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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071237

RESUMO

Evidence from clinical trials and observational studies suggests that both progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) and metformin delay a variety of age-related morbidities. Previously, we completed a clinical trial testing the effects of 14 weeks of PRT + metformin (metPRT) compared to PRT with placebo (plaPRT) on muscle hypertrophy in older adults. We found that metformin blunted PRT-induced muscle hypertrophic response. To understand potential mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of metformin on PRT, we analyzed the muscle transcriptome in 23 metPRT and 24 plaPRT participants. PRT significantly increased expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling pathways, and downregulated RNA processing pathways in both groups, however, metformin attenuated the number of differentially expressed genes within these pathways compared to plaPRT. Pathway analysis showed that genes unique to metPRT modulated aging-relevant pathways, such as cellular senescence and autophagy. Differentially expressed genes from baseline biopsies in older adults compared to resting muscle from young volunteers were reduced following PRT in plaPRT and were further reduced in metPRT. We suggest that although metformin may blunt pathways induced by PRT to promote muscle hypertrophy, adjunctive metformin during PRT may have beneficial effects on aging-associated pathways in muscle from older adults.

2.
Geroscience ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902818

RESUMO

We are in the midst of the global pandemic. Though acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-COV2) that leads to COVID-19 infects people of all ages, severe symptoms and mortality occur disproportionately in older adults. Geroscience interventions that target biological aging could decrease risk across multiple age-related diseases and improve outcomes in response to infectious disease. This offers hope for a new host-directed therapeutic approach that could (i) improve outcomes following exposure or shorten treatment regimens; (ii) reduce the chronic pathology associated with the infectious disease and subsequent comorbidity, frailty, and disability; and (iii) promote development of immunological memory that protects against relapse or improves response to vaccination. We review the possibility of this approach by examining available evidence in metformin: a generic drug with a proven safety record that will be used in a large-scale multicenter clinical trial. Though rigorous translational research and clinical trials are needed to test this empirically, metformin may improve host immune defenses and confer protection against long-term health consequences of infectious disease, age-related chronic diseases, and geriatric syndromes.

3.
Aging Dis ; 11(4): 725-729, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765937

RESUMO

The data on COVID-19 is clear on at least one point: Older adults are most vulnerable to hospitalization, disability and death following infection with the novel coronavirus. Therefore, therapeutically addressing degenerative aging processes as the main risk factors appears promising for tackling the present crisis and is expected to be relevant when tackling future infections, epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, utilizing a geroscience approach, targeting aging processes to prevent multimorbidity, via initiating broad clinical trials of potential geroprotective therapies, is recommended.

4.
Aging Cell ; : e13193, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762010

RESUMO

Frailty is a state of decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes in aging, and is characterized by dysregulation across various biological pathways. Frailty may manifest biologically as alteration in protein expression, possibly regulated at genetic, transcriptional and epigenetic levels. In this study, we examined the proteomic profile associated with frailty defined by an established cumulative frailty index (FI). Using the SomaScan® assay, 4265 proteins were measured in plasma, of which 55 were positively associated and 88 were negatively associated with the FI. The proteins most strongly associated with frailty were fatty acid-binding proteins, including fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) (p = 1.96 × 10-19 ) and FABPA (p = 8.10 × 10-16 ), leptin (p = 1.43 × 10-14 ), and ANTR2 (p = 7.95 × 10-20 ). Pathway analysis with the top 143 frailty-associated proteins revealed enrichment for proteins in pathways related to lipid metabolism, musculoskeletal development and function, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular assembly, and organization. Frailty prediction model constructed with elastic net regression utilizing 110 proteins demonstrated a correlation between predicted frailty and observed frailty (r = 0.57, p < 2.2 × 10-16 ). Predicted frailty was also more strongly correlated with chronological age (r = 0.54, p < 2.2 × 10-16 ) than observed frailty (r = 0.37, p = 1.2 × 10-15 ). This study identified novel proteins and pathways related to frailty that may offer improved frailty phenotyping and prediction.

5.
Aging Cell ; : e13216, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860726

RESUMO

Centenarians (exceptionally long-lived individuals-ELLI) are a unique segment of the population, exhibiting long human lifespan and healthspan, despite generally practicing similar lifestyle habits as their peers. We tested disease-associated mutation burden in ELLI genomes by determining the burden of pathogenic variants reported in the ClinVar and HGMD databases using data from whole exome sequencing (WES) conducted in a cohort of ELLI, their offspring, and control individuals without antecedents of familial longevity (n = 1879), all descendent from the founder population of Ashkenazi Jews. The burden of pathogenic variants did not differ between the three groups. Additional analyses of variants subtypes and variant effect predictor (VEP) biotype frequencies did not reveal a decrease of pathogenic or loss-of-function (LoF) variants in ELLI and offspring compared to the control group. Case-control pathogenic variants enrichment analyses conducted in ELLI and controls also did not identify significant differences in any of the variants between the groups and polygenic risk scores failed to provide a predictive model. Interestingly, cancer and Alzheimer's disease-associated variants were significantly depleted in ELLI compared to controls, suggesting slower accumulation of mutation. That said, polygenic risk score analysis failed to find any predictive variants among the functional variants tested. The high similarity in the burden of pathogenic variation between ELLI and individuals without familial longevity supports the notion that extension of lifespan and healthspan in ELLI is not a consequence of pathogenic variant depletion but rather a result of other genomic, epigenomic, or potentially nongenomic properties.

