alzheimer's disease and early mortality and therefore its prevalence among people with extreme longevity (EL) is low. Using the PopCluster algorithm, we identified several ethnically different clusters in which the effect of the e2 and e4 alleles on EL changed substantially. For example, PopCluster discovered a large group of 1,309 subjects enriched of Southern Italian genetic ancestry with weaker protective effect of e2 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = .14) and weaker damaging effect of e4 (OR = 0.82, p = .31) on the phenotype of EL compared to other European ethnicities. Further analysis of this cluster suggests that the odds for EL in carriers of the e4 allele with Southern Italian genetic ancestry differ depending on whether they live in the United States (OR = 0.29, p = .009) or Italy (OR = 1.21, p = .38). PopCluster also found clusters enriched of subjects with Danish ancestry with varying effect of e2 on EL. The country of residence (Denmark or United States) appears to change the odds for EL in the e2 carriers.

3.
Cell ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761530

RESUMO

The increasing proportion of variance in human complex traits explained by polygenic scores, along with progress in preimplantation genetic diagnosis, suggests the possibility of screening embryos for traits such as height or cognitive ability. However, the expected outcomes of embryo screening are unclear, which undermines discussion of associated ethical concerns. Here, we use theory, simulations, and real data to evaluate the potential gain of embryo screening, defined as the difference in trait value between the top-scoring embryo and the average embryo. The gain increases very slowly with the number of embryos but more rapidly with the variance explained by the score. Given current technology, the average gain due to screening would be ≈2.5 cm for height and ≈2.5 IQ points for cognitive ability. These mean values are accompanied by wide prediction intervals, and indeed, in large nuclear families, the majority of children top-scoring for height are not the tallest.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16156, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695094

RESUMO

The success of next-generation sequencing depends on the accuracy of variant calls. Few objective protocols exist for QC following variant calling from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. After applying QC filtering based on Genome Analysis Tool Kit (GATK) best practices, we used genotype discordance of eight samples that were sequenced twice each to evaluate the proportion of potentially inaccurate variant calls. We designed a QC pipeline involving hard filters to improve replicate genotype concordance, which indicates improved accuracy of genotype calls. Our pipeline analyzes the efficacy of each filtering step. We initially applied this strategy to well-characterized variants from the ClinVar database, and subsequently to the full WGS dataset. The genome-wide biallelic pipeline removed 82.11% of discordant and 14.89% of concordant genotypes, and improved the concordance rate from 98.53% to 99.69%. The variant-level read depth filter most improved the genome-wide biallelic concordance rate. We also adapted this pipeline for triallelic sites, given the increasing proportion of multiallelic sites as sample sizes increase. For triallelic sites containing only SNVs, the concordance rate improved from 97.68% to 99.80%. Our QC pipeline removes many potentially false positive calls that pass in GATK, and may inform future WGS studies prior to variant effect analysis.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(s1): S85-S93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is highly prevalent among older adults, and associated with cognitive decline. Relationship between frailty and motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a pre-dementia syndrome characterized by the presence of subjective cognitive complaints and slow gait, is yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether frailty increases the risk of developing incident MCR. METHODS: We analyzed 641 adults, aged 65 and above, participating in the LonGenity study. Frailty was defined using a 41-point cumulative deficit frailty index (FI). MCR was diagnosed at baseline and annual follow-up visits using established criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the association of baseline frailty with incident MCR, and reported as hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, and education. RESULTS: At baseline, 70 participants (10·9%) had prevalent MCR. Of the remaining 571 non-MCR participants (mean age 75.0, 57.3% women), 70 developed incident MCR (median follow-up 2.6 years). Higher frailty scores at baseline were associated with an increased risk of incident MCR (HR for each 0.01 increase in the FI: 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.11; p = 0.0002). The result was unchanged even after excluding mobility related or chronic illnesses items from the FI as well as accounting for reverse causation, competing risk of death, baseline cognitive status, social vulnerability, and excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of frailty increase risk for developing MCR and suggest shared mechanisms. This association merits further study to identify strategies to prevent cognitive decline.