6.
Nat Metab ; 2(8): 663-672, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719537

RESUMO

Ageing is the greatest risk factor for most common chronic human diseases, and it therefore is a logical target for developing interventions to prevent, mitigate or reverse multiple age-related morbidities. Over the past two decades, genetic and pharmacologic interventions targeting conserved pathways of growth and metabolism have consistently led to substantial extension of the lifespan and healthspan in model organisms as diverse as nematodes, flies and mice. Recent genetic analysis of long-lived individuals is revealing common and rare variants enriched in these same conserved pathways that significantly correlate with longevity. In this Perspective, we summarize recent insights into the genetics of extreme human longevity and propose the use of this rare phenotype to identify genetic variants as molecular targets for gaining insight into the physiology of healthy ageing and the development of new therapies to extend the human healthspan.

7.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492897

RESUMO

While the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway plays essential roles in growth and development, diminished signaling via this pathway in model organisms extends lifespan and health-span. In humans, circulating IGF-1 and IGF-binding proteins 3 and 1 (IGFBP-3 and 1), surrogate measures of GH/IGF-1 system activity, have not been consistently associated with morbidity and mortality. In a prospective cohort of independently-living older adults (n = 840, mean age 76.1 ± 6.8 years, 54.5% female, median follow-up 6.9 years), we evaluated the age- and sex-adjusted hazards for all-cause mortality and incident age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and multiple-domain cognitive impairment (MDCI), as predicted by baseline total serum IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 levels. All-cause mortality was positively associated with IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.57) and negatively with IGFBP-3 (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.680-0.998). High serum IGF-1 predicted greater risk for MDCI (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.08-2.26) and composite incident morbidity (HR 1.242, 95% CI 1.004-1.538), whereas high IGFBP-1 predicted lower risk for diabetes (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.88). In conclusion, higher IGF-1 levels and bioavailability predicted mortality and morbidity risk, supporting the hypothesis that diminished GH/IGF-1 signaling may contribute to human longevity and health-span.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11185-11199, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575074

RESUMO

Humanin is a member of a new family of peptides that are encoded by short open reading frames within the mitochondrial genome. It is conserved in animals and is both neuroprotective and cytoprotective. Here we report that in C. elegans the overexpression of humanin is sufficient to increase lifespan, dependent on daf-16/Foxo. Humanin transgenic mice have many phenotypes that overlap with the worm phenotypes and, similar to exogenous humanin treatment, have increased protection against toxic insults. Treating middle-aged mice twice weekly with the potent humanin analogue HNG, humanin improves metabolic healthspan parameters and reduces inflammatory markers. In multiple species, humanin levels generally decline with age, but here we show that levels are surprisingly stable in the naked mole-rat, a model of negligible senescence. Furthermore, in children of centenarians, who are more likely to become centenarians themselves, circulating humanin levels are much greater than age-matched control subjects. Further linking humanin to healthspan, we observe that humanin levels are decreased in human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that humanin is linked to improved healthspan and increased lifespan.

9.
Cell Metab ; 32(1): 15-30, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333835

RESUMO

Biological aging involves an interplay of conserved and targetable molecular mechanisms, summarized as the hallmarks of aging. Metformin, a biguanide that combats age-related disorders and improves health span, is the first drug to be tested for its age-targeting effects in the large clinical trial-TAME (targeting aging by metformin). This review focuses on metformin's mechanisms in attenuating hallmarks of aging and their interconnectivity, by improving nutrient sensing, enhancing autophagy and intercellular communication, protecting against macromolecular damage, delaying stem cell aging, modulating mitochondrial function, regulating transcription, and lowering telomere attrition and senescence. These characteristics make metformin an attractive gerotherapeutic to translate to human trials.