7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(9): 1934-1939, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287934

RESUMO

Advances in understanding fundamental processes of aging have led to a variety of investigational therapies to delay or prevent age-related diseases and conditions. These geroscience therapeutics hold the promise of revolutionizing medical care of older adults by treating the complex syndromes of aging and preserving health and independence. A crucial bottleneck is the study of geroscience therapeutics in early-stage, first-in-human, or proof-of-concept clinical trials. There is a limited pool of clinical investigators with the combination of knowledge and skills at the interface of clinical research, care of older adults, and aging biology needed to successfully design, fund, and implement geroscience trials. Current training pipelines are insufficient to meet the need. The sixth retreat of the National Institute on Aging R24 Geroscience Network brought together basic scientists, gerontologists, clinicians, and clinical researchers from the United States and Europe to discuss how to identify, recruit, and train investigators who can perform early-stage clinical trials in geroscience. We present herein the group's consensus on necessary subject domains and competencies, identification of candidate learners, credentialing learners, and the efficient and rapid implementation of training programs. Foundations and funding agencies have crucial roles to play in catalyzing the development of these programs. Geriatrician investigators are indispensable but cannot meet the need alone. Translational geroscience training programs can create a cadre of groundbreaking investigators from a variety of backgrounds and foster institutional cultures supportive of multidisciplinary translational aging research to turn innovative ideas into transformative therapeutics that can improve the health and independence of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1934-1939, 2019.

9.
Bioinformatics ; 35(17): 3046-3054, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624692

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Over the last decade, more diverse populations have been included in genome-wide association studies. If a genetic variant has a varying effect on a phenotype in different populations, genome-wide association studies applied to a dataset as a whole may not pinpoint such differences. It is especially important to be able to identify population-specific effects of genetic variants in studies that would eventually lead to development of diagnostic tests or drug discovery. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose PopCluster: an algorithm to automatically discover subsets of individuals in which the genetic effects of a variant are statistically different. PopCluster provides a simple framework to directly analyze genotype data without prior knowledge of subjects' ethnicities. PopCluster combines logistic regression modeling, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering and a recursive bottom-up tree parsing procedure. The evaluation of PopCluster suggests that the algorithm has a stable low false positive rate (∼4%) and high true positive rate (>80%) in simulations with large differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls. Application of PopCluster to data from genetic studies of longevity discovers ethnicity-dependent heterogeneity in the association of rs3764814 (USP42) with the phenotype. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: PopCluster was implemented using the R programming language, PLINK and Eigensoft software, and can be found at the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/gurinovich/PopCluster with instructions on its installation and usage. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(3): 428-433, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693953

RESUMO

The American Geriatrics Society convened a conference in Bethesda, Maryland, to explore models and studies of aging. This was the second of three conferences, supported by a U13 grant from the National Institute on Aging, to aid recipients of Grants for Early Medical/Surgical Specialists Transition to Aging Research (GEMSSTAR) in integrating geriatrics into their specialties. Recognizing that aging is the largest risk factor for multiple chronic diseases and age-related loss of resilience, the conference organizers focused scientific sessions on how targeting age-related mechanisms can delay, prevent, or reverse geriatric syndromes, age-related chronic diseases, and loss of resilience. The rationale for studying models of aging as well as study designs, strategies, and challenges of studying human aging were reviewed. This article provides a summary of the full conference report, Models and Studies of Aging: Report from the U13 Conference Series, and summarizes key take-home messages that were designed to support GEMSSTAR awardees in developing their research careers focused on aging research (see supplementary text for the full report). J Am Geriatr Soc 67:428-433, 2019.

11.
Cell Rep ; 25(3): 663-676.e6, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332646

RESUMO

A hallmark of aging is a decline in metabolic homeostasis, which is attenuated by dietary restriction (DR). However, the interaction of aging and DR with the metabolome is not well understood. We report that DR is a stronger modulator of the rat metabolome than age in plasma and tissues. A comparative metabolomic screen in rodents and humans identified circulating sarcosine as being similarly reduced with aging and increased by DR, while sarcosine is also elevated in long-lived Ames dwarf mice. Pathway analysis in aged sarcosine-replete rats identify this biogenic amine as an integral node in the metabolome network. Finally, we show that sarcosine can activate autophagy in cultured cells and enhances autophagic flux in vivo, suggesting a potential role in autophagy induction by DR. Thus, these data identify circulating sarcosine as a biomarker of aging and DR in mammalians and may contribute to age-related alterations in the metabolome and in proteostasis.

13.
Nat Med ; 24(8): 1092-1094, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082861
14.
Geroscience ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151729

RESUMO

Recent advances indicate that biological aging is a potentially modifiable driver of late-life function and chronic disease and have led to the development of geroscience-guided therapeutic trials such as TAME (Targeting Aging with MEtformin). TAME is a proposed randomized clinical trial using metformin to affect molecular aging pathways to slow the incidence of age-related multi-morbidity and functional decline. In trials focusing on clinical end-points (e.g., disease diagnosis or death), biomarkers help show that the intervention is affecting the underlying aging biology before sufficient clinical events have accumulated to test the study hypothesis. Since there is no standard set of biomarkers of aging for clinical trials, an expert panel was convened and comprehensive literature reviews conducted to identify 258 initial candidate biomarkers of aging and age-related disease. Next selection criteria were derived and applied to refine this set emphasizing: (1) measurement reliability and feasibility; (2) relevance to aging; (3) robust and consistent ability to predict all-cause mortality, clinical and functional outcomes; and (4) responsiveness to intervention. Application of these selection criteria to the current literature resulted in a short list of blood-based biomarkers proposed for TAME: IL-6, TNFα-receptor I or II, CRP, GDF15, insulin, IGF1, cystatin C, NT-proBNP, and hemoglobin A1c. The present report provides a conceptual framework for the selection of blood-based biomarkers for use in geroscience-guided clinical trials. This work also revealed the scarcity of well-vetted biomarkers for human studies that reflect underlying biologic aging hallmarks, and the need to leverage proposed trials for future biomarker discovery and validation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060062

RESUMO

We assembled a collection of 28,297 participants from 7 studies of longevity and healthy aging comprising New England Centenarian, Long Life Family, Longevity Gene Population, Southern Italian Centenarian, Japanese Centenarian, the Danish Longevity and the Health and Retirement Studies to investigate the association between the APOE alleles ɛ2, ɛ3 and ɛ4 and extreme human longevity and age at death. By using 3 different genetic models and two definitions of extreme longevity based on either a threshold model or age at death, we show that ɛ4 is associated with a substantially decreased odds for extreme longevity, and increased risk for death that persists even beyond ages reached by less than 1% of the population. We also show that carrying the ɛ2ɛ3 or ɛ2ɛ3 genotype is associated with significantly increased odds to reach extreme longevity, with decreased risk for death compared to carrying the genotype ɛ2ɛ3 but with only a modest reduction in risk for death beyond an age reached by less than 1% of the population.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2394, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921922

RESUMO

Diminished growth factor signaling improves longevity in laboratory models, while a reduction in the somatotropic axis is favorably linked to human aging and longevity. Given the conserved role of this pathway on lifespan, therapeutic strategies, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibodies (mAb), represent a promising translational tool to target human aging. To this end, we performed a preclinical study in 18-mo-old male and female mice treated with vehicle or an IGF-1R mAb (L2-Cmu, Amgen Inc), and determined effects on aging outcomes. Here we show that L2-Cmu preferentially improves female healthspan and increases median lifespan by 9% (P = 0.03) in females, along with a reduction in neoplasms and inflammation (P ≤ 0.05). Thus, consistent with other models, targeting IGF-1R signaling appears to be most beneficial to females. Importantly, these effects could be achieved at advanced ages, suggesting that IGF-1R mAbs could represent a promising therapeutic candidate to delay aging.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007329, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795570