10.
Redox Biol ; 32: 101448, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203922

RESUMO

Physiological aging is a complex process, influenced by a plethora of genetic and environmental factors. While being far from fully understood, a number of common aging hallmarks have been elucidated in recent years. Among these, transcriptomic alterations are hypothesized to represent a crucial early manifestation of aging. Accordingly, several transcription factors (TFs) have previously been identified as important modulators of lifespan in evolutionarily distant model organisms. Based on a set of TFs conserved between nematodes, zebrafish, mice, and humans, we here perform a RNA interference (RNAi) screen in C. elegans to discover evolutionarily conserved TFs impacting aging. We identify a basic helix-loop-helix TF, named HLH-2 in nematodes (Tcf3/E2A in mammals), to exert a pronounced lifespan-extending effect in C. elegans upon impairment. We further show that its impairment impacts cellular energy metabolism, increases parameters of healthy aging, and extends nematodal lifespan in a ROS-dependent manner. We then identify arginine kinases, orthologues of mammalian creatine kinases, as a target of HLH-2 transcriptional regulation, serving to mediate the healthspan-promoting effects observed upon impairment of hlh-2 expression. Consistently, HLH-2 is shown to epistatically interact with core components of known lifespan-regulating pathways, i.e. AAK-2/AMPK and LET-363/mTOR, as well as the aging-related TFs SKN-1/Nrf2 and HSF-1. Lastly, single-nucelotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Tcf3/E2A are associated with exceptional longevity in humans. Together, these findings demonstrate that HLH-2 regulates energy metabolism via arginine kinases and thereby affects the aging phenotype dependent on ROS-signaling and established canonical effectors.

11.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1843-1850, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806903

RESUMO

Aging is a predominant risk factor for several chronic diseases that limit healthspan1. Mechanisms of aging are thus increasingly recognized as potential therapeutic targets. Blood from young mice reverses aspects of aging and disease across multiple tissues2-10, which supports a hypothesis that age-related molecular changes in blood could provide new insights into age-related disease biology. We measured 2,925 plasma proteins from 4,263 young adults to nonagenarians (18-95 years old) and developed a new bioinformatics approach that uncovered marked non-linear alterations in the human plasma proteome with age. Waves of changes in the proteome in the fourth, seventh and eighth decades of life reflected distinct biological pathways and revealed differential associations with the genome and proteome of age-related diseases and phenotypic traits. This new approach to the study of aging led to the identification of unexpected signatures and pathways that might offer potential targets for age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Longevidade/genética , Proteoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1822-1832, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806905

RESUMO

Although intermittent increases in inflammation are critical for survival during physical injury and infection, recent research has revealed that certain social, environmental and lifestyle factors can promote systemic chronic inflammation (SCI) that can, in turn, lead to several diseases that collectively represent the leading causes of disability and mortality worldwide, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In the present Perspective we describe the multi-level mechanisms underlying SCI and several risk factors that promote this health-damaging phenotype, including infections, physical inactivity, poor diet, environmental and industrial toxicants and psychological stress. Furthermore, we suggest potential strategies for advancing the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of SCI.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Longevidade/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Longevidade/fisiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(Supplement_1): S45-S51, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724059

RESUMO

APOE is a well-studied gene with multiple effects on aging and longevity. The gene has three alleles: e2, e3, and e4, whose frequencies vary by ethnicity. While the e2 is associated with healthy cognitive aging, the e4 allele is associated with Alzheimer's disease and early mortality and therefore its prevalence among people with extreme longevity (EL) is low. Using the PopCluster algorithm, we identified several ethnically different clusters in which the effect of the e2 and e4 alleles on EL changed substantially. For example, PopCluster discovered a large group of 1,309 subjects enriched of Southern Italian genetic ancestry with weaker protective effect of e2 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = .14) and weaker damaging effect of e4 (OR = 0.82, p = .31) on the phenotype of EL compared to other European ethnicities. Further analysis of this cluster suggests that the odds for EL in carriers of the e4 allele with Southern Italian genetic ancestry differ depending on whether they live in the United States (OR = 0.29, p = .009) or Italy (OR = 1.21, p = .38). PopCluster also found clusters enriched of subjects with Danish ancestry with varying effect of e2 on EL. The country of residence (Denmark or United States) appears to change the odds for EL in the e2 carriers.

14.
Cell ; 179(6): 1424-1435.e8, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761530

RESUMO

The increasing proportion of variance in human complex traits explained by polygenic scores, along with progress in preimplantation genetic diagnosis, suggests the possibility of screening embryos for traits such as height or cognitive ability. However, the expected outcomes of embryo screening are unclear, which undermines discussion of associated ethical concerns. Here, we use theory, simulations, and real data to evaluate the potential gain of embryo screening, defined as the difference in trait value between the top-scoring embryo and the average embryo. The gain increases very slowly with the number of embryos but more rapidly with the variance explained by the score. Given current technology, the average gain due to screening would be ≈2.5 cm for height and ≈2.5 IQ points for cognitive ability. These mean values are accompanied by wide prediction intervals, and indeed, in large nuclear families, the majority of children top-scoring for height are not the tallest.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(22): 9971-9981, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770722