RESUMO

As part of a broader collaborative network of exome sequencing studies, we developed a jointly called data set of 5,685 Ashkenazi Jewish exomes. We make publicly available a resource of site and allele frequencies, which should serve as a reference for medical genetics in the Ashkenazim (hosted in part at https://ibd.broadinstitute.org, also available in gnomAD at http://gnomad.broadinstitute.org). We estimate that 34% of protein-coding alleles present in the Ashkenazi Jewish population at frequencies greater than 0.2% are significantly more frequent (mean 15-fold) than their maximum frequency observed in other reference populations. Arising via a well-described founder effect approximately 30 generations ago, this catalog of enriched alleles can contribute to differences in genetic risk and overall prevalence of diseases between populations. As validation we document 148 AJ enriched protein-altering alleles that overlap with "pathogenic" ClinVar alleles (table available at https://github.com/macarthur-lab/clinvar/blob/master/output/clinvar.tsv), including those that account for 10-100 fold differences in prevalence between AJ and non-AJ populations of some rare diseases, especially recessive conditions, including Gaucher disease (GBA, p.Asn409Ser, 8-fold enrichment); Canavan disease (ASPA, p.Glu285Ala, 12-fold enrichment); and Tay-Sachs disease (HEXA, c.1421+1G>C, 27-fold enrichment; p.Tyr427IlefsTer5, 12-fold enrichment). We next sought to use this catalog, of well-established relevance to Mendelian disease, to explore Crohn's disease, a common disease with an estimated two to four-fold excess prevalence in AJ. We specifically attempt to evaluate whether strong acting rare alleles, particularly protein-truncating or otherwise large effect-size alleles, enriched by the same founder-effect, contribute excess genetic risk to Crohn's disease in AJ, and find that ten rare genetic risk factors in NOD2 and LRRK2 are enriched in AJ (p < 0.005), including several novel contributing alleles, show evidence of association to CD. Independently, we find that genomewide common variant risk defined by GWAS shows a strong difference between AJ and non-AJ European control population samples (0.97 s.d. higher, p<10-16). Taken together, the results suggest coordinated selection in AJ population for higher CD risk alleles in general. The results and approach illustrate the value of exome sequencing data in case-control studies along with reference data sets like ExAC (sites VCF available via FTP at ftp.broadinstitute.org/pub/ExAC_release/release0.3/) to pinpoint genetic variation that contributes to variable disease predisposition across populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Judeus/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Algoritmos , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 105, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765957

RESUMO

Frailty is a complex aging phenotype associated with increased vulnerability to disability and death. Understanding the biological antecedents of frailty may provide clues to healthy aging. The genome-wide association study hotspot, 9p21-23 region, is a risk locus for a number of age-related complex disorders associated with frailty. Hence, we conducted an association study to examine whether variations in 9p21-23 locus plays a role in the pathogenesis of frailty in 637 community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the LonGenity study. The strongest association with frailty (adjusted for age and gender) was found with the SNP rs518054 (odds ratio: 1.635, 95% CI = 1.241-2.154; p-value: 4.81 × 10-04) intergenic and located between LOC105375977 and C9orf146. The prevalence of four SNPs (rs1324192, rs7019262, rs518054, and rs571221) risk alleles haplotype in this region was significantly higher (compared with other haplotypes) in frail older adults compared with non-frail older adults (29.7 vs. 20.8%, p = 0.0005, respectively). Functional analyses using in silico approaches placed rs518054 in the CTCF binding site as well as DNase hypersensitive region. Furthermore, rs518054 was found to be in an enhancer site of NFIB gene located downstream. NFIB is a transcription factor that promotes cell differentiation during development, has antiapoptotic effect, maintains stem cell populations in adult tissues, and also acts as epigenetic regulators. Our study found novel association of SNPs in the regulatory region in the 9p21-23 region with the frailty phenotype; signifying the importance of this locus in aging.

20.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 61(1): T171-T185, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739805

RESUMO

The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of the aging process, from rodents to humans. However, given the pleiotropic actions of IGF1, its role in the aging brain remains complex and controversial. While IGF1 is clearly essential for normal development of the central nervous system, conflicting evidence has emerged from preclinical and human studies regarding its relationship to cognitive function, as well as cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. This review delves into the current state of the evidence examining the role of IGF1 in the aging brain, encompassing preclinical and clinical studies. A broad examination of the data indicates that IGF1 may indeed play opposing roles in the aging brain, depending on the underlying pathology and context. Some evidence suggests that in the setting of neurodegenerative diseases that manifest with abnormal protein deposition in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease, reducing IGF1 signaling may serve a protective role by slowing disease progression and augmenting clearance of pathologic proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis. In contrast, inducing IGF1 deficiency has also been implicated in dysregulated function of cognition and the neurovascular system, suggesting that some IGF1 signaling may be necessary for normal brain function. Furthermore, states of acute neuronal injury, which necessitate growth, repair and survival signals to persevere, typically demonstrate salutary effects of IGF1 in that context. Appreciating the dual, at times opposing 'Dr Jekyll' and 'Mr Hyde' characteristics of IGF1 in the aging brain, will bring us closer to understanding its impact and devising more targeted IGF1-related interventions.

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