RESUMO

An increasing aging population poses a significant challenge to societies worldwide. A better understanding of the molecular, cellular, organ, tissue, physiological, psychological, and even sociological changes that occur with aging is needed in order to treat age-associated diseases. The field of aging research is rapidly expanding with multiple advances transpiring in many previously disconnected areas. Several major pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and consumer companies made aging research a priority and are building internal expertise, integrating aging research into traditional business models and exploring new go-to-market strategies. Many of these efforts are spearheaded by the latest advances in artificial intelligence, namely deep learning, including generative and reinforcement learning. To facilitate these trends, the Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen and Insilico Medicine are building a community of Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs) in these areas and launched the annual conference series titled "Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD)" held in the capital of the pharmaceutical industry, Basel, Switzerland (www.agingpharma.org). This ARDD collection contains summaries from the 6th annual meeting that explored aging mechanisms and new interventions in age-associated diseases. The 7th annual ARDD exhibition will transpire 2nd-4th of September, 2020, in Basel.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16156, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695094

RESUMO

The success of next-generation sequencing depends on the accuracy of variant calls. Few objective protocols exist for QC following variant calling from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. After applying QC filtering based on Genome Analysis Tool Kit (GATK) best practices, we used genotype discordance of eight samples that were sequenced twice each to evaluate the proportion of potentially inaccurate variant calls. We designed a QC pipeline involving hard filters to improve replicate genotype concordance, which indicates improved accuracy of genotype calls. Our pipeline analyzes the efficacy of each filtering step. We initially applied this strategy to well-characterized variants from the ClinVar database, and subsequently to the full WGS dataset. The genome-wide biallelic pipeline removed 82.11% of discordant and 14.89% of concordant genotypes, and improved the concordance rate from 98.53% to 99.69%. The variant-level read depth filter most improved the genome-wide biallelic concordance rate. We also adapted this pipeline for triallelic sites, given the increasing proportion of multiallelic sites as sample sizes increase. For triallelic sites containing only SNVs, the concordance rate improved from 97.68% to 99.80%. Our QC pipeline removes many potentially false positive calls that pass in GATK, and may inform future WGS studies prior to variant effect analysis.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Longevidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(s1): S85-S93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is highly prevalent among older adults, and associated with cognitive decline. Relationship between frailty and motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a pre-dementia syndrome characterized by the presence of subjective cognitive complaints and slow gait, is yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether frailty increases the risk of developing incident MCR. METHODS: We analyzed 641 adults, aged 65 and above, participating in the LonGenity study. Frailty was defined using a 41-point cumulative deficit frailty index (FI). MCR was diagnosed at baseline and annual follow-up visits using established criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the association of baseline frailty with incident MCR, and reported as hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, and education. RESULTS: At baseline, 70 participants (10·9%) had prevalent MCR. Of the remaining 571 non-MCR participants (mean age 75.0, 57.3% women), 70 developed incident MCR (median follow-up 2.6 years). Higher frailty scores at baseline were associated with an increased risk of incident MCR (HR for each 0.01 increase in the FI: 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.11; p = 0.0002). The result was unchanged even after excluding mobility related or chronic illnesses items from the FI as well as accounting for reverse causation, competing risk of death, baseline cognitive status, social vulnerability, and excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of frailty increase risk for developing MCR and suggest shared mechanisms. This association merits further study to identify strategies to prevent cognitive decline.

19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(9): 1934-1939, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287934

RESUMO

Advances in understanding fundamental processes of aging have led to a variety of investigational therapies to delay or prevent age-related diseases and conditions. These geroscience therapeutics hold the promise of revolutionizing medical care of older adults by treating the complex syndromes of aging and preserving health and independence. A crucial bottleneck is the study of geroscience therapeutics in early-stage, first-in-human, or proof-of-concept clinical trials. There is a limited pool of clinical investigators with the combination of knowledge and skills at the interface of clinical research, care of older adults, and aging biology needed to successfully design, fund, and implement geroscience trials. Current training pipelines are insufficient to meet the need. The sixth retreat of the National Institute on Aging R24 Geroscience Network brought together basic scientists, gerontologists, clinicians, and clinical researchers from the United States and Europe to discuss how to identify, recruit, and train investigators who can perform early-stage clinical trials in geroscience. We present herein the group's consensus on necessary subject domains and competencies, identification of candidate learners, credentialing learners, and the efficient and rapid implementation of training programs. Foundations and funding agencies have crucial roles to play in catalyzing the development of these programs. Geriatrician investigators are indispensable but cannot meet the need alone. Translational geroscience training programs can create a cadre of groundbreaking investigators from a variety of backgrounds and foster institutional cultures supportive of multidisciplinary translational aging research to turn innovative ideas into transformative therapeutics that can improve the health and independence of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1934-1939, 2019.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Geriatria/tendências , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/tendências , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , National Institute on Aging (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
